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HILIGAYNON LESSONS 



PALI Language Texts: Philippines 
(Pacific and Asian Linguistics Institute) 
Howard P. McKaughan 
Editor 



HILIGAYNON LESSONS 
Cecile L. Motus 



University of Hawaii Press 
Honolulu 1971 



The work reported herein was performed pursuant 
to a contract with the Peace Corps, Washington, D.C. 
20525. The opinions expressed herein are those of the 
author and should not be construed as representing the 
opinions or policies of any agency of the United States 
government . 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 78-152470 

ISBN 0-87022-546-4 

Copyright (c) 1971 by University of Hawaii Press 

All rights reserved 

Manufactured in the United States of America 



PREFACE 



These Lessons in Hillgaynon have been developed 
under the auspices of the Pacific and Asian Linguistics 
Institute of the University of Hawaii with the help of 
a Peace Corps contract (PC 25-1507). They have been 
tested in training sessions for volunteers at Hilo 
Hawaii, a project of the University of Hawaii. This 
text is one of three on Hiligaynon. The other two 
are A Hi ligaynon-English Dictionary by Miss Motus, and 
Hiligaynon: A Reference Grammar by Elmer P. Wolfenden. 
These three volumes in turn form a part of a larger 
series entitled Pali Language Texts: Philippines edited 
by Howard P. McKaughan. 



It is the hope of the authors and the editor that 
the materials on Hiligaynon will assist learners of the 
language to become better acquainted with the Philippines, 
and that they will also foster the person-to-person 
understanding that is traditional to peoples of these 
two countries . 



Howard P . McKaughan 
Editor 



INTRODUCTION 

Hiligaynon is one of the eight major languages of the 
Philippines. It is 'the dominant language in Capiz, 
Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Romblon, and in some towns 
in Cotabato, Occidental Mindoro, and Oriental Mindoro . '* 

Language materials never "become fixed. No last word 
can be said. These materials cover only a limited 
aspect of Hiligaynon grammar and vocabulary. It is 
hoped that they will be of use to those interested in 
acquiring a speaking knowledge of Hiligaynon, and that 
to linguists and anthropologists they will prove a 
challenge for further study. 

These materials were made possible through the Pacific 
and Asian Linguistics Institute of the University of 
Hawaii, under the direction of Dr. Howard McKaughan 
by support from Peace Corps, Washington D.C. Special 
thanks are due Dr. Ernesto Constantino for advice and 
encouragement; to Richard McGinn, for editorial sugges- 
tions; to Cora Henares and Cora Alkalde for reviewing 
Hiligaynon entries in both the text and the dictionary; 
to the Hiligaynon staff of Peace Corps Philippines XXIII 
for giving their time to the initial production of the 
supplementary materials; and to Peace Corps Hilo for 
testing tentative drafts during training of Peace Corps 
Voluntee rs . 



How These Materials Are to be Used 



I . Time Allotment 

These lessons were written for an average of four or five 
classroom contact hours per lesson. The estimated number 
of contact hours for mastery of items introduced in this 
book is around three hundred. 



'Ernesto Constantino, Tagalog and Other Major Languages 
of the Philippines . Unpublished. Honolulu: Institute 
of Advanced Projects, East West Center. 1968, p. 7. 



II . Teacher ' s Role 

A good model of native speech is extremely important for 
proper language acquisition programs. The instructors 
are the models of native Hiligaynon speech. They teach 
and guide the students to speak Hiligaynon, "but are not 
to teach about the language. No grammar explanation 
will be made in class, except at special times desig- 
nated "by Language Coordinators for grammar sessions. 
The following general instructions for the teacher may 
Prove helpful. 

1. Master the dialogue thoroughly. Memorize all the 
lines in the dialogue. Introduce a dialogue three 
times at normal native speaker speed and intonation. 
Then, model it line by line, having the students 
repeat each line. Repetition of every line should 
be done at least three times per line. Repetition 
can be done chorally or individually. It is suggest- 
ed that choral repetition be performed first until 
the students gain enough confidence to say an utter- 
ance individually. 

2. Make the introduction of micro-dialogues as meaning- 
ful as possible. Dramatize, or use audio or visual 
ai ds . 

3. Prepare teaching aids well ahead of class time. Be- 
cause translation is not a recommended teaching 
method, visual aids will prove helpful especially 
when introducing new vocabulary items. 

k. Conduct drills as briskly and as lively as possible. 
Master all the items given in the textbook. You 
are allowed to add your own entries to some drills, 
provided that vocabulary and structure conform to 
what has been covered. 

5. Always correct pronunciation or grammatical errors 
on the spot. Reinforce correct responses. 

6. No grammar explanation should be given by a teacher 
who is not sure of the analysis of Hiligaynon. Refer 
grammatical questions to Language Coordinators. 

7. Role -playing is a must activity every day. Situa- 
tions should center around possible job-roles of the 
students . 



8. It is suggested that handouts for students be given 
half-way through the language schedule for the day. 
Lessons are not to be read in class while class is in 
progress . 

9. Give the students 90 per cent of the class time to 
use the target language. Model, but do not lecture. 



III. Format 



The book is divided into twelve units. A brief summary 
of grammatical points introduces each unit. The number 
of lessons in a unit vary. The format is based on a 
Tagalog text being prepared by Miss Teresita V. Ramos 
at the Pacific and Asian Linguistics Institute of the 
University of Hawaii 




al proficiency 

infers more than mere memorization. - ,,..„. 

mastery of structures learned, as evidenced by use in 
the learner's active repertoire of Hiligaynon, plus an 
automatic use of these inside and outside classroom 
situations. Model sentences (samples of native conver- 
sation organized around structures covered in the 
lesson) are marked in the mi c r o - di alogues with 'It's' 
and numbers. The numbers count the lines of each dia- 
logue. Complete dialogues marked 'C' follow. Complete 
dialogues are ut t e ranee- re spons e arrangements of the 
model sentences and are also numbered to show how many 
complete dialogues can be derived from the models given. 

Only after mastery of the micro-dialogues is achieved, 
can the instructor proceed to drill. Example drills 
are given with every lesson. Drilling should be thor- 
ough and programmed to insure movement from controlled 
use of structures to limited free conversation. Role- 
ing, which is dramatization of situations usually 
ering around the future job-role of Peace Corps 
nees, is a good testing activity for comprehension 



play 
cent e 
trainees , 



and production of dialogues in the target language. It 
provides encouragement for dialogue exchange of struc- 
tures drilled day after day. Role-playing is limited 
free conversation and is one activity in which trainees 
can show how much of the native speaker's linguistic, 
as well as kinesic (body movement) , communication sig- 
nals they have internalized. Instructions for the 
Teacher contain suggested role-playing situations for 
every le sson . 

The lessons are sequenced to cover only one grammar 
point at a time. The structural content summarizes 
grammatical points covered in the lesson; the micro- 
dialogues give samples of native speech using the 
structures, and drills provide habit-forming activities 
for internalization. Grammatical explanations are 
given toward the end of the lesson. These are brief 
descriptions of grammatical patterns. The student is 
encouraged to set aside extra review time for going 
over grammatical explanations. 

Cultural notes are given in lessons on an as-needed 
and ad hoc basis. These are brief accounts of some 
behavioral or linguistic nuances in Hiligaynon culture. 

Lists of new vocabulary items are given toward the end 
of each lesson. These contain vocabulary introduced 
for the first time in that lesson. They are provided 
for student reference during review periods. No time 
is allowed for teaching of vocabulary through trans- 
lation. Words are to be mastered in the context of 
the situations. They are to become part of the stu- 
dent's active repertoire of native terms. 

Cumulative dialogues and exercises appear in several 
lessons. These include samples of native conversation, 
Hiligaynon stories, or magazine features which contain 
sentences using most of the grammatical points already 
taken up by the class. 

IV . Supplementary Lessons and Materials 

Supplementary lessons are inserted in units which bear 
related grammatical structures. Some of the supplemen- 
tary lessons provide additional expansion of structures 
already introduced. The supplementary lessons are as 
necessary as any of the regular lessons. 



A glossary of words appears at the end of the book. 
Supplementary materials to go with this text have also 
been supplied. Part I contains supplementary vocabulary 
lists; Part II contains a brief introduction to 
Hiligaynon phonology and short pronunciation drills. 
Drills cover only sounds which are difficult for Amer- 
ican English speakers learning Hiligaynon. Part III 
contains written exercises, reading exercises, and a 
miscellaneous section of poems, songs, etc. These 
miscellaneous materials are for extra-class reading 
cons ump tion . 



DEFINITION OF TERMS 



ad j ecti ve 



a word, expression or clause quali- 
fying or limiting the meaning of 
a noun or any of its substitutes. 



adverb 



a word, expression or clause limit- 
ing or qualifying the meaning of 
an adjective, a verb, or another 
adverb . 



aspect 



a verbal category indicating whether 
an action or state is viewed as 
completed, in progress, habitual, 
momentary , etc . 



ang -phr as e 



a noun or noun formative phrase pre- 
ceded by the particle ang . 



con j unction 



a word which coordinates, or sub- 
ordinates one concept to another. 



deictic 



a locative pronoun which indicates 
the distance of an object in rela- 
tion to the speaker and the hear- 
er . 



filler 



a particle which adds to the seman- 
tic content of an utterance but 
performs no grammatical function. 



focus 



the grammatical relationship between 
the main verb and the topic of a 
sentence. It is the form or in- 
flection of a verb to indicate the 
relationship of the topic to the 
action denoted in the verb. 



marker 



a word that identifies the function 
of another word or phrase. 



mode 



indicates the type of action found 
in the verb whether it is poten- 
tial, imperative, causative, etc. 



morph 



a minimal unit of speech that is 
recurrent and meaningful. 



nominal pronoun 



particle 



a personal pronoun which fills the 
slot of the ang - phrase . 

a word root or affixed word which 
may occur after the particles 
ang , sang , s a , s i , ni , kav_, s an- 
day , nanday , and kanda y . 

a word which marks the grammatical 
relationship between two or more 
constructions; or, which adds to 
the semantic content of an utter- 
ance . 



phoneme 

pre-verb 
p r o - v e rb 



a unit of sound having a distinc- 
tive feature in a particular 
language . 

a verb with limited inflected forms 

a question word bearing a verbal 
affix. 



s ang -phr as e 



a noun or noun formative phrase 

preceded by the indefinite marker 
s ang . 



s i- phrase 
source pronoun 

stress 



a personal name preceded by s i . 

a personal pronoun which fills the 
same slot as the s ang -phr as e ■ 

the prominence given to a syllable 
in a word or to a word in a 
sentence . 



verb 



a root or inflected root which may 
occur as the grammatical head or 
center of a sentence. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



1 . Unpublished Materials 



Constantino, Ernesto. Tagalog and Other Major Languages 
of the Philippines . Unpublished. Honolulu: East 
West Center, 1968. 

McKaughan, Howard. Minor Languages of the Philippines . 
Unpublished. University of Hawaii. 

Ruiz, Macario. An Intensive Course in Hiligaynon . 
Mimeographed. I960. 

The Behavior of Hiligaynon Verb Roots . 



Mimeographed. Iloilo City: Central Philippines 
University. 1968. 

Supplementar y Materials in Hiligaynon , Peace Corps 

Teaching Aid. Mimeographed for Philippine Project 
XXIII, Summer, 1968. 

Zorc, David R. et al . Peace Corps Primer of Western 
Visayas Philippines . Peace Corps Learning Aid. 
Mimeographed. 1967- 



2 . Books and Magazines 



de la Cruz, Beato and David R. Zorc. A Study of the 
Aklanon Dialect , Vol. I Grammar. Kalibo, Aklan , 
Philippines: Peace Corps, 1968. 

Hili gaynon . Manila: Liwayway Publishing, Inc. 
October 2, 1968. 

Manila: Liwayway Publishing, Inc. 



October 9, 1968. 

Jacobo, Enrique, Jose Bautista, and Francis Jamolangue 
J r . Engli sh-Tagalog- Vi s ayan : Cebuano-Ilonggo Vocab- 
ulary . Manila: Philippine Book Company, 19^9. 

Kasadya Gid . Manila: Department of Education. 



McKaughan, Howard, and Batua A. Macaraya. A Maranao 
Pi ctionary . Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 
1967. 

Pei, Mario. Glossary of Linguistic Terminology . Garden 
City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. 1966. 

Preiser, Rosa, et al. Balasahun sa Nahaunang Halintang 
sa Tatlo ka Bahin . Iloilo City: Yuhum. 1951. 



Iloilo City: Yuhum. 1952, 



Sa Sulud Kag Sa Gwa Sang Baryo , 



Talamdan Sang Manunudlo Sa Nahauna Kag Ikaduha Hga 

Halintang Sang Pagtulunan . Iloilo City: Yuhum, 1951 



Wolff, John U. Beginning Cehuano , Part I. New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1966. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION v ii 

DEFINITION OF TERMS xiii 

BIBLIOGRAPHY xv 



Summary 



UNIT I 
Greetings and Leavetakins 



LESSON 1 Greetings .... 
LESSON 2 More On Greetings 
LESSON 3 Leavetaking. . . 



5 

11 
17 



LESSON k Introductions 21 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 1 This and That 2k 

Anu ini? ini 

ina ' 

ina' ini 

ina ' 
atu atu 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 2 Please do this 30 

Vert Root (VR) + sa_ + N P . . 
/ pas- / VR sang 



Summary 



UNIT II 
Equational Sentences 



36 



LESSON 5 Identity 39 

Sin ' u ....?/ Aku si 

i kaw 
sya 

LESSON 6 The Staff and Government Officials . ... 1*5 
Sin'u si 1 I Si ang 

ang ang 



LESSON T Nationalities and Occupations 50 

Yes/No questions and responses 

LESSON 8 More than One 57 

San da y marker 
Manga plural marker 
Nominal Pronouns : kita 

kami 

kamu 

s il a 

LESSON 9 Tags and Choices 63 

Tag question ,indi' "bala? 

anu? /nu? 
Choice question with o_ 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 3 Home State and Home Town . .67 

Taga di'in...? Taga 

Di'in sa ? Sa 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON h Yes or No? 71 

Negative questions with 
affirmative responses 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 5 Telling Time .75 

Anung oras subung? Ala. . . 

Alas . . 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 6 Birthdays 79 

San'u ka natawu? Sang.. 
Di'in ka nat aw u ? S a . . . . 



Summary UNIT III 83 

Source Pronouns and Pre-verbs 

LESSON 10 The Family 85 

Kay sin'u ? nakun 

nimu 
niya 
ni 

LESSON 11 The Family (continued) 90 

LESSON 12 Courtship 95 

Gusto + source pron . + Nominal pron. 
Luyag + ni-NP + ang-NP 
Kinahanglan + nanday-NP + si-NP 



LESSON 13 Food 101 

Anu ang PV + Pron? NP + PV + Pron 



LESSON ll* Activities 

Gusto + Pron + / mag- / VR . . . + (NP) 
Luyag 



,106 



Summary" 



UNIT IV 
Goal Focus 



111 



LESSON 15 Survival Kit 115 

/gin-/ VR 
/gina-/ VR 
/-un/ VR 
Particles: pa, na 

LESSON 16 Clothes 119 

/gin-/ VR + post-position source pron. 
/gina-/ 

LESSON IT Corking 123 

/-un/ or /-nun/ VR + Pron3 

Markers: ni , sang, 
nan day 

LESSON 18 Miscellaneous 128 

PV + /mag-/ VR 
/-un/ 

LESSON 19 The Hospital 133 

Negation of /mag-/ and /-un/ 
s t at ements 



summary 



LESSON 20 



UNIT V 
Actor Focus 



Questions 

San'u /ma-/ V"b ? Sa... 

Sang . 

Ma ' anu . . . ? /ma- / Vb 

Nag' anu. .?/nag-/Vb 



138 



ll*0 



LESSON 21 Miscellaneous . 
/naga-/ VR . . , 
/ga-/ VR. . , 
s a versus s ang 



11*7 



LESSON 22 Travel. 



/naga-/ VR + NP? Wala' 
/nag- / Hu ' u , 



152 



LESSON 23 Travel (continued) 156 

/ma-/ VR + NP? Indi ' 

Hu'u 



Summary UNIT VI 162 

The Source Pronouns 

LESSON 2k The Things We Own 166 

Kay sin'u ? Akun 

imu 
iya 
kay 

LESSON 25 Whose are they? 173 

Kanday sin'u...? Kanday 

Amun 

Atun 

Inyu 

Ila 

LESSON 26 More on Ownership 180 

Kay sin'u ? ...sang... 

ni 
nan day 



Summary UNIT VII 186 

Basic Int er r ogat i ves 



LESSON 27 Where? 188 

Di'in si...? Si...ari diri sa... 
ang ang ara' dira' 
atu didtu 

LESSON 28 Where is it? 1 9 1+ 

. . .ari sa i hah aw. . . 
i dalum 
luyu/ likud 
sulud 
atubangan 



XXI 

LESSON 29 Where is it (continued)? 199 

. . . kilid/higad . . . 
malapit 
malay u 
tung a ' 

LESSON 30 Buying and Selling 20U 

Tagpila ang...? Tag... 

Pila 

LESSON 31 Bargaining and Math 212 

Particles: nalang, abav, sus, tanan, 

mu 
Formulas for "bargaining 

LESSON 32 Marketing 218 

May ... ? Hu ' u. . . 
Wala' . . 

LESSON 33 Pets 22U 

May . . . ? Hu'u . . . 
Wala' . . 

LESSON 3 1 * Numbers, Days and Months 229 

Pila ka. . . ang . . . ? ( number ) . . . ang . . . 
s a s a 

LESSON 35 The Big Question of Why 233 

Nga ' a. . . ? Kay. . . 

LESSON 36 For Whom? 239 

Para kay sin'u...? Para kay... 
s a anu s a 

LESSON 37 Which One? 2^2 

Di'in sini...? 
s ina ' 
s adtu 

Summary UNIT VIII 21+6 

Modi f i ers 

LESSON 38 The Colors 21+8 

Base adjectives 



XX11 

LESSON 39 Descriptions 251 

. . .nga. . . 

LESSON 1+0 Comparisons 256 

/ma-/ adjective formative 

LESSON 1+1 Superlatives 26l 

/ka-/ adjective superlative 
/ka-/ + base + sa + NP 
kay 

s ang 

LESSON 1+2 The Mostest 267 

Mas for comparison of qualities 
/pinaka-/ for superlative 



Summary UNIT IX 272 

The Aptative 

LESSON 1+3 Talents 27 1 * 

/maka-/ + NP 
/naka- / 

LESSON 1+1+ Abilities 279 

/ma-/ VR 
/na-/ 



Summary UNIT X 285 

Imperatives and Causatives 

LESSON 1+5 Let Her Do It 288 

/pa-/ VR /-a/ 
/-ha/ 

LESSON 1+6 Give it to Him 29 U 

/i-/ imperative affix 

LESSON 1+7 Do's and Don't's 298 

indi' + /pag-/ VR /-i/ + NP 
/-a/ 

LESSON 1+8 In the Direction of 30 U 

/magpa-/ /pa-/ place word + NP 

/nagpa-/ 

/nagapa- / 

/mapa-/ /magapa-/ 



LESSON 1+9 Have Him Do It. . . 
/magpa-/ VR + NP 
/nagapa- / 
/nagpa-/ 

LESSON 50 Getting things done 
/ginpa-/ VR 
/ginapa-/ VR 



■ 30J 



■313 



Summary 



UNIT XI 
Referent Focus 



317 



LESSON 51 



For Whom and Where? 
/gin-/ VR /-an/ 
/gina-/ 



.319 



LESSON 52 Benefactors and Locations 

/-an/ for proposed action commands 
/ - i / for co mm a n d s 



326 



Summary UNIT XII 330 

Noun Formatives 

LESSON 53 Places 332 

VR /-an/ or /-nan/ 

noun base /-an/ or /-nan/ 

LESSON 5h Making Nouns 335 

/pag-/ VR 

/manug-/ VR or noun base 

GLOSSARY 3Ul 

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS 375 

I USEFUL EXPRESSIONS 376 

II SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LISTS 38C 

III PHONOLOGY MATERIALS !*06 

IV WRITTEN EXERCISES 1*13 

V READING EXERCISES Ul6 

VI MISCELLANEOUS h26 



HILIGAYNON LESSONS 



UNIT I 
Greetings and Leavetaking 



LESSON 1 

LESSON 2 

LESSON 3 

LESSON h 



Greetings 

More on Greetings 

Leavetaking 

Introductions 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 1: This and That 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON ?. : Requests and 

Commands 



UNIT I 

Greetings and Leavetaking 

This first unit of this "book gives samples of formulas 
for greetings and leavetaking. It also includes the 
use of deictics (locative pronouns which point out 
distance "between an object and the speaker). Three 
deictics included here are ini, ina ' , and atu . 



First contact with verts is with the simple root form 
of the imperative mode. For example: Ka ' un means 
'(You) eat.' The affix /pag-/ also renders a root 
imperative in form. For example: Pagka ' tin , meaning 
'(You) eat.' The word palihug gives a tone of polite 
request or mild command. 



LESSON ONE 
Gre etings 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Formulas for greetings 
MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml 



M2 : 



Ma'ayung aga. 

Ma ' ayung udtu . 

Ma'ayung hapun. 

Ma ' ayung ga"b ' i . 

Ma'ayung aga man. 

Ma'ayung udtu man. 

Ma'ayung hapun man, 

Ma'ayung gab ' i man, 



CI: Ma'ayung aga. 

Ma'ayung aga man. 

C2: Ma'ayung udtu. 

Ma'ayung udtu man. 

C3: Ma'ayung hapun. 

Ma'ayung hapun man, 

CU: Ma'ayung gab ' i . 

Ma'ayung gab'i man, 



2. 

Ml 



M2 



Kamusta ka? 
Kamusta ikaw? 

Ma ' ayu man . 
Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus , 
ma 'ayu man . 



CI: Kamusta ka? 
Ma ' ayu man . 

C2: Kamusta ikaw? 

Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus, 
ma ' ayu man . 



Good morning. 
Good noon . 
Good afternoon. 
Good evening . 

Good morning, (too). 

Good noon , ( too ) . 

Good afternoon, (too), 

Good evening, (too). 



How are you? 
How are you? 

Fine . 

(By God's mercy) I 
fine . 



DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill , 
teacher : 



Students repeat after the 



Ma ' ayung aga . 

Ma'ayung udtu. 

Ma 'ayung hapun. 

Ma'ayung gab'i. 

Ma'ayung ugtu. 

Ma ' ayu man . 

Sa kulu'uy sang Dyus , 

ma' ayu man . 
Kamusta ka? 

Fixed Substitution Drill. 



Good morning. 

Good noon . 

Good afternoon. 

Good evening. 

Good noon. 

Fine . 

I 'm fine . (By God ' s 

mercy ) 
How are you? 



Students substitute 



the cues in the s am e fixed slot. 

(a) Ma'ayung aga , Miss Cruz. 

udtu 
hapun 
gab ' i 
ugtu 

(b) Ma'ayung hapun, Angela . 

Juan 
C arlos 
Lucia 
Barbara 
et c . 



3 . Utterance-Response Drill , 
the utterance. 



Students respond to 



Utterance 

Ma' ayung aga . 
udtu 
ugtu 
gab ' i 
hapun 



Response 
Ma'ayung aga man. 



h . Chain Drill . Teacher starts with the cue 

Teacher: Ma'ayung aga, Juan. 

Juan: Ma'ayung aga man, Miss Santos. 
Ma'ayung aga, David. 

David: Ma'ayung aga man, Juan. 
Ma'ayung aga, Nena. 

Nena: Ma'ayung aga man, David. 
et c . 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. Ka is the short form of ikav 'you' pronoun. The 
short form is more commonly used in conversation. 

2. There is dialect variation "between udtu and ug tu . 
Both mean 'noon'. 

3. Man is a filler which can mean many things: 'also, 
well , t oo ' . 

E. CULTURAL NOTE 

In this area of the Philippines, the use of Ma ' ayung 
aga extends from early in the morning until lunch 
time. Ma ' ayung udtu or ugtu is used between 11:00 
a.m. and 1:00 p.m. approximately. One says Ma ' ayung 
hapun when the time is "between 1:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. 
From 6:00 p.m. until early morning, the greeting 
Ma ' ayung ga"b ' i is in order. 

Some consider Filipinos to "be fatalists. The response 
Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus , ma'ayu man may "be evidence of 
this "belief. This response is used mostly by older 
people of the "barrios, and is quite uncommon among 
the younger generation and city folk. 

F. VOCABULARY LIST 

afternoon hapun 

evening gah'i 

fine, good ma'ayu 

God Dyus 

How are you? Kamusta? 

morning aga 

noon udtu , ugtu 

pity, mercy kalu'uy 

you ikaw , ka 



G. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUES- -Br ief meeting 

Ma'ayung gab'i , Tomas. 
Ma'ayung gab'i man, Gabriel. 
Kamusta ka? 
Ma ' ayu man . 

Ma'ayung hapun, Tiyu'. 

Ma'ayung hapun man, David. 

Kamusta? 

Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus , ma'ayu man, David. 

Note : Tiyu ' is a respect form used to address older 
men; it comes from tiyo 'uncle' . 



1. 




Gabr ie 


1 


Tomas : 




Gabr ie 


1 


Tomas : 




2 . 




David : 




Old man 


Davi d : 




Old man 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (contact hours 



It) 



1 . Micro-dialogue . 



Bring drawings or pictures to class illustrative of 
the different times of the day, and the greeting 
formulas . 

Dialogue 2 can be dramatized by shaking hands with 
one member of the class. 



Drills . 

(a) Repetition Drill . As the name suggests, rep- 
etition of the utterances is expected of the stu- 
dents. The teacher models all utterances once, 
having the whole group repeat. Then the teacher 
models again, and the students repeat individually. 
Pronunciation errors should always be checked care- 
fully, especially for this drill where the students 
get first contact with new vocabulary items. 

The teacher is expected to memorize all entries 
in the drill. Brisk drilling is facilitated by 
complete mastery of utterances to be drilled. Be- 



cause new vocabulary items are introduced in all 
the lessons, usually through the repetition drill 
portion of the lesson, the teacher should stay 
within the controlled vocabulary items in each 
lesson. 

(b) Substitution Drill . There are two types of 
substitution drill in this volume, the fixed 
substitution and the movable substitution drills. 



A fixed s 


lot sub 


s t it 


ution drill 


which may 


oc cur 


in the same posi 


utterance 


The 


t eac 


her models a 


the class 


repeat 


s . 


Then the tea 


word. Th 


e class 


put 


s this cue w 


slot, giving the 


who 


le utterance 


The teach 


er rein 


forces the corre 


s tudent s 


repeat 


this 


answer. Th 


drill con 


t i nues 


with 


the teacher 


cue word , 


the s t 


uden 


ts giving th 


changing 


whatever is 


given as th 


can be done chorally 


and individ 



contains cue words 
tion or slot in the 
n utterance and 
cher gives a cue 
ord in the correct 

as a res ponse . 
ct answer, and the 
e rest of the 

giving only the 
e full response 
e cue. This drill 
ually . 



A movable slot substitution drill has cues which 
can occur in two or more different positions in 
the sentence. The same procedure is followed in 
conducting this drill as in the fixed slot type. 



(c) The Utterance 


-Response 


Drill is 


a two-part 
s are expect 




drill in that two 


di 


f f eren 


t response 


ed. 


The responses may 


be 


a question and 


a r espons e , 


or 


a cue sentence an 


d a 


res pons e . The 


teacher divi 


des 


the class into two g 


roups . 


Group A 


repeats the 




entries given in 


col 


umn A , 


and Group 


B responds 




with those given 


in 


column 


B. Once 


grouping is 




achieved, the teacher gives only cue 


words . The 




students give com 


pie 


te utt 


erances an 


d/or responses 


to the stimulus. 


Th 


is typ 


e of drill 


calls for 




switching roles t 


o g 


i ve bo 


th groups 


a chance to 




use the two patterns 


being 


drilled . 


The second 




time around, Grou 


P B 


gives 


the stimu 


li , while 




Group A responds. 












(d) Chain Drill. 


A 


chain 


sequence p 


rogresses as 





follows. The teacher usually gives the stimulus 
utterance first. One student responds. This 
student then gives the same stimulus to the next 
student, who again answers with the same response. 



10 



The chain goes around the room until the last stu- 
dent is able to give the stimulus statement. The 
teacher can change the cue sentence and response 
as many times as needed. 

Suggested Role-playing Situation . 

(a) Two students meet in the corridor at 10:00 a.m. 

( "b ) A teacher and a principal greet each other at 
h : 00 p.m. 

(c) A teacher and a student greet each other at 
8:00 p.m. 



LESSON TWO 
More on Greetings 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
Greeting formulas 
MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



M2 : 



Ma'ayung hapun, 

Gregor io . 
Ma'ayung gab ' i , 

Gregor io . 

Ma'ayung hapun man, 

Fidel. 
Ma'ayung gab'i man, 

Fidel. 



Good afternoon, 

Gregory . 
Goo d evening , 

Gregory . 

Same to you, 

Fidel. 
Same to you, 

Fidel. 



M3 : 



Mh : 



Sulud an ay. 
Sulud lang. 

S alamat . 



CI: Ma'ayung hapun, 

Gregor io . 
Ma'ayung hapun man, 

Fidel. 
Sulud an ay. 
Salamat . 

C2: Ma'ayung gab ' i , 

Gr egor io . 
Ma'ayung gab ' i man, 

Fidel . 
Sulud lang. 
Salamat . 



Come i n . 
Come in. 

Thank you . 



2 . 
Ml : 



M2 : 



CI: 



Uy , Jose, kamusta? 
Uy , Jose, kamusta ka? 



Miyad man. 
May ad . 



Salamat 



Uy , Jose, kamusta? 
Miyad man. Salamat, 



Oh, Jose, how are you? 
Oh, Jose, how are you? 

Fine. Thank you. 
Fine . 



11 



12 



C2: Uy , Jose, kamusta ka? 
Mayad man, salamat. 

3. 

Ml: Tagbalay! Hello! (Anybody home?) 

M2 : Saka' anay , Estrella. Come on up, Estrella. 
Dayun anay, Estrella. 
Dayun lang, Estrella. 

M3 : Salamat, Kamusta? Thank you. How are you? 

MU : Mayad man. Lingkud Fine. Please sit down, 
anay . 
Mayad man. Pungku ' Fine. Please sit down. 
anay . 

CI: Tagbalay! 

Saka' anay, Estrella. 
Salamat. Kamusta? 
Mayad man. Lingkud 
anay . 

C2: Tagbalay! 

Dayun lang, Estrella. 
Salamat. Kamusta? 
Mayad man. Pungku 1 
anay . 



It. 

Ml: Salamat. Thank you. 

M2 :. Wala 1 sing anu man. You are welcome 
Wala 1 sang anu man. 

C 1 : Salamat . 

Wala' sing anu man. 

C2 : Salamat . 

Wala' sang anu man. 



C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Utterance-Response Drill 



13 



Sulud anay . Salamat. 

Salamat. Wala sing anu man. 

Kamusta? Miyad man. 

Kamusta ka? Mayad man. 

Dayun lang. Salamat. 

Tagbalay.' Saka' anay. 

Lingkud anay. Salamat. 

2. Chain Drills 

(a) 

SI: Ma'ayung aga . Other cues: 

hapun, udtu , gati ' i 
S2: Ma'ayung aga man. 
Ma ' ayung aga . 

S3: Ma'ayung aga man. 
e tc . 

(b) 

SI: Kamusta ka? Other cue: 



miyad 



S2 : Mayad man . 
Kamusta ka? 

S 3 : Mayad man . 
etc . 

(c) 

SI: Tagbalay! 

S2 : Uy , sulud lang Lucia. 
T agbalay ! 

S3: Uy , sulud lang, 
Angela . 
Tagbalay '. 

SU: Uy , sulud lang, Juan, 
et c . 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Lang and anay are fillers, particles which add 
to the semantic content of an utterance, but do 
not perform any grammatical function. Lang 
may be called a 'limiting' or 'definite particle' 



lit 



since it more or less limits what precedes it. 
It has a fairly close meaning equivalent in 
'just, only'. An ay is one of the 'patience 
particles'l fillers which give a tone of polite- 
ness to the utterance they are part of. In this 
lesson, an ay is used to mean 'please'. 

Mayad and miy ad , sing and sang are dialect 
variant s . 



CULTURAL NOTE 

There are several ways of saying 'Come in' in 
Hiligaynon, depending on the place involved. S aka ' 
anay is used when there is a stairway or steps for 
the visitor to climb. Sulud anay and Dayun lang are 
used for situations when the visitor is right out- 
side the door. Sulud anay is the formal invitation 
to enter an office. Dayun lang is less formal and 
may he used only when house visiting. 



VOCABULARY LIST 

Come in. Sulud, Dayun. 

Come on up. Saka' . 

fine, good miyad, mayad 

Hello! (Anybody home?) Tagbalay! 

no , none wala ' 

oh, hey uy 

(particles) anay, lang, sing, sang 

sit down lingkud, pungku' 

Thank you. Salamat. 

what anu 

You are welcome. Wala' sing anu man. 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUES --A man visits a lady at her 
hous e . 



T helm a: Ma'ayung gab'i, 



"R. David Zorc, 'Peace Corps Primer for Western Visayas,' 
Peace Corps, 1967 pp. 1+1-1*2. 



15 

Ramon: Ma ' ayung gab ' i man. 

Thelma: Kamusta ka? 

Ramon: Mayad man. 

Thelma: Sulud anay. 

Ramon: Salamat. 

2. 

Gerardo: T a g b a 1 ay .' 

Marcia: Uy , Gerardo, sulud lang . 

Gerardo: Salamat. Kamusta ka, Marcia? 

Marcia: Miyad man. Pungku' anay. 

Gerardo: Salamat. 

H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (contact hours: k ) 

1 . Mi cro- dialogue . 

Dramatize every situation as well as you can to 
make it as meaningful to the students as possi- 
ble. Translation is not to be given at any 
t ime . 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV goes into the office of his principal 
at 9:30 a.m. 

(b) A PCV visits the house of a co-teacher at 
8:00 p.m. 

(c) A teacher makes an informal visit to the 
house of a student at 5:00 p.m. 

(d) A community development worker makes an 
informal call on the barrio captain at 10:30 a.m. 

3. A fast pronunciation drill and vocabulary mastery 
drill can be conducted for five minutes. Flash 
cards can be used for vocabulary items from 



16 



Lessons 1 and 2. On-the-spot correction of pro- 
nunciation errors is recommended. 



Have the students do the first writing exercise 
from the supplementary materials after this 
lesson is mastered. Have them write their own 
dialogues of four to six lines. 



LESSON THREE 
Leavetaking 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Formulas for leavetaking 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Ti ' j ari na aku, ha. 

Ti ' , malakat na aku, 
ha. 



Well, I'm (on my way] 

now . 
Well, I will go now. 



M2 : Sigi, Maria. Balik 
liwat . 

CI: Ti', ari na aku, ha. 
Sigi, Maria. Balik 
liwat . 



Okay, Mary. Come 
again . 



C2: Ti', malakat na aku , 
ha . 
Sigi, Maria. Balik 
liwat . 



2. 

Ml: Malakat na aku. 
Salamat gid. 

M2 : Wala' sing anu man 
Bal ik "bwas . 



I will go now. Thank 
you so much . 



You are welcome 
back tomorrow. 



Come 



Malakat na aku. 

Salamat gid. 
Wala' sing anu man. 

Balik "bwas . 



Ml: Anay ka, ulihi na 
aku . 

M2 : Sigi. 

C: Anay ka, ulihi na 
aku . 
Sigi . 



Just a minute, I'm 
already late . 

Okay . 



17 



18 

C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Ari na aku. I am going now. 

Malakat na aku. I am going now. 

Balik liwat . Come again. 

Sigi . Okay . 

Salamat gid. Thank you very much, 

Balik "bwas . Come "back tomorrow. 

Anay ka. Just a minute. 

Ulihi na aku. I am already late. 

2. Chain Drills 



(a) 

T: Malakat na aku, ha. 

SI: Sigi. Balik liwat. 
Malakat na aku, ha. 

S2: Sigi. Balik liwat. 
Malakat na aku, ha. 

S3: Sigi. Balik liwat. 
et c . 

(b) 

T: Salamat gid. 

SI: Wala' sang anu man. 
Salamat gid. 

S2 : Wala' sang anu man. 
Salamat gid. 

S3: Wala' sang anu man. 
etc. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Ti ' is a 'hesitating particle' which means 
'well. . . ' . 

2. Na is a 'time-relating particle' which is used 
within actions at a particular time. If speak- 
ing of the present, it means 'now' or 'at this 
time'. When used in a past time construction, 



19 



na means 'still, only, already'. 

Gid intensifies the quality of the word it 
follows . 



CULTURAL NOTE 

Filipinos are well-known for their hospitality, 
especially to foreigners; moreover, they go out of 
their way to extend invitations to new acquaintances. 



VOCABULARY LIST 

agai n 

go/come "back 

here 

I 

late 

okay 

( p art i cles ) 

t omor r ow 

/will/ go 



liwat 

balik 

ari 

aku. 

ulihi 

sigi 

t i ' , ha , na , gid 

bwas 

/ma/ lakat 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUES 

1. 

Al : Uy Manuel , kamusta? 

Bl : Ma'ayu gid, Pedro. 

A2 : Anay ka, ulihi na aku. 

B2 : Sigi . 



Al : Ma'ayung aga, Mr. de la Cruz. 

Bl : Ma'ayung aga man, Carlos. 

A2 : Kamusta ka, Mr. de la Cruz? 

B2 : Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus , mayad man. 

A3: Salamat, pero malakat na aku. 

B3: Sigi. Balik liwat. 



Lingkud anay. 



20 



Note: Pero is the conjunction 'buy'. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (contact hours: 3) 

1. Be sure to collect your assigned written 
exercise from Lesson 2. 

2. Suggested Role-playing Situations. 

(a) A PCV visits another PCV at 6:00 p.m. 

(b) A PCV meets the barrio captain on the way 
to town at 11:00 a.m. 

(c) A PCV is invited to the house of a friend 
at 8:30 p.m. 

(d) A new arrival calls on the principal of his 
host school at 8:00 a.m. 



Formally, drill on the p_ sound using Phonology 
Drill 1 in the supplementary materials volume. 
Make the drilling as brisk as possible. Conduct 
the drill just like a repetition drill. Model 
the words first, then the phrases, and finally 
the sentences. Make the students repeat each 
item as correctly as possible. Give particular 
attention to the production of unaspirated p_. 



LESSON FOUR 
Introductions 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Introducting friends 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Marcia, gusto ku Marcia, I would like 

ipakilala si to introduce 

Tomas . Thomas . 

Tomas , sya si Marcia. Thomas, she is Marcia. 

Tomas, si Marcia ini. Thomas, this is Marcia. 

M2 : Kalipay ku nga I am glad to meet 

makilala ka. you. 

Kamusta ka, Tomas? How are you, Thomas? 

Kamusta? How are you? 

CI: Marcia, gusto ku 
ipakilala si 
Tomas . 
Kalipay ku nga 
makilala ka. 

C2 : Tomas, sya si Marcia. 
Kamusta ka, Tomas? 

C3: Tomas, si Marcia ini. 
Kamusta? 

2. 

Ml: Anu ang ngalan mu? What is your name? 

M2: Clarita ang ngalan ku. Clarita is my name. 
C lar it a . 

CI: Anu ang ngalan mu? 

Clarita ang ngalan ku . 

C2: Anu ang ngalan mu? 
Clarita . 

21 



22 
C. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Gusto ku ipakilala si I would like to intro- 

Romeo. duce Romeo. 

Kalipay ku nga makilala I am glad to know you. 
ka . 

Anu ang ngalan mu? What is your name? 

Si Cecilia ini. This is Cecilia. 

Fixed Substitution Drill 



(a) Tomas ang ngalan ku . 
Wi lma 

Patricio 
Lucia 
Mac ar io 
Pat erno 

(b) Gusto ku ipakilala si Maria . 

Nancy 
Kathleen 
Di ane 
Fred 
Vincent 
Br uc e 

3. Movable Substitution Drill 



Janice, sya si Diane. 

aku 

Lorett a 



Dolores 



Edwardo 



M yrna 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Use of the markers s i , ary 
plained in later lessons. 



and nga will be ex- 



2. Affixation of verbs will be covered in later 
lessons . 

CULTURAL NOTE 



Status difference is not marked by polite forms in 
Hiligaynon; formality of speech indicates what is 
formal . 



23 



VOCABULARY LIST 

like gusto 

happiness, pleasure /ka/ lipay 

I ku 

name ngalan 

(particles) si, ang , nga 

she , he , it sy a 

to introduce /ipa/ kilala 

you mu 



G. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Principal: Lingkud anay kamu . 

Visitors: Salamat. 

Visitor A: Mr. Santos, gusto ku ipakilala si 
Mr. Smith. 

Visitor B: Kamusta ka , Mr. Santos. 

Principal: Ma'ayu man, Salamat. 

H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h) 

1. Drill on t sound using Phonology Drill 2 from 
the supplementary materials. Use only five 
minutes of class time. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Roommates in a dorm get acquainted on the 
first d ay . 

(b) Two students discover they come from the 
same town.. 

(c) A foreign student and a native exchange 
pleas antr ies . 

(d) Three barrio workers introduce themselves to 
their foreman. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON ONE 
This and That 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Anu ini? 



atu 



. ini 

( ina' 

.ini 

l ina' 

. atu 



MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 
Ml: 



Anu sa Hiligaynon 
ang ' teache r ' ? 

Anu sa Hiligaynon 
ang 'principal'? 



What is 'teacher' in 

Hiligaynon? 
What is 'principal' 

in Hiligaynon? 



M2 : Ma ' es t r a. 

Prinsipal man. 



Teacher . 
Principal, also, 



CI: Anu sa Hiligaynon 
ang ' t eacher ' ? 
Ma ' est r a. 

C2: Anu sa Hiligaynon 
ang 'principal'? 
Prinsipal man. 



2 
Ml: 



Anu ini? 
Anu ina' ? 
Anu atu? 



What's this? 
What's that? 
What's that (yonder)? 



M2 : Lapis ini . 
Lapis ina' 
Lapis atu . 



This is a pencil. 
That is a pencil. 
That is a pencil. 



CI: Anu ini? 

Lapis ini . 

C2: Anu ina'? 
Lapis ina ' 



2k 



25 



C3: Anu atu? 

Lap is atu , 



3. 
Ml 



Anu ini? 
Anu i na ' ? 



What is this? 
What is that? 



M2 



Libro ina ' 
Libro ini , 



Th at i s a book . 
Thi s is a book . 



CI : 



Anu ini? 
Libro ina ' 



C2: Anu ina'? 

Libro ini 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 



Anu ini? 
Lap is ini 

Anu ini ? 
Libro ini 



What is this? 

This is a pencil . 

What is this? 

Thi sis a book . 



Anu ini? 
Papel ini . 

Anu ina ' ? 

Kw aderno ina' 



What is this? 

This is paper. 

What is that? 

That is a notebook 



Anu ina ' ? 
Lame s a ina ' 



What is that? 
That is a table 



Anu i na ' ? 
Pis ar a ina ' . 

Anu atu? 
Kisame atu. 

Anu atu? 
Pwer ta atu . 



What is that? 

That is a blackboard. 

What is that (yonder)' 

That is the ceiling. 

What is that (yonder)' 

That is a door . 



Anu atu? 
Dingding atu . 



What is that (yonder)? 
That is a wall. 



26 



Anu ini? What is this? 

Bintana ina' . That is a window. 

Anu ini? What is this? 

Siya ina' . That is a chair. 

Anu ini? What is this? 

Lamesa ina' . That is a table. 

Anu ina'? What is that? 

Dingding ini. This is a wall. 

Anu ina'? What is that? 

Pisara ini. This is a blackboard. 

Anu ini? What is this?, 

Kwaderno ina'. That is a notebook. 

2. Chain Drills . The student holds up an object 
as he asks a question: 

(a) 

SI: Anu ini? 

S2 : Lapis ina' . 
Anu ini? 

S 3 : Lapis ina 1 . 

Switch roles in questioning: 

(b) 

SI: Anu ina'? 

S2: Papel ini. 
Anu ina ' ? 

S3: Papel ini . 
Anu ina ' ? 

S h : Papel ini . 
etc . 

Students identify objects which are far from both: 

(c) 

SI: Anu atu? 

S2: Kisame atu. 
Anu atu? 



27 



S3: Pwerta atu. 
Anu atu? 

SU: Dingding atu. 
etc . 

3. Informant Session. The students take turns 



asking the instructor the Hiligaynon term for 
objects in the classroom: 

SI: Anu sa Hiligaynon ang 'chair'? 

T: Siya. 

S2: Anu sa Hiligaynon ang 'table'? 

T : Lames a . 

S3: Anu sa Hiligaynon ang 'notebook'? 

T : Kwaderno . 
e tc . 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



There are three deictics in Hiligaynon: 

ini 'this' (near the speaker) 
ina' 'that' (far from the speaker) 
atu 'that' (very far from both the speaker 
and the hearer ) . 



2 . 


S ent ence 


patterns 


(a) 










Topi c 




Comment 




Lapis 




ini . 




Libro 




ina ' . 


(b) 










Co mm en 


t 


Topi c 




Ini 




1 api s . 




Atu 




lames a . 



'This is a pencil. ' 
'That is a book. ' 



This is a pencil.' 

'That (yonder) is a 
table.' 



28 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 

blackboard pisara 

book libro 

ceiling kisame 

chair siya 

door pwerta 

notebook kwaderno 

paper papel 

(particles) sa, man 

pencil lapis 

principal prinsipal 

table lames a 

teacher ma'estra, ma'estro 

that in a ' 

that (yonder) atu 

this ini 

wall dingding 

window bintana 

F. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 1+) 

1. This lesson follows Lesson h in sequence. 

2. Take five minutes to drill on unaspirated p_ 
again. Write some ten words on flash cards and 
have the class read them chorally and then 
individually. Correct errors on the spot. 

3. Take five minutes to drill on vocabulary items 
taken up so far. Pictures can be used to cue 
different terms. It is not advisable to use 
flash cards where English equivalents are 
written from which students may translate into 
Hiligaynon . 

k. An informant session is not a class. It is 

provided to give the teacher a chance to catch 
his breath after hours of modelling. It is also 
a means towards widening the vocabulary of the 
students. Students will have to ask the pattern 
question in Hiligaynon, and the teacher gives 
only one-word responses for terms elicited. 
Unless there is some cultural difficulty or 
there is necessity for explanation, the teacher 
is urged not to give any lengthy answers. The 
teacher should take note of all items taken up 
everyday and should include these in the daily 



29 

list of vocabulary items. The students should 
also be urged to compile a vocabulary list of 
things that come up. 

An informant session should be conducted at 
least five minutes every day, especially during 
the first three weeks of class. 



The students read and memorize Supplementary 
Vocabulary List 1, Classroom and Office Articles 
Two Parts of a Room, and Three Parts of a House. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON TWO 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Verb Root (VR) + sa + NP 

/ pas- / VR sang 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Ka'un sang mangga. Eat a mango. 

Dala sang mangga. Bring a mango. 

Kuha' sang mangga. Get a mango. 

M2 : Salamat. Thank you. 

Bwas na. Tomorrow. 

Hu'u. Yes. 

CI: Ka'un sang mangga. 
Salamat . 

C2 : Dala sang mangga. 
Bwas na. 

C3: Kuha' sang mangga. 
Hu'u. 

2 . 

Ml: Ma'anu aku? What will I do? 

M2 : Palihug pagbakal sang Please buy some milk. 

gat as . 
Paghampang sa Play in the yard. 

lagwert a . 
Paghimu sang Do the assignment. 

' as s ignment ' . 

CI: Ma'anu aku? 

Palihug pagbakal sang 
gat as . 

C2 : Ma'anu aku? 

Paghampang sa lagwerta. 

C3: Ma'anu aku? 

Paghimu sang 'assign- 
ment ' . 

30 



31 



DRILLS 

1 . Repetition Drill 

Ka'un sang adobo. 
Pagka'un sang adobo. 

Tudlu' sang Math 
Pagtudlu' sang Math. 

Kuha' sang libro. 
Pagkuha' sang libro. 

Kanta sang kundiman. 
Pagkanta sang kundiman. 

Tu'un sang leksyon. 
Pagtu'un sang leksyon . 

Sa'ut sang tinikling. 
Pags a ' ut s ang 
t i nikl ing . 

Lutu ' sang utan. 
Paglutu' sang utan. 

Inum sang tubi' . 
Pag'inum sang tubi' . 

Lakat sa buluthu'an. 
Paglakat sa buluthu'an. 

Hambal sa klase. 
Paghambal sa klase. 

Liku ' s a t u ' u . 
Pagliku' sa tu'u. 

Kadtu sa eskwelahan. 
Pagkadtu sa eskwelahan. 

Tulug sa katre . 
Pagtulug sa katre. 

Liku ' s a wala . 
Pagliku' sa wala. 

2. Fixed Substitution Drill 



Eat adobo . 

Teach Math . 

Get a book. 

Sing a Filipino song 

Study the lesson. 

Dance the tinikling. 

Cook some vegetables 
Drink some water. 
Walk to school. 
Talk in class . 
Turn to the right . 
Go to school. 
Sleep on the bed. 
Turn to the left. 



32 



(a) Paglutu ' sang utan. 
pagkuh a ' 

pagka ' un 
pagbakal 

(b) Pagkant a sang Hiligaynon. 
pagtudlu ' 

paghamb al 
pagtu ' un 

3. Transformation Drill . Drop the / pag- / prefixes 
of the verbs in the utterances: 

Cue Response 

Paglutu' sang adobo . Lutu ' sang adobo. 
Pagbakal sang utan. 
Pagtudlu' sang English. 
Paghampang sang 

'basketball' . 
Pagka'un sang pagka'un. 
Paghambal sang 

Hiligaynon . 
Pagkuha' sang papel. 
Paglakat sa Hilo. 
Pagtudlu' sang Science. 
Paghambal sa 'Mayor' . 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1 . Sang is an indefinite noun marker. Usually, it 
precedes the direct object. 

Bakal sang tinapay. 'Buy some bread.' 
Inum sang tsa. 'Drink some tea.' 

2. S a is a directional marker relating the substan- 
tive object to the action word in the sentence. 
It can mean 'in, on, at, to, toward, of, etc. ' 

3. Tub i ' and tub ig are dialect variants for water. 
h. Sentence patterns: 



33 



(a) 

Topic Comment 



Vb sang N(Obj . ) 

Ka'un sang saging. 'Eat a banana.' 

Bakal sang tinipay. 'Buy some 

bread . ' 
Pagka ' un sang saging. 'Eat a 

banana . ' 



;b) 

Topi e Comment 



Vb s a Pi r 

Lakat sa buluthu'an. 'Walk to 

s chool , 

Pagliku' sa wala . 'Turn to 

the left. 



CULTURAL NOTE 

Adobo is a popular meat dish among Filipinos and is 
said to represent Filipino cooking abroad. It is 
chicken and/or pork cooked with garlic, soy sauce, 
and vinegar . 

Ut an means fresh or cooked vegetables. It can also 
mean 'viand' or main dish/food of the meal eaten 
with rice. 

Kundiman is a love song which may be of a gay or 
sad mood, 'written in the native language to mirror 
feelings of 'joy, melancholy, or despair — emotions 
associated everywhere with love'. 

Tinikling is a dance imitating the movements of a 
long-legged bird called tikling ■ The dance is 
performed by jumping in and out of two clapping 
b amboo poles . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



3U 



adobo ( F 


il 


ip 


ino 


meat 


adobo 


d 


is 


h) 








bed 










ka.tr e 


bring 










/pag/dala. 


buy 










/pag /baka.1 


class 










klas e 


cook 










/pag/lut u ' 


dance 










/pag/sa'ut 


drink 










/pag/ i num 


eat 










/pag/ka ' un 


food 










/pag/ka ' un 


get , t ak 


e 








/pag /kuha ' 


go 










/pag/kadtu 


left 










wala. 


lesson 










leksy on 


make , do 










/pag /himu 


mango 










mangga 


milk 










gat as 


Philippine 


bamboo 




dance 










t inikling 


Philippine 


1 


ove 


s ong 


kundiman 


play 










/pag/hampang 


pie as e 










p alihug 


pro-verb 


( 


wh 


at t 


o do? ) 


ma ' anu 


right 










tu'u 


school 










e skwelahan /bul uthu ' an 


s leep 










/pag/tulug 


speak/ t a 


Ik 








/pag/hambal 


study 










/pag/ tu ' un 


sing 










/pag/kant a 


teach 










/pag/tudlu ' 


turn 










/pag/liku ' 


v e g e t ab 1 


e 








ut an 


walk 










lakat 


water 










tubi ' /tub i g 


yard 










lagwert a 


yes 










hu 'u 


INSTRUCTIONS 


FOR 


THE 


TEACHER (Contact hours: 7) 



This material follows Supplementary Lesson 1 in 
s equence . 



A Transformation Drill is conducted by changing 
one grammatical part of the sentence into another 
related to it. The change can be from one affix 
to another, from a positive construction to a 
negative construction, etc. 



35 

The teacher gives the cue sentence and the stu- 
dents transform from one form into another, 
giving complete sentence responses. 

3. It is suggested that commands and requests 

(predicted as common to the future job orienta- 
tion of the students) be drilled upon. 

k. The students read and memorize Supplementary 
Vocabulary List h, Common verb roots. 

5 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A teacher gives his students materials for 
reading, singing, or writing. 

(b) A teacher requests his students to get 
school supplies from the storeroom. 

(c) A mother and father assign jobs for their 
children to do while they are gone for the day. 

(d) A housewife gives the day's instructions to 
her cook or laundrywoman . 

(e) A PCV gives cooking instructions to his 
houseboy . 



UNIT II 
Equational Sentences 

LESSON 5: Identity 

LESSON 6: The Staff and Government 
Officials 

LESSON 7: Nationality and Occupations 

LESSON 8: More than One 

LESSON 9: Tags and Choices 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 3: Home State and 

Home Town 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON k : Time-telling 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON 5: Birthdays 



UNIT II 
Equational Sentences 

Hiligaynon like all other Philippine languages has a 
simple sentence pattern which is unlike anything in 
English. A simple English declarative sentence has two 
parts: the subject and the predicate. The predicate is 
always a verb . 

In the Philippine languages, a simple sentence also has 
two major parts: a topic, and a comment. The topic 
is not necessarily the actor of the sentence. It is 
what is being talked about and is considered the most 
important element in the utterance. The topic can be 
the actor, or the object of the sentence; it can be a 
noun, preceded by an ang (before common nouns) , or a 
si (before personal names); it can be a deictic, or a 
nominal pronoun . 



Ma'estra si Miss Santos 



Ma'estro ang lalaki 
Ma ' est r o sya . 



'Miss Santos is a 
teacher . ' 
'The man is a teacher. 
'He is a teacher. ' 



Unlike English, the comment or the predicate part of 
the sentence may or may not be a verb. A complete 
sentence can have two noun phrases together. If, for 
example, the predicate or comment about a topic ini 
'this' is to identify it as a member of a class like 
'house' bal ay ; Balay ini means 'This is a house. ' Or 
if the comment describes a topic like si Maria . The 
descriptive word mat ahum 'pretty' with the topic renders 
the statement Matahum si Maria as 'Maria is pretty'. 

The order of topic and comment does not affect semantic 
content. The topic can occur before the comment or 
vi ce-ver s a . 



Matahum si Maria. 
Si Maria matahum. 



'Maria is pretty. ' 
'Maria is pretty. ' 



This pattern of two noun phrases joined together is 
called an equational sentence. 



In this unit, the nominal set of pronouns is also intro- 
duced. This set fills the position of the topic in the 

37 



sentence to substitute for an ang- ptiras e or a s i- phras e . 
Hiligaynon pronoun system has two forms for first person 
plural: an inclusive kit a 'we' (you, me, and others), and 
an exclusive kami 'we' (me and others, excluding you). 
The nominal set of pronouns is: 

aku ' I , me ' 

ikaw, ka 'you (singular)' 

sya 'he, she' 

kita 'we (inclusive)' 

kami 'we (exclusive)' 

kamu 'you (plural)' 

sila ' they ' 



This unit also includes the yes/no patterns of questions 
and responses which fall in the category of equational 
sentences. The negative particle differs according to 
the type of question asked. The affirmative particle 
is hu ' u 'yes' . The negative particles are i ndi ' and 
wala' 'no' or 'none'. 



LESSON FIVE 
I dentity 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Sin'u, 


, . . 1 1 Aku si , 




ikaw 




sya 


MICRO- 


-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml : 
M2: 
M3 : 

MU: 

M5 : 



Ma' ayung udt u. 

Ma'ayung udtu man. 

Sin'u ina' ? 
Sin'u na' ? 

Aku si Maria. 
Si Mar ia . 

Ay, ikaw gali' Maria. 

Sulud. 
Ay, ikaw gali' Maria. 

Dayun lang. 



CI: Ma'ayung udtu. 

Ma ' ayung udtu man . 
Sin'u ina' ? 
Aku si Maria. 
Ay, ikaw gali' Maria, 
Sulud . 



C2 



2. 
Ml 



M2; 



Ma'ayung udtu. 
Ma'ayung udtu man. 
Sin ' u na' ? 
Si Mar i a . 

Ay, ikaw gali' Maria. 
Dayun lang. 

Sin'u ini? 
Sin'u ni? 
Sin'u sy a? 

Ini si Rogelio . 
Si Rogelio ni . 
Si Rogelio sya. 



Good noon . 

Same to you. 

Who is that? 
Who is that? 

I am Maria. 
Mari a . 

Oh, it's you, Maria. 

Come in . 
Oh, it's you, Maria. 

Come in. 



Who is this? 
Who is this? 
Who is he/she/it? 

This is Roger . 
This is Roger . 
He is Roger. 



39 



1+0 



CI: Sin'u ini? 

Ini si Rogelio . 



C2 



Sin'u ni? 

Si Rogelio ni 



C3: Sin'u sya? 

Si Rogelio sya. 



3- 
Ml: 



Sin'u aku? 

Ik aw si Miss Cruz, 

Si Mi s s Cruz ka . 



Who am I? 

You are Miss Cruz 

You are Miss Cruz 



CI: Sin'u aku? 

Ikaw si Miss Cruz, 

C2: Sin'u aku? 

Si Mis s Cruz ka . 



It. 
Ml: 



Sin'u atu? 
Sin 'u tu? 



Who is that (yonder)? 
Who is that (yonder)? 



M2 : Si Carlos atu. 
Si Carlos sya. 



That is C ar los , 
He is Carlos. 



CI: 



Sin'u atu? 

Si Carlos atu, 



C2 : Sin' u tu? 

Si Carlos sya. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 



Aku s i Senen . 
Si Senen aku. 



I am S enen , 



Aku s i Pedro , 
Si Pedro aku, 



I am Peter , 



Aku si Romeo . 
Si Romeo aku. 



I am Romeo. 



I k aw si Ben. 
Si Ben ikaw. 



You are Ben , 



Ill 



Ik aw si Carlos 
Si Carlos ka . 



You are Charles 



Ik aw si Carmen. 
Si Carmen ikaw, 



You are Carmen , 



Sya si Lucila. 
Si Luc ila sy a . 



She i s Lucille 



Sya s i Lourdes . 
Si Lourdes sya. 



She is Lourdes 



Sya s i Tomas . 
Si Tomas sya. 



He is Thomas 



luestion and Answer Drill. The student answers 



the questions using real names of his classmates 



Cue: Sin'u aku? 



Cue : Sin'u ikaw? 



Cue : Sin'u sya? 



Cue: Sin'u ini? 



Cue: Sin'u ina' ? 



I k aw s 1 
Ikaw 


Miss Reyes . 


Ikaw 


Ikaw 


Ikaw 


Aku s i 
Aku 


Ana . 


Aku 


Aku 
Aku 


Sya si 
Sya 


Mari a . 


Sya 


Sya 


Sya 

Si Alicia. 
Si 


Si 


Si 


Si 

Si 
Si 
Si 


Si 


Si 





1+2 



Cue: Sin'u atu? 



Si 
Si" 
Si 
Si" 

Si" 



Transformation Drill — Positive to negative 



Cue 

Ma' es tr a aku . 
Trainee aku . 
Estudyante ikaw. 
Abogado ikaw. 
Propesora sya. 
Pintor sya. 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Sentence 


P 


a 


tt 


erns : 


(a) 










Commen 


t 




Topic 


IP 








Pr on 


Anu 








ka? 


Anu 








sya? 



Respons e 

Indi' aku ma'estra. 

Indi' aku trainee. 

Indi' ikaw estudyante 

Indi' ikaw abogado. 

Indi' sya propesora. 

Indi' sya pintor. 



' What are y ou? ' 
' What is she? ' 



(b) 



Comment Topi c 



N 



Pron 



Amerikano ka? 

Pilipino ka? 

Amerikano aku, 

Hapun ka. 



'Are you an American?' 

'Are you Filipino?' 

' I am an American.' 

'You are a Japanese. ' 



1+3 



(c) 



Comment Topi c 
Adv H_ Pron 
Hu ' u , doktor sya. 
Indi' doktor sya. 



'Yes, he is a doctor. ' 
'He is not a doctor. ' 



VOCABULARY LIST 

oh , gee 

( part i cle ) 

that 

that (yonder) 

thi s 

who 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUES 



ay 

gall ' 

na' 

tu 

ni 

s in ' u 



Al : Ma ' ayung hapun . 

Bl : Ma'ayung hapun man. 

A2 : Aku si Maria. 

B2 : Aku si Mr. Ramos. Kamusta ka , Maria? 

A3 : Mayad man . Kag ikaw? 

B3: Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus ma'ayo man. Lingkud anay , 

AU : Salamat . 



Al : Ma'ayung aga. 

Bl : Ma'ayung aga man. 

A2 : Sulud anay . 

B2 : Sal amat . 

A3: Lingkud anay. 

B3 : Salamat. Aku si David. 



lilt 



AU: Kamusta k a , David. Aku si Marino. David, sya 
si Alfredo. 

Bit: Kamusta ka, Alfredo? 

CI: Mayad man, Salamat. 

Hot e : Kag is the conjunction 'and'. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 1+) 

1. A question and answer drill is good (like a 
dialogue). The teacher asks the questions and 
the students provide patterned responses. Some- 
times the questions may "be asked "by the students, 
cued "by the teacher. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Two PCV's meet each other for the first time. 

(b) A PCV accompanied "by a new PCV arrival makes 
a surprise visit at the home of a co-teacher 
after class hours. 

(c) A community development worker makes his 
first call on the "barrio captain at 8:30 a.m. 

(d) A tourist meets an old man on the street. 

3. Teach the song, Ay , ay Kalisud . 



LESSON SIX 
The Staff and Government Officials 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Sin'u si . . 
ang 



1 I Si 



.ang. 
ang 



MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



Sin'u si Richard 

Nixon? 
Sin'u si Dick McGinn 



Who is Richard Nixon? 



M2 : Si Richard Nixon an; 
Presidente sang 
Estados Unidos . 
Ang ' Country 
Director ' . 



Richard Nixon is the 
President of the 
United States . 

The Country Director 



CI: Sin'u si Richard 
Nixon? 
Si Richard Nixon 
ang Presidente 
sang Estados 
Uni do s . 

C2: Sin'u si Dick McGinn? 
Ang 'Country Director' 



2 . 
Ml: 



Sin'u ang Bis i- 
Pres i dent e ? 

Sin'u ang 'Site 
D i r e c t'o r ' ? 



Who is the Vice- 
Pres i dent ? 



M2 : Si Spiro Agnew ang 
Bisi-Presidente . 
Si Charley Rech. 
Ang 'Site Director' 
si Charley Rech. 

CI: Sin'u ang Bisi- 
Presidente? 
Si Spiro Agnew ang 
Bisi-Presidente . 



Spiro Agnew is the 
Vice-President . 

Charley Rech. 

Charley Rech is the 
Site Director. 



^5 



1+6 



C2: Sin'u ang 'Site 
Director ' ? 
Si Charley Rech. 

C3: Sin'u ang 'Site 
Director ' ? 
Ang 'Site Director' 
si Charley Rech. 



C. DRILLS 



Chain Question and Answer Drill 



Cue 



SI: Sin'u si Mayor Fasi? 

S2: Si Mayor Fasi ang 

mayor sang Honolulu. 
Sin'u si Gobernador 
Burns? 



Mayor Fasi 
Mao-Ts e-Tung 
Ho Chi Minh 
Marcos 
Lopez 



Fixed Substitution Drill 



lues t ion 



Answer 



(a) Sin'u ang ' Country 
Director ' ? 
'Site Director' 
'Center Director' 
'Language Coordinator' 
'CCS Cordinator' 
'TESL Coordinator' 



Si Dick McGinn, 



(b) Sin'u ang estudyante ? 
s uperb i sor 
pr insipal 
ma ' estr o 
pr es i dente 
gobernador 
mayor 



S i Juan , 



Completion Drill . The students construct their 
own sentences using the cues given by the teach- 
er. Names are to be of personnel on the site: 



(a) Si Charlie Rech_ 
Si Alan White 



Si Miss Alcalde_ 
Si Mrs . Sindic o 



^7 



(b) 



ang 'Site Director'. 
_ang 'CCS Coordinator', 
ang 'Physical Education 



Director ' 



ang 'Assistant Site Director' 



The cues will be given on flash cards. The students 
construct their own sentences using the cues. Two 
corresponding cards are to be flashed together. 



( c ) Alan White 
Dick McGinn 
Char 1 ie Rech 
Mr. Aportadera 
Mrs. Sindico 



Center Director 
Country Director 
Site Director 
Ma ' est r o 
Ma ' est r a 



(d) Students construct questions with s in ' u using 
the same cues as in (c) above. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Sentence pattern: 
Topic Comment 

Si PerName 



N 



Si Maria ang ma'estra. 'Maria is the 

teacher . ' 

Si Juan ang prinsipal. 'Juan is the 

principal . ' 

Some nouns — borrowed from Spanish — change endings 
to determine gender: o_ signifies masculine 
gender, and a^ femine gender. 



ma ' es t ro 



ma ' estr a 



CULTURAL NOTE 



After about four hundred years of Spanish and 
American colonization of the Philippines, it is 
inevitable that vocabulary terms from Spanish and 
English should become part of Hiligaynon or any 
Philippine language. Ma ' es t r o , libro , and lamesa 
are Spanish borrowings. Super "bi s or is from the 
English word ' supervisor ' ■ 



1+8 



VOCABULARY LIST 

governor 

mayor 

pres i dent 

student 

supervisor 

United States 

vice-president 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



gobernador 

mayor 

pr es i dent e 

estudyante 

superb is or 

Estados Unidos 

bisi-presidente 



Al : Ma'ayung hapun. 

Bl : Ma'ayung hapun man. 

A2 : Aku si Carlos, Peace Corps trainee aku. 

B2 : Aku si Lolita. Peace Corps trainee man aku. 

A3: Kamusta ka, Lolita? 

B3: Mayad man. Kag ikaw? 

Ah: Ma'ayu man. Salamat. 

BU: Sin'u ang 'Site Director'? 

A5 : Si Charley Rech. Kag sin'u ang 'Math 
Coordinator ' ? 

B5: Si Miss Lacsamana. 

A6: Ay, sya gali'? 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Completion Drill 

Students fill in part of the sentence with 
grammatically patterned responses. The teacher 
may cue sentences orally or by flash cards. For 
(a) students construct their own sentences using 
cues given by the teacher. Names are to be of 
famous government officials or personnel in the 
training site. For (b) the cues will be given 
on flash cards. Two corresponding cards will be 
flashed together. Each sentence should contain 
the two cues given. 



h9 

Students should go over Supplementary Vocabulary 
List 5, Public Officials. 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A civics teacher reviews his class on 
government officials. 

(b) Two trainees help each other on information 
about training site personnel. 

(c) A new arrival in the Philippines feels his 
way around his new school or job. 

(d) A PCV is introduced to his co-workers during 
the first meeting. 

(e) A PCV attends a dinner at the town hall given 
in his honor by the Mayor. 



LESSON SEVEN 
Nationalities and Occupations 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Yes/No questions and responses 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Anu ka? 
Anu aku? 
Anu sya? 

M2 : Peace Corps trainee 
aku . 
Propes or aku . 
Doktor aku. 



What are you? 

What am I? 

What is he/she? 

I am a Peace Corps 

trainee . 

I am a Professor. 

I am a doctor . 



CI: Anu ka? 

Peace Corps trainee 
aku . 

C2: Anu aku? 

Propesor ikaw. 

C3: Anu sya? 

Doktor sya. 



Ml: Amerikano ka, Juan? 

Amerikano ikaw? 

M2 : Hu ' u , Amerikano aku. 
Hu'u. 



Are you an American, 

John? 
Are you an American? 

Yes, I am an American 
Yes . 



CI: Amerikano ka, Juan? 
Hu'u, Amerikano aku. 

C2 : Amerikano ikaw? 
Hu'u. 



Ml: Anu ka, Pilipino? 
Espanyol ka? 



What are you, a Filipino? 
Are you a Spaniard? 



50 



51 



M2 : Indi ' , indi' aku 
Pilipino . 
Indi ' . 



No , I am not a Filipino 

No. 



CI: Anu ka, Pilipino' 
Indi ' , i ndi ' aku 
Pilipino . 

C2: Espanyol ka? 
Indi ' . 



h. 
Ml 



Peace Corps volunteer 

ikaw? 
Abo g ado sya? 
Kusinero aku? 



Are you a Peace Corps 

Volunteer? 
Is he a lawyer? 
Am I a cook? 



M2 : Hu ' u , Peace Corps 

volunteer aku. 
Indi ' , indi ' sya 

abogado . 
Indi' , pintor ka. 

CI: Peace Corps volunteer 
ikaw? 
Hu'u, Peace Corps 
volunteer aku. 



Yes, I am a Peace Corps 

Volunteer . 
No, he is not a lawyer. 

No, you are a painter. 



C2 



C3: 



5. 
Ml 



M2 : 



CI 



Abogado sya? 
I ndi ' , indi ' sya 
abo gado . 

Kusinero aku? 
Indi, pintor ka. 



I nt s ik aku . 
Hapun aku. 
Espanyola aku. 

Indi' aku Intsik. 
Hapun man aku . 
Indi' sya Espanyola. 
Amerikana sya. 

Intsik aku . 

Indi' aku Intsik. 



I am Chinese. 
I am Japanes e . 
I am Spani sh . 

I am not Chinese. 
I am also Japanese 
She is not Spanish 
She is American. 



52 



C2 : Hapun aku . 

Hapun man aku . 

C3: Espanyola aku. 

Indi' sya Espanyola, 
Amerikana sya. 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Amerikano ka? 
Amerikano aku? 
Amerikano sya? 



Hu'u, Amerikano aku. 
Hu'u, Amerikano ikaw. 
Hu'u, Amerikano sya. 



Anu ka, Hapun? 
Anu aku, Hapun? 
Anu sya, Hapun? 



Hu'u, Hapun aku. 
Hu'u, Hapun ikaw. 
Hu'u, Hapun sya. 



Intsik ka? 
Intsik aku? 
Intsik sya? 



Indi', indi' aku Intsik. 
Indi' , indi' ikaw Intsik, 
Indi', indi' sya Intsik. 



Anu ka, Pilipina? 
Anu ka, Hapunesa? 
Anu ka, Espanyol? 



Indi' , Amerikana aku. 
Indi', Intsik aku. 
Indi', Amerikano aku. 



Fixed Substitution Drill 

Pilipino ikaw? 

Amerikano 

Hapun 

Intsik 

Pilipina 

Amerikana 

Espanyol 

Espanyola 

Chain Drills 



(a) 

SI: Amerikano ka? 

S2 : Hu'u, Amerikano aku. 
Amerikano ka? 



S3: Hu'u, Amerikano aku, 
Amerikano ka? 



53 
S^: Hu'u, Amerikano aku . 

(b) 

SI: Espanyola ka? 

S2: Indi', indi ' aku Espanyola. 
Espanyola ka? 

S3: Indi', indi' aku Espanyola. 
Espanyola ka? 

S^: Indi' , indi' aku Espanyola. 

h . Completion Drill 

Dokt or ikaw? Are you a doctor? 

Indi' , indi' doktor 
aku . 

Asyendero ? big landowner 

farmer 
? dent i s t 

? laundrywoman 

? s alesgirl 

s ecr et ary 
fisherman 
engineer 
s tudent 
nurse 



man 


gun 
t i s 
and 
der 
ret 
gin 
eny 
udy 


guma 


den 


ta 


lab 


era 


tin 


a 


s ek 
man 
enh 


arya 
gi s da 
er o 


est 


ant e 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. S i marks personal names. 

2. Singular nominal personal pronouns are: 

aku ' I , me ' 

i k aw , k a 'you' 

sy a 'he , she ' 

3. Short forms of deictics: 

i ni - ni ' this ' 
ina ' - na ' ' that ' 
atu - tu 'that' (yonder) 

k. Gali ' is a filler which changes meaning according 
to the context of the sentence. In this lesson, 
gali ' is used to express surprise or discovery. 



5k 



5. 


Sentence pa 


tt er ns : 


(a) 










Topic 


Comment 




Pronl 


s i 


PerName 




Aku 


s i 


Cecile . 




Ik aw 


s i 


Jose. 



' I am Cecile. ' 
' You are Jos e . ' 



Comment Topic 
Si PerName Pronl 



Si Cecile aku. 'I am Cecile. ' 
Si Jose ikaw. 'You are Jose. 

CULTURAL NOTE 



Asyendero/a is a term common to Hiligaynon speaking 
areas where private landholdings are vast sugar, 
rice, or coconut plantations. This term is used 
for the landowners. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

American Amerikano/a 

big landowner asyendero/a 

Chinese Intsik 

doctor doktor 

dentist dentista 

engineer enhenyero 

farmer mangunguma 

Filipino Pilipino/a 

fisherman mangingisda' 

Japanese Hapun/esa 

laundryman/woman labandero/a 

lawyer abogado/a 

no i ndi ' 

nurse nars 

painter pintor 

professor propesor/a 

salesman/woman tindero/a 

secretary sekretarya 

Spanish/Spaniard Espanyol/a 



55 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al : Mr. Santiago, gusto ku ipakilala si Jim. 

Bl : 0, Kamusta ka, Jim. 

CI: Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus ma ' ayu man. 

B2 : Amerikano ka, Jim? 

C2: Hu ' u Amerikano aku . Peace Corps Volunteer aku 
s ang C adi z . 



A2: Si Jim ma'estro sang Math sa Cadiz Elementary 
S chool . 

B3: A, gali ' . 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 

1. There are five dialogues in this lesson. Make 
sure that the dialogues have been thoroughly 
mas t e red. 

2 . Completion Drill . 

The students provide questions and answers as 
cued. The teacher cues both the question and 
the answer. The class is divided int.o two 
groups, the first to respond with the questions 
and the second with the answers. 

3. Transformation Drill. 



Positive statements are transformed into nega- 
tive constructions. 

Phonology Drill . 

Allow a five minute drill on k_ using Drill 3 
from the supplementary materials. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV and a Japanese exchange student get 
acquainted during a party given by the mayor of 
the town . 



56 



(b ) The PCV is given a luncheon in his honor a 
week after he arrives in the town. The town's 
professionals are introduced to him. 

(c) A meeting among exchange students from the 
United States, Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, 
Korea, and Nationalist China is going into its 
"breaking-the-i ce" phase "by r ound-the-t able 
introductions . 



Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
6, Occupations. 



LESSON EIGHT 
More than One 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Sanday marker 

Manga plural marker 

Nominal Pronouns: kita 

kami 

k amu 

s ila 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 

Ml: Manga trainees kamu? Are you (plural) 

t r ai nees ? 
Manga trainees kita? Are we (inclusive) 

trainees ? 
Manga trainees kami? Are we (exclusive) 

trainees? 
Manga trainees sila? Are they trainees? 

M2: Hu'u, manga trainees Yes, we are trainees 

kami . 
Indi ' , indi' manga No, we are not 

trainees kita. trainees. 

Indi', manga abogado No, you are lawyers. 

kamu . 
Indi ' . 

CI: Manga trainees kamu? 
Hu'u, manga trainees 
kami . 

C2: Manga trainees kita? 
Indi' , .indi' manga 
trainees kita. 

C3: Manga trainees kami? 
Indi'. Manga abogado 
kamu . 

Ck : Manga trainees sila? 
Indi ' . 

57 



Ml: Sin'u kamu? 

Sanday sin'u kita? 

Sanday sin'u kami? 

Sanday sin'u sila? 



Who are you (plural)? 

Who are we? 

Who are we? 

Wh o are they? 



M2 : Sanday Marcia, 

George, kag Feling 

kami . 
Sanday Maria, Clara 

kag aku . 
Kami sanday Gloria, 

Mila kag aku. 
Sila sanday nena, 

Rosita kag Rodolfo. 

CI : Sin ' u kamu? 

Sanday Marcia, George 
kag Feling kami. 

C2 : Sanday sin'u kita? 
Sanday Maria, Clara 
kag aku. 

C3: Sanday sin'u kami? 
Kamu sanday Gloria, 
Mila kay ikaw. 

C^ : Sanday sin'u sila? 
Sila sanday Nena, 
Rosita kag Rodolfo. 

DRILLS 



We are Marcia, George, 
and Feling. 

Maria, Clara and I. 

We are Gloria, Mila 

and mys elf . 
They are Nena, Rosita 

and Rodolfo . 



1. Chain Drills . Students use the names of their 
friends or classmates: 

(a) 

SI: Si Ricardo ka? 

S2 : Indi ' , si Rosemelia aku. 
Si Gerardo ka? 

S3: Indi', si Isabel aku. 
Si Teresita ka? 



SU: Indi', si Emma aku. 
et c . 



59 

(b) 

SI: Pilipino kamu? 

S2 : Indi ' , Amerikano kami . 
Pilipino kamu? 

S3: Indi', Amerikano kami. 
Pilipino kamu? 

SU: Indi', Amerikano kami. 
etc . 

(o) 

SI: Sin'u kami? 

S2: Sanday Delfin, Sefalina, Wilma, kag Gilberto. 
Sin'u kami ? 

S3: Sanday Sefalina, Wilma, Gilberto kag Nicolas. 
Sin'u k am i ? 

SU: Sanday Wilma, Gilberto, Nicolas, kag Delfin. 
Sin'u kami ? 

S5: Sanday Gilberto, Nicolas, Delfin, kag Sefalina. 

2. Fixed Substitution Drill . 

Si Ber to siya? Indi' si Ber to siya. 

Si Manuel aku? 

Si Cornelio ikaw? 

Si Clarita siya? 

Si Consuelo aku? 

Si Juan a ikaw? 

Si Lucia aku? 

Si Severino siya? 

3. Movable Substitution Drill. 



Indi' kami manga trainees 
Hapun 



_kamu_ 
kit a 



_doktor 
mangunguma 



_sila 
kami 



_Biangingisda ' 



6o 



Transformation Drill . The students give plural 
pronouns corresponding to the items given on the 
left-hand side: 



Cue 


Respons e 


aku kag ikaw 


kit a 


aku kag sya 


kamu 


sya kag sya 


s ila 


si Consuelo, si 




Roberto , kag 




si Agnes 


si la 


si Teodora kag 




ikaw 


kami 


ikaw kag sya 


kami 


aku kag ik aw 


kita 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. The nominal pronouns are: 

aku 'I 1 

ikaw - ka ' you ' 

sya ' h e , she ' 

kita 'we' (you, me, and 

others ) 
kami 'we' (me and others, 

excluding you) 
kamu 'you' (plural) 

sila ' they ' 

2. Manga marks plurality of nouns. 

3. Kag is the conjunction 'and'. 

h. There is no question marker for certain 

Hiligaynon interrogative sentences, only a 
change in intonation. The statements are given 
in a rising-falling intonation while the ques- 
tions are of a rising intonation pattern. 

Pilipino sya. Pilipino sya? 

5. Plural personal name marker is s anday . 

Sanday Roberto, Marilyn 'Those are Roberto, 
kag Calbert atu . Marilyn and Calvert. ' 



61 



6. Sentence patterns: 

(a) 

Topi c Comment 

manga N_ Pr onl 

Manga trainees kami. 'We are trainees.' 

Manga doktor kita. 'We are doctors.' 

(b) 

Topi c Comment 

sanday PerName Pronl 

Sanday Maria, Carlos, 'We are Maria, 

kag Luisa kita. Carlos, and 

Lui s a . ' 
Sanday Juan sila. 'They are Juan 

( and others ) . ' 

(c) 

Topi c Comment 

s anday IPH Pronl 

Sanday sin'u kita? 'Who are we?' 

Sanday sin'u sila? 'Who are they?' 
VOCABULARY LIST 

parti cles : 

plural marker manga. 

plural personal name 

marker sanday 

they sila. 

we (inclusive) kita. 

we (exclusive) kami 

you (plural) kamu 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Camilo: Ma'ayung udtu , Renato. 

Renato: Ma'ayung udtu man, Camilo. Sulud anay kamu. 



62 



Camilo: Salamat. Renato, sya si Ana, Peace Corps 
trainee sya. 

Renato: Kamusta ka, Ana? 

Ana: May ad man. Salamat. 

Renato: Amerikana ka, Ana? 

Ana: Hu'u, Amerikana aku . 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. For the Chain Drill , use names of friends of 
the trainees, or exchange names among the group. 

2. In the Transformation Drill , ask students to give 
plural pronouns corresponding to the items given 
on the left side of the column. 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Three PCV's visit the "barrio captain, intro- 
duce themselves, and explain the kind of work 
they do . 

("b) A PCV shops for his groceries for the first 
time and "becomes acquainted with the owner of 
the store and the saleslady. 

(c) A PCV is invited to dinner at the house of 
his co-worker and is introduced to the members 
of the family. The friend has a daughter who is 
a nurse, a son who is a lawyer and another son 
who is a teacher. 



LESSON NINE 
Tags and Choices 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Tag question. . . , indi' "bala? 
anu?/nu? 

Choice question with o_ 

3. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 



Ml: Si Antonio ikaw, indi' You are Antonio, aren't 



bala? 
Si Antonio ikaw, anu? 

Si Antonio ikaw, nu? 



M2 : Hu ' u , si Antonio aku. 
Indi', si Carlos aku. 
Hu'u. 



you.' 
You are Antonio, aren't 

you? 
You are Antonio, aren't 

you? 

Yes, I am Antonio. 
No , I am Carlos . 
Yes . 



CI: Si Antonio ikaw, indi' 
bala? 

Hu'u, si Antonio aku. 

C2 : Si Antonio ikaw, anu? 

Indi ' , si Carlos aku. 

C3: Si Antonio ikaw, nu? 
Hu'u. 



Ml: Si Florencio ka o si 
David.' 
Nars ka o kusinera? 



Are you Florencio or 

David? 
Are you a nurse or a 

cook? 



M2 : Si Florencio aku. 
Kusinera aku. 



I am Florencio , 
I am a cook. 



CI: Si Florencio ka o si 
David? 
Si Florencio aku. 

C2 : Nars ka o kusinera? 
Kus iner a aku . 



63 



6U 

C. DRILLS 



1 . Fixed Substitution Drill 

Si Guillermo ka o si Jaime? 
Nicolas Arturo 

Dominador Redentor 

Lourdes Priscila 

Felicidad Trinidad 

2 . Question and Answer Drill 

Ma'estra ka o nars? Nars aku . 
Labandera ka o Kusinera aku. 

kus iner a? 
Mangunguma ka o Mangunguma aku. 

manging isda ' ? 
Tindera ka o Sekretarya aku. 

s ekr etarya? 
Enhenyero ka o Enhenyero aku. 

dent i sta? 
Asyendera ka o Ma'estra. 

ma ' es t r a? 

Ma'estro ka, anu? Hu ' u , ma'estro aku. 

Estudyante ka, anu? Hu'u, estudyante aku. 

Kusinero ka, anu. Hu'u, kusinero aku. 

Nars ka, anu? Hu'u, nars aku. 

Tindero sya, nu? Indi' , labandero sya. 

Sekretarya sya, nu? Indi', doktora sya. 
Doktor sya, nu? Indi', pintor sya. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Bala is a question particle which most often 
expresses surprise or asks for confirmation. It 
is used in this lesson as a tag question particle, 

2. 0_ is the conjunction functioning like English 
'or ' . 

3. Anu or the short form nu are used also as tag 
question words. 



k. Sentence patterns: 



65 



(a) 



Topic 



Comment 



* PerName Pronl TagQues 
Si Antoni o ka , 
S i Carmen sya , 



indi ' "bala? 'You are Antonio, 
aren ' t you? ' 

anu? 'She is Carmen, 

isn't she?' 



(b) 

1. 
2. 

1. 
2 . 



Topic 
*PerName N 



Comment 



Pronl C *PerName 



Si Elsa ka o si Vida? 

Abogado sila o 
'Are you Elsa or Vida?' 
'Are they lawyers or doctors?' 
* PerHame 
s i PerName 



si Lucille 
si Teresita 



doktor? 



VOCABULARY LIST 

cook 

or 

(particles ) 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



kus inero /a 

6 

"bala , nu 



Al : Taghalay! 

Bl : Sin'u ina ' ? 

A2 : Aku si Guillermo. 

B2: 0, ikaw gali ' Guillermo. Sulud anay . 

A3: Salamat, Tiyu'. 



66 

B3: Guillermo , sya si Marino, indi ' "bala? 

CI: Indi' aku si Marino, Tiyu 1 . Aku si Victorio. 

Bh : Hu'u, anu? Lingkud kamu. 
G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: k ) 

1 . Question and Answer Drill . 

The teacher asks the class questions individu- 
ally, cueing the first pattern response needed. 

2 . Phonology Drill . 

Review pronunciation of words containing the t_ 
sound by flashing them on cards and having the 
students read, first chorally and then individ- 
ually. Insist on perfect pronunciation. In- 
clude words contained in the lessons which are 
often mispronounced. 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Guillermo is a dentist. One afternoon he 
visits his doctor friend, Juan, together with 
Carlos whom Juan does not know. Carlos is from 
Mexico and is in the Philippines as a trainee 
in rice production. 

(b) A community development officer meets his 
PCV for the first" time. The PCV is an engineer 
from Nevada. 

(c) A malaria worker is assigned to the barrio 
of Tigayon. He goes to the house of the barrio 
captain to introduce himself and get acquainted. 

h . Written Exercise . 

Have students write their own dialogues of six 
to eight lines to be handed in after two days. 
Require at least two dialogues related to possi- 
ble situations that may be encountered when they 
get to their future jobs. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON THREE 
Home State and Home Town 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
Taga di ' in. . . ? Taga. 

Di 'in sa ? Sa. . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml; 



M2 : 
CI: 

C2 : 

2. 
Ml : 

M2: 

M3 : 

Uh : 



Taga di ' in ka? 

Taga di'in ikaw? 

Taga California. 

Taga California aku, 

Taga di'in ka? 

Taga California. 

Taga di ' in ikaw? 

Taga California aku. 



Taga di ' in ka? 

Taga Washington aku. 

Di'in sa Washington? 
Taga di ' in ka s a 
Washington? 

Sa Seattle. 

Taga Seattle aku. 



CI: Taga di'in ka? 

Taga Washington aku. 
Di'in sa Washington? 
Sa Seattle. 

C2 : Taga di ' in ka? 

Taga Washington aku. 
Taga di'in ka sa 

Washington? 
Taga Seattle aku. 



Where are you from? 
Where are you from? 

From California. 

I am from California. 



Where are you from? 

I am from Washington. 

Wh ere in Washington? 
Where in Washington 
are you from? 

In Seattle. 

I am from Seattle. 



61 



68 

C. DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Taga di ' in ka , 

Mr . Reyes ? 

Taga prubinsya aku . 

Taga di ' in ka , 

Miss Jones? 

Taga una aku. 

Taga di ' in ka? 

Taga Amerika aku. 

Taga di'in aku? 

Taga Pilipinas ikaw. 

Taga di ' in sya? 

Taga baryu sya. 

Taga di'in si Mercedes' 

Taga banwa. 

Taga di'in ka sa 

New York? 
Sa Albany. 
Taga di'in ka sa 

Massachusetts? 
Sa Boston . 
Taga di'in ka s a 

Pi lipinas ? 
Sa Iloilo. 
Taga di'in ka s a 

Aklan? 
Sa Kalibo 
Taga di'in ka sa 

Ant i que? 
Sa syudad sang San 

Jose. 

Fixed Substitution Dr ill 

Taga Pilipinas aku. 
Zamboanga 
Bagui o 
Manila 
Negr os 
Lanao 
Capiz 
Cot ab at o 



Where are you from, 

Mr . Reyes ? 
I am from the province. 
Where are you from, 

Mis s Jones ? 
I am from a farm. 
Where are you from? 
I am from America. 
Where am I from? 
You are from the 

Philippines .. 
Where is he from? 
He is from the barrio. 
Where is Mercedes from? 
From town . 

Where in New York are 

you from? 
Albany . 
Where in Massachusetts 

are you from? 
Boston . 
Where in the Philippines 

are you from? 
Iloilo . 
Where in Aklan are you 

from? 
Kalibo . 
Where in Antique are 

you from? 
San Jose C i ty . 



Taga Pilipinas ikaw. 



69 



Movable Substitution Drill 

Taga Amerika ikaw. 
Montana 











sya. 






Vermoii 
Los An 


it 

g 


eles 
aku . 


ikaw 


C 


omp 


let ion 


D 


rill 



(a) Taga di'in sa Pilipinas Sa Manila ' . 

ka? Cebu 

Bacolod 
Kalibo 
Roxas City 
Dumaguete City 

(b) Taga di'in sa Amerika Sa Cali f or nia . 

ka? Washington 

Kentucky 
Mi chi gan 
Minnesota 
Ohio 
Nebraska 

(c) Taga di'in sa Cali f orni a Sa San Francisco . 

sya? Nebraska Omaha 

Arizona Phoenix 

Ohio Cincinnati 

Hawaii Pepeekeo 

GRAMMATICAL NOTE 



1. Taga di'in literally means 'from where'. Tags 
is 'from' and di'in is 'where' . 

CULTURAL NOTE 



Names of some of the provinces, cities, and towns 
in the Philippines are given in this lesson. Em- 
phasis has been given to names of Kiligaynon speak- 
ing areas . 

VOCABULARY LIST 

America Amerika 



70 



from 

farm 

province 

Philippines 

rural barrio or 

village 
town 
where 



t aga 
uma 

prubinsya 
Pil ipinas 

baryu 
b anwa 
di ' in 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al 
Bl 
A2 
B2 
A3 
B3 
Alt 
Bit 
A5 
B5 



Ma'ayung hapun. 

Ma'ayung hapun man. Sulud anay . 

Salamat. Aku si Carlos, Peace Corps volunteer. 

Aku si Jovita, Peace Corps volunteer man aku. 

Taga di'in ka, Jovita? 

Taga Florida aku. Kag ikaw? 

Taga Texas aku. 

Di'in s a Texas ? 

Sa Austin. Kag ikaw? Taga di'in ka sa Florida? 

Taga Tampa. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: k ) 

1. This lesson follows Lesson 6 in sequence. 

2. Hold a quick five minute drill on vocabulary 
items from Lessons 1-5. 

3. Drill on the t_ sound using Phonology Drill 2 
given in the supplementary materials. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON FOUR 
Yes or No? 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Negative questions with affirmative responses 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 
Ml : 



M2 : 



Indi' ka Pilipino? 

Indi ' , indi' aku 

Pilipino . 
Indi ' . 



Aren't you a Filipino? 

( No ) , I'm not a 
Filipino . 



CI: Indi' ka Pilipino? 
Indi ' , indi' aku 
Pilipino . 

C2: Indi' ka Pilipino? 
Indi ' . 



2 . 

Ml : 



Indi' ma'estro si 
Dick? 



M2: Hu ' u , indi' sya 
ma ' es t r o . 
Hu ' u , indi ' . 

CI : Indi ' si Dick 
ma ' es t r o? 
Hu ' u , indi ' sya 
ma ' es t ro . 



Isn't Dick a teacher? 



(Yes ) , he isn't a 

teache r . 
(Yes), he isn't. 



C2 : Indi ' si Dick 
ma' es t ro ? 
Hu ' u , iu'di ' . 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Indi' kamu manga 
abogado? 



Aren't you lawyers? 



71 



72 



Hu'u, indi' kami (Yes), we are not 
manga abogado. lawyers. 

Indi' sila manga Aren't they Chinese? 

Intsik? 

Hu'u, indi' sila (Yes), they are not 

manga Intsik. Chinese. 

Indi' kita manga Aren't we teachers? 

ma ' est r o? 

Hu'u, indi' kita (Yes) , we are not 

manga ma'estro. teachers. 

Indi' kita manga Aren't we doctors? 

doktor? 

Hu'u indi' kita (Yes), we are not 

manga doktor. doctors. 

Indi' kami manga Aren't we Americans? 

Amer ikano? 

Hu'u, indi' kamu (Yes), you are not 

manga Amerikano. Americans. 

Indi' aku Espanyol? Aren't I Spanish? 

Hu'u, indi'. (Yes), you're not. 

Indi' ikaw Pilipino? Aren't you Filipino? 

Hu'u, indi'. (Yes), I am not. 

Indi' sya Hapun? Aren't you Japanese? 

Hu'u, indi'. (Yes), he's not. 

Chain Substitution Drill 



(a) 

T: Indi' ka Espanyol? 

SI: Hu'u, indi' aku Espanyol. Cue 

SI: Indi' ka Pilipino? Pilipino 

S2: Hu'u, indi' aku Pilipino. 

S2: Indi' ka Hapun? Hapun 

S3: Hu'u, indi' aku Hapun. 

S3: Indi' ka Intsik? Intsik 



73 

S^: Hu ' u , indi ' aku Intsik. 

S^: Indi' ka Espanyola? Espanyola 

S5: Hu'u, indi' aku Espanyola. 

(b) 

T: Indi' ka taga Washington? Washington 

SI : Hu'u, indi ' . 

S2: Indi' ka taga Nevada? Nevada 

S3 : Hu'u, indi ' . 

S3: Indi' ka taga Ilo'ilo? Iloilo 

Sit: Hu'u, indi ' . 

Sh : Indi' ka taga Bacolod? Bacolod 

S5: Hu'u, indi'. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATIONS 

1. Sentence patterns: 

(a) 

Comment Topic Comment 

Adv Adv Pronl N 

Indi', indi' aku Pilipino. '(No), I'm not 

a Filipino . ' 

Hu'u, indi' aku Pilipino. '(Yes), I'm not 

a Filipino . ' 

(h) 

Comment Topic Comment 



Adv Pron N 
Indi' sya Espanyol? 'Isn't he a Spaniard?' 
Indi' kamu Amerikano? 'Aren't you Americans?' 



E. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: k) 

1. This lesson follows Lesson 9 in sequence. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV teacher asks his pupils where they are 
from . 

(b ) A PCV malaria worker works with one family, 
gathering data to fill out a form he has to 
complete for each member of the family. 

(c) A community worker works with a new team of 
five laborers. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON FIVE 
Telling Time 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Anung oras subung? 



Ala. 
Alas 



B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Anung oras subung? 

Anu nga oras subung? 

Anu ang oras subung? 

M2 : Alas tr es . 

Alas singko y medya. 
Ala una . 



What time is it now? 
What time is it now? 
What is the time now? 

Three o 'clock . 
Five thi rty . 
One o ' clock . 



CI: Anung oras subung? 
Alas t r es . 

C2 : Anu nga oras subung? 
Alas singko y medya. 



C3: 



Anu ang oras subung? 
Ala una. 



Ml: Anung oras na? 

Anung oras na gali ' ? 



M2 : Alas dos na. 

Minus dyes para alas 
ons e . 



What time is it already? 
Oh, what time is it 
already? 

It is already two o'clock. 
Ten o f eleven . 



CI: Anung oras na? 
Alas dos na. 

C2: Anung oras na gali'? 
Minus dyes para alas 
ons e . 

DRILLS 

1 . Repetition Drill 



75 



76 



Anung oras subung? What time is it? 

Alas dyes y medya. Ten thirty. 

Anung oras subung? What time is it now? 

Alas dos kinse subung? It is two fifteen now. 

Anung oras na? What time is it already? 

Alas dos impuntu na. Two o'clock sharp. 

Anung oras na gali ' ? What time is it? 

Alas seys kwarenta y It is six forty-five' 

singko na. already. 

Anung oras na gali'? Oh, what time is it? 

Minus kinse para ala Fifteen of one. 

una . 

Anung oras subung? What time is it now? 

Minus beynte para Twenty of eight. 

alas ot so . 

Anung oras na gali'? Oh, what time is it? 

Minus syete para alas Seven of twelve. 

dose. 

Substitution Drill 



Alas tres beynte y singko 
d os dy e s . 



Ala una 



Alas tres 



_kins e . 
y medya, 



s ingko . 

_treynta y singko. 
dose 



3. Identification . Using flash cards give the cue 
for the time of day to be read in Hiligaynon: 

7:00 a.m. k : 30 p.m. 6 : U5 p.m. 

8:55 p.m. 2:15 p.m. 12:00 a.m. 

8:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m. 9:30 p.m. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. N a is a particle which varies in meaning accord- 
ing to the aspect of the sentence. If used in 
the completed action constructions, na means 
'already'. In durative or proposed constructions 
it means 'now, already, no more'. 



77 



Sentence patterns: 

(a) 

Topic Comment 

0_ ala/alas 

Alas 

Ala 



Num 



t r es 



Part 



'It's three 
o ' clock now . 

'It is one 
o'clock. ' 



(t) 



Topi c Comment 
IP B Part 



Adv 



Anung oras na gali'? 
Anung oras na subungi 



'What time is it 



'What time is it 



now 



1 I 



CULTURAL NOTE 

Hiligaynon uses Spanish numbers for telling time. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

and ( t ime ) y 

eight otso 

eleven onse 

five singko 

fifteen kins e 

for para 

forty kwarenta 

half medya 

less, minus minus 

now suhung 

one uno/a 
part i cles : 

'modifier connector' nga. 

'time particle' ala/alas 

s even syet e 

sharp (time) impuntu 

six s eys 

ten dyes 



thirty treynta 

three tres 

t ime 6 r as 

twelve dose 

twenty beynte 

two dos 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h) 

1. This lesson follows Supplementary Lesson h in 
sequence . 

2. Prepare flash cards on time items before coming 
to class. Write only numbers on the cards. Have 
the students identify, in Hiligaynon, the time 
flashed. You can have more entries than are 
given in the lesson. 

3. Bring visual aids to class to help you in 
drilling on numbers. A model timepiece should 
be one of the materials. Make the hands movable 
to facilitate changing of cues. 

h . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV forgot his watch at home so he asks 
around for the time. 

(b) A Math teacher introduces numbers to his 
students in the first grade. The numbers one 
through ten are introduced first. He uses 
several objects to illustrate the change in 
quantity . 

5. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 7, 
Numbers; and Supplementary Vocabulary List 8, 
Parts of a Flower, a Plant, and a Tree. 

6. A guessing game can be conducted for extra class 
activity. Bring a box to class together with ten 
pebbles. Put the pebbles in the box (varying the 
number every time). Let the students guess how 
many pebbles there are in the box. Ask for each 
student's guess to give a chance for all of 

them to say the number orally. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON SIX 
Birthdays 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
San'u ka natawu? Sang. 
Di'in ka natawu? Sa... 
MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml : 



M2 : 



San'u ka natawu? 
San'u aku natawu? 
San'u sya natawu? 

Sang Enero 2, 19^5 

( aku nat awu ) . 
Sang Marso 31 , 19 1 * 1 * 

( aku nat awu ) . 
Sang Abril 22, 19^3 

(aku nat awu ) . 



CI: San'u ka natawu? 

Sang Enero 2, 19^5 
( aku natawu ) . 

C2 : San'u aku natawu? 

Sang Marso 31 , 19 1 * 1 * 
( ikaw nat awu ) . 

C3: San'u sya natawu? 

Sang Abril 22, 19^3 
(sya natawu) . 



When were you horn? 

Wh en was I horn? 

Wh en was he/she horn? 

(I was horn) on January 

2, 191+5 . 
(i was horn) on March 

31, 19 1 * 1 *. 
(I was horn) on April 

22, 19^3 . 



2 . 
Ml : 



Di'in ka natawu? 
Di'in aku natawu? 



Wh ere were you torn! 
Where was I horn? 



M2 : Sa Phoenix, Arizona 
( aku nat awu ) . 
Sa Tampa, Florida. 



CI: Di'in ka natawu? 

Sa Phoenix, Arizona 
( aku nat awu ) . 



(i was horn) in 
Phoenix, Arizona, 

( I was horn ) in 
Tampa, Florida. 



79 



8o 



C2: Di'in aku natawu? 
Sa Tampa, Florida. 

DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill. 

(a) San'u ka natawu? Sang Hunyo h , 1950. 
San'u aku natawu? Sang Mayo 2, 19^5 . 
San'u sya natawu? Sang Hulyo 10, 19^8. 
San'u si Juan natawu? Sang Septyembre 13, 19^2 
San'u si Guillermo Sang Desyembre 15, 19^1. 

nat awu? 

San'u si Manolito Sang Nobyembre 20, 19^0. 

nat awu? 

San'u si Edwardo Sang Hulyo 3 0', 19 1 +5. 

natawu? 

(b) Di'in ka natawu? Sa Kansas, Kansas. 
Di'in aku natawu? Sa Bacolod, Negros 

0c c i den tal . 

Di'in sya natawu? Sa Romblon. 

Di'in si Nina natawu? Sa Davao City. 
Di'in si Susana natawu? Sa Iloilo. 

Di'in si Lilia natawu? Sa Manila. 

Di'in si Patricia Sa Victorias, Negros 
natawu? Occidental. 

2. Completion Drill . The teacher asks for the 
students' birth dates: 

Cue 

San'u ka natawu? Sang Marso 19, 19^9. 
San'u ka natawu? 



D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Phrase answers are more common in conversation 
usage than full sentences. 

2. Phrases enclosed in parentheses are optional 
elements of the sentence. 

3. Sentence patterns: 



(a) 

Topi c Comment 

0_ s ang/ sa Time 

Sang Mayo 2, 1 9 1+ 1+ . 'On May 2, 191+1*.' 

Sa Enero 3, 1970. 'On January 3, 

1970 . ' 

(D) 

Comment Topi c C o mm e n t 

IP Pronl Vb 
San'u ka natawu? 'When were you "born?" 
Di'in sya natawu? 'Where was she "born? 1 



3. Sang with time adverbs indicates past time, s_a_ 
indicates future time. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



April Abril 

born /na/tawu 

December Desyembre 

January Enero 

July Hulyo 

June Hunyo 

March Marso 

May Mayo 

November Nobyembre 

September Septyembre 

when s an ' u 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. This lesson follows Supplementary Lesson 5 in 
s equenc e . 

2 . Completion Drill . 

Ask for birth dates of the students in your 
class. Give your birth date first so that the 
students will have an idea of what you want. 



Hand out Supplementary Vocabulary List 9, Days 
of the Week and Months of the Year. 



h. Teach the song, Lubi lub i . 

5. Hand out Written Exercise 3 from the supplemen- 
tary materials. Allow five minutes of class 
time for this. The students are to rearrange 
the words to make logical, grammatically accept- 
able sentences. Only numbers are written in 
the blanks provided. 



UNIT III 
Source Pronouns and Pre-verbs 



LESSON 10 

LESSON 11 

LESSON 12 

LESSON 13 

LESSON lit 



The Family 

The Family (continued) 

Courtship 

Foods 

Act i vi t ies 



UNIT III 

Source Pronouns and Pre-verbs 

One set of pronouns is the source pronouns which are 
normally possessive pronouns. However, these pronouns 
also function as actors in certain sentence patterns. 
There are two sets of source pronouns, the pre-position 
source pronouns which occur before the object possessed 
in the construction, and the post-position pronouns 
which occur after the object possessed in the sentence. 

This unit introduces the post-position source pronouns. 

nakun ' my ' 

nimu 'your (singular)' 

niya 'his, her s ' 

natun 'our (inclusive: yours, mine 

and others ) ' 
namun 'our (exclusive: mine and 

others, excluding yours)' 
ninyu 'your (plural)' 

nila ' thei r ' 

The possessor can also be a noun, in which case it is 
marked by either ni (preceding a personal name) , nanday 
(preceding a list of personal names) , or sang (preced- 
ing a common noun). Nouns with these markers function 
like the post-position pronouns. 

Ang lapis nakun ara' . 'My pencil is there. ' 

Ang lapis ni Juan ara' . 'Juan's pencil is there, 

Ang balay nanday Carmen 'The house of Carmen 

kag Pablo ara'. and Pablo is there. ' 

Ang balay s ang ma ' est r o 'The teacher's house is 

ara ' . there . ' 



8U 



LESSON TEN 
The Family 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Kay s i n ' u , 



. nakun 
nimu 
niya 

. ni . . . 



MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Kay sin'u "bana sya? 
Kay sin'u a saw a sya? 
Kay sin'u iluy sya? 

M2 : Bana nakun sya. 
Asawa nimu. 
Iluy niya. 
Iluy sya ni Maria. 

CI: Kay sin'u "bana sya? 
Bana nakun sya. 

C2: Kay sin'u asawa sya? 
Asawa nimu. 



Whose husband is he? 
Wh ose wife is she? 
Wh ose mother is she? 

He is my husband. 

Your wif e . 

Her mother. 

She is Maria's mother. 



C3: Kay sin'u iluy sya? 
Iluy niya. 

CU: Kay sin'u iluy sya? 
Iluy sya ni Maria. 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Kay sin'u amay sya? 

Am ay nakun sya. 

Kay sin'u Tatay sya' 

Tatay ku sya. 

Kay sin'u iluy si 

Manang Goring? 
Iluy nakun sya. 
Kay sin'u Nanay si 

Lour de s ? 



Whose father is he? 
He is my father. 
Whose father is he? 
He is my father. 
Whose mother is 

Manang Goring? 
She is my mother. 
Whose mother is 

Lourde s ? 



86 



Nanay ku . My mother. 

Kay sin'u utud si Whose sister is Maria? 

Maria? 

Utud niya si Maria. Maria is her sister. 

Kay sin'u tiyo si Whose uncle is Manong 

Manong Tomas? Thomas? 

Tiyo ni Pamela sya. He is Pamela's uncle. 

Kay sin'u asawa si Whose wife is Marina? 

Marina? 

Asawa ni Marino. Marina's wife. 

Kay sin'u "bana si Whose husband is 

Kulas? Kulas? 

Bana sya ni Lolita. He is Lolita's husband. 

2 . Movable Substitution Drill 

Paryente nimu si David. David is your relative. 

Timoteo Timoteo is your relative. 

Ugangan Timoteo is your in-law. 

nakun Timoteo is my in-law. 

Utud Timoteo is my brother. 

Manghud Timoteo is my younger 

brother . 

Victorio Victorio is my younger 

brother . 

niya Victorio is his younger 

brother . 

Tiyo Victorio is his uncle. 

Paka'isa Victorio is his first 

cousin. 

Manang Emma Mana.ng Emma is his first 

cous i n . 

Tiya Manang Emma is his aunt. 

Maninay Manang Emma is his god- 
mother . 

nakun Manang Emma is my god- 
mother . 

Nanay Meding Nanay Meding is my god- 

mothe r . 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. Singular source pronouns in the post-position 
s et are : 

nakun ' my ' 
nimu ' your ' 

niya 'hers, his' 



87 

2. The term post-position implies that the pronoun 
occurs after another word to indicate its gram- 
matical relationship to other words. 

3. The ni- phras e occurs in the same position in 
the sentence as the post-position source pro- 
nouns . 

h. Sentence patterns: 

(a) 

Comment Topi c 

N Pron3 PerName Pronl 



Bana nakun siya. 'He is my husband. ' 

Asawa nimu si Maria. 'Maria is your wife. ' 

Comment Topi c Comment 

N Pronl * Per Name Pron3 



Iluy 




sya 


Amay 




ka 


Tat ay 




sya 


Tiyo 




aku 




*P 


erName 



ni Maria. 'She is the mother 

of Mari a . ' 
ni Jose. 'You are the father 

of Jose.' 
nakun. 'He is my father. ' 

nimu. 'I am your uncle.' 



ni PerName 



ai Maria 
ni Jose 



CULTURAL NOTE 

There are respect forms in Hiligaynon which have no 
equivalents in English: manung and manang are used 
for people addressed who are older in chronological 
age than the speaker. These may also "be used as 
honorifics for the eldest "brother and the eldest 



sister in the family. Hanay and tat ay are the 
native forms for 'father' and 'mother', "but are 
honorifics when used "before the n am es of aunts and 
uncles in the family. 

Familial relationship in the Philippines is the ex- 
tended family system. How Hiligaynons reckon family 
ties is well treated in Gonzales', ' Ilongo Kinship 
System and Terminology', Philippine Sociological 
Beview . XIII, January 1965, No. 1. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



aunt 

father 

first cousin 

godmother 

his, her, its 

hush and 

mother 

my 

parents-in-law 

( part icles ) 

r el at i ve 

respect forms : 
older men 
older women 

sibling 

uncle 

whose (singular) 

wife 

your (singular) 

younger sibling 



tiya 

amay , Tat ay 

paka ' i s a. 

maninay 

niya 

"b ana 

il uy , Nanay 

nakun 

ugangan 

k ay , n i 

pary e nt e 

manung , t iyu ' , 

manang , tiya', 

utud 

tiyo 

kay s in ' u 

a saw a 

nimu 

manghud 



t at ay 
nanay 



G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Allow a five minute drill on vocabulary items. 
Bring pictures of people in different national 
costumes and different occupations and have the 
students identify these pictures in terms of 
occupation and nationality. 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Let the students identify their own things 
on top of their desks. 



89 

(b) A couple visits the house of friends for the 
first time. The two couples exchange pleasant- 
ries. 

Bring to class a picture of a family with the 
husband and wife, two children of different 
sexes, and grandparents all in the same picture. 
The introduction to this lesson will be more 
meaningful with this visual aid. 



Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
10, Family Relations. 



LESSON ELEVEN 
The Family (continued) 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Kanday sin'u. . . . . .nila 

namun 
ninyu 
natun 
. . . nanday . . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Kanday sin'u kwartu Whose room is this? 
ini? 
Kanday sin'u balay Whose house is this? 

ini? 
Kanday sin'u uma ini? Whose farm is this? 
Kanday sin'u lames a Whose table is this? 



M2: Kwarto natun ini. This is our room. 

Balay namun ini. This is our home. 

Uma ninyu ini. This is your farm. 

Lamesa nila ini. This is their table. 

CI: Kanday sin'u kwarto 
ini? 
Kwarto natun ini. 

C2: Kanday sin'u balay 
ini? 
Balay namun ini . 

C3: Kanday sin'u uma ini? 
Uma ni nyu i ni . 

C 1* : Kanday sin'u lamesa 
ini . 
Lamesa nila ini. 

2. 

Ml : Kanday sin'u ginikanan Whose parents are thejl 
sila? 

90 



Kanday sin'u manga 

utud sila? 
Kanday sin'u manga 

paryente sila? 



91 

Whose "brothers and sis- 
ters are they? 
Whose relatives are theyS 



M2 : Ginikanan nila (sila). They are their parents. 

Manga utud sila nanday They are the "brothers of 

Marino kag Miguela. Marino and Miguela. 

Manga paryente natun They are our relatives, 
sila. 

CI: Kanday sin'u ginikanan 
sila? 
Ginikanan nila (sila). 

C2 : Kanday sin'u manga 
utud sila? 
Manga utud nanday 
Marino kag Miguela. 

C3 : Kanday sin'u manga 
paryente sila? 
Manga paryente natun 
sila. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 



Kanday s 

sila? 
Ginikana 
Kanday s 

amigo s 
Manga am 

sila. 
Kanday s 

pary ent 
Manga pa 

sila. 
Kanday s 

hinahlu 
Manga hi 
Kanday s 

primo s 
Manga pr 
Kanday s 

hinahlu 



in'u ginikanan Whose parents are they? 



n namun . 

in'u manga 

ila? 

i go namun 



in u manga 
e sila? 
ryente natun 

in'u manga 
s sila. 
nahlus ninyu, 
in'u manga 
ila? 

imo nila. 
in'u manga 
s sila? 



Qur parents . 

Wnose friends are they? 

They are our friends. 

Whose relatives are they? 

They are our relatives . 

Whose nieces /nephews 

are they? 
Your nephews and nieces . 
Whose cousins are they? 

Thei r cous ins . 
Whose nieces and nephews 
are they? 



92 



Manga hinablus nanday They are the nieces and 

Mr. kag Mrs. Mendoza. nephews of Mr. and Mrs. 

Mendo z a . 

Kanday sin'u balay Whose house is that? 

ina' ? 

Balay nanday Mr. Luces. The house of the Luces. 

Kanday sin'u uma ina'? Whose farm is that? 

Uma nanday Jurilla The Jurillas ' farm. 

ina' . 

Kanday sin'u kalubihan Whose coconut grove is 

ina ' . that ? 

Kalubihan nanday Motus That is the coconut 

ina'. grove of the Motuses. 

Question and Answer Drill 



Cue 

Kay sin'u lapis ini? 

Lapis ni Maria ina' . 



Kay sin'u libro ina'? Whose book is that? 

Jovito 
Kay sin'u papel atu? Whose paper is that? 

Har co 
Kay sin'u kwaderno ini? Whose notebook is this? 

nakun 
Kay sin'u payung atu? Whose umbrella is that? 

Maria 
Kay sin'u relo ini? Whose watch is this? 

ny a 
Kay sin'u pitaka ina'? Whose purse is that? 

nimu 



Kay sin'u isu ini? 

ny a 
Kay sin'u radyo atu' 

nakun 



Whose chalk is this? 
Whose radio is that? 



(b) Kanday sin'u manga 
bayu' atu? 



Whose dresses are those? 



Whose fruits are those? 



Kanday sin'u manga 
prut as ina'? 
Vida, Emma, Pat 
Kanday sin'u balay ini? Whose house is this' 

nila 
Kanday sin'u kwarto Whose room is that? 



93 



Kanday sin'u manga 
amigo sila? 
natun 
Kanday sin'u manga 
primo sila? 
ninyu 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Whose friends are they? 



Whose cousins are they? 



A complete set of post-position source pronouns: 



nakun ku 

nimu mu 

niya 

natun 

namun 

ninyu 

nila 



my ■ 

your' (singular) 
his, her, its' 
our' (inclusive) 
our' (exclusive) 
your ' ( plural ) 
thei r ' 



One way of making a collective noun is by affix- 
ing /ka-/ and /-an/ to a root: 



lubi 
amigo 



co conut 
' friend' 



b alay ' hous e ' 



kalubihan 
ka ' ami gohan 

kab a lay an 



' co conut grove ' 
' circle of 

friends ' 
'group of houses' 



/-an/ has an allomorph /-nan/. /-an/ is used 
after roots which end in consonants, while /-nan/ 
is the form used after roots ending in vowels. 

3. ku is the short form of nakun ; mu of nimu . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



ch alk 

clothes , dress 

cous in 

coconut grove 

friend 

fruit 

hous e 

ni e ce/nephew 

our (inclusive) 

our (exclusive) 

parent 

( part ic les ) 

purse, handbag 



1 su 

bayu ' 

primo / a 

/ka/lubi/han/ 

amigo 

prut as 

balay 

hinablus 

natun 

namun 

ginikanan 

nanday, kanday 

pi t aka 



9 It 



radio 

room, "bedroom 

their 

u mb r e 1 1 a 

whos e ( plural ) 

wrist watch, watch 

your (plural) 



r ady o 

kwart o 

n i la 

payung 

kanday sin'u 

relo 

ninyu 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Drill on glottal stop using Phonology Drill h. 

2 . Question and Answer Drill . 

The teacher asks the questions while students 
provide complete answers using names given as 
cues . 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV refuses an invitation due to a terrible 
cough he has been having for the last four weeks. 

(b) A PCV apologizes for not being able to 
attend a party he was invited to because of 
inclement weather. 



LESSON TWELVE 
Courtship 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Gus t o 

Luyag + ni-NP 

Kinahanglan + nanday-NP 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



+ source pronoun + Nominal Pronoun 
+ ang-NP 
+ si-NP 



1 . 
Ml: 



M2 : 



CI 



C2 



C3: 



2. 
Ml: 



M2: 



Gusto mu sya? 
Luyag mu sya? 
Kinahanglan mu sya? 

Hu ' u , gusto ku sya. 
Indi ' ku sya luyag. 
Indi', indi' ku sya 
kinanglan . 

Gusto mu sya? 

Hu ' u , gusto ku sya. 

Luyag mu sya? 

Indi' ku sya luyag. 

Kinahanglan mu sya? 
Indi', indi' ku sya 
kinanglan . 



Gusto ni Manuel si 

Mari a? 
Luyag ni Manuel si 

Mar i a? 
Kinahanglan gid niya 

si Maria? 

Gusto gid sya ni 

Manuel . 
Luyag gid ni Manuel 

si Mar i a . 
Kinahanglan gid ni 

Manuel sya. 



Do you like her/him? 
Do you like her/him? 
Do you need her/him? 

Yes, I like her/him. 
I don't like her/him. 
No, I don't need her/ 
him. 



Does Manuel like Maria? 

Does Manuel like Maria? 

Does he really need 
Maria? 

Manuel likes her very 

much . 
Manuel likes Maria very 

much . 
Manuel needs her very 

much . 



95 



96 



Cl: Gusto ni Manuel si 
Maria? 
Gusto gid sya ni 
Manuel . 

C2 : Luyag ni Manuel 
s i Mar ia? 
Luyag gid ni Manuel 
si Maria . 

C3: Kinanglan gid niya 
si Maria? 
Kinanglan gid ni 
Manuel sya. 



3. 

Ml: 



Gusto nanday Pedro kag 

Marion ang ma'estra? 
Luyag nanday Pedro kag 

Marion ang ma'estra? 
Kinahanglan nanday 

Pedro kag Marion ang 

ma ' es tr a? 



Do Pedro and Marion like 
the teacher? 



M2 : Hu'u gusto nila sya. 
Indi' nila luyag sya, 
Indi ' , indi' nila 
kinahanglan sya. 



Yes, they like her. 
They don't like her. 
No, they don't need 
her . 



Cl: Gusto nanday Pedro kag 
Marion ang ma'estra? 
Hu'u gusto nila sya. 

C2 : Luyag nanday Marion 

kag Pedro ang ma'estra? 
Indi' nila 1 uy a g sya. 

C3: Kinahanglan nanday Pedro 
kag Marion ang ma'estra? 
Indi ' , indi ' nila 
kinahanglan sya. 

DRILLS 



1. Substitution Question and Answer Drill 



97 



Question 
Gusto mu aku? 



Positive Response 
Hu ' u , gusto ku ikaw. 

Negative Response 
Indi ' ku gusto ikaw, 



sya 

kami 

s ila 

si Carlos 

si Lucille 

ang Presidente 

ang mayor 

Luyag -mu ang dalaga ? 



soltero 

kant a 

estudyante student 

si Johnson 

si Nixon 

si la 

sya 

Kinahanglan si Carmen ? 
Mar ay a 
Juli eta 
Mac ar io 
ang doktor 
ang nars 

Movable Substitution Drill 

Gusto ni Juanito si Juanita. 

f e 1 i a 

Vi ct or io 



Do you like the young 
lady? 
young man 
song 



Luyag_ 



Romeo 



Margarita 



Kinahanglan 



Mercedes 



Artur o 



Gusto 



Completion Dril 



Gusto ku 



sya 

ang ma ' estr o 

si Teresita 



98 



Luy ag ku s ila 

ang manga lalaki 

si Eosita kag si Nena_ 

Kinahanglan sya 
ni Eicardo ang doktor 



si Dr. Reyes 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Gusto and lu/ag can be interchanged to mean 
'like' , but gus to has a connotation which can 
be taken to mean 'want' or 'desire' especially 
when used with food. The connotation can be 
carried over to people relationships: thus 

luy ag is used more often than gus to when re- 
ferring to persons. 

2. The three pre-verbs do not undergo grammatical 
change in some constructions. They can, how- 
ever, take affixes when used in completed and 
proposed actions constructions: 

na-gusto-han liked 

na-luyag-gan liked 

ma-gusto-han will like 

ma-luyag-gan will like 

3. Sentence pattern: 

Vb Act 0b,1 (topic) 

PV Pron3 PerName N_ Pronl Per Name N_ 

(1) Gusto ku sya. 

(2) Luyag ni Jose si Maria. 

(3) Gusto sang iluy ang bata' 

(1) 'I like her/him. ' 

(2) 'Jose likes Maria. ' 

(3) 'The mother likes the child.' 



h . Kinahanglan and kinanglan are dialect variants 
of ' need ' . 



99 

Pre-verbs are so called because of their limited 
number of affixes compared to other verbs. 

*ACT 
Pron3 PerHame 

niya ni PerHame sang N_ 

nakun ni Carlos 

ni Lucille sang tawu 

sang lalaki 

*OBJ (topic) 
Pronl PerName N_ 

sila s i PerHame ang N_ 

aku 



si Consuelo 
s i Ernesto 



ang ma ' estr a 
ang abogado 

VOCABULARY LIST 

need kinahanglan/kinanglan 

want, like, desire luyag 
young lady, bachelor 

woman dalaga 

young man, bachelor soltero 

CUMULATIVE" DIALOGUE- -Family Jokes 

Marciano: Manung , luyag mu si Corazon , indi ' bala? 

Teofisto: Uy . . .ikaw Marciano, ha. 

Marciano: Nanay , si Manung, luyag kunu niya si 

Corazon . 
Teofisto: Indi' ku luyag sya, Nay. Si Marciano gid. 

Basi ' ikaw siguru. 
Nanay: Hustu na ina' , Marciano, Teofisto. 



100 

G. GRAMMATICAL NOTES 

1. Kunu is a quoting particle used to quote what 
was said by another person. 

2. Bas i ' is 'maybe' . 

3. Hust u na ina' i is the reprimand 'that is 
enough ' . Hustu by itself means 'right'. 

H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Substitution Ques tion-and-Answer Drill . 

Divide the class into two groups. One group 
gives positive answers while the other gives 
negative responses. Switch roles. 

2. Test on mastery of glottal stop recognition 
using Phonology Drill 5. The teacher gives the 
sentences orally and the students write either 
Ei or b_ as answers . 

3. Hand out Written Exercise k . Allow one day for 
the writing of the exercise. 

h . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Give a short introduction of yourself and 
your family . 

(b) Two students compare notes on their favorite 
singers, authors, etc. 



LESSON THIRTEEN 
Food 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Use of pre-verbs in noun phrases. 

Anu ang PV + Pron? NP + PV + Pron 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Anu ang gusto mu? What would you like? 

Anu ang luyag mu? What would you like? 

Anu ang kinanglan mu? What would you need? 

M2 : Mansanas ang gusto ku. I would like an apple 

Luyag nakun kaf e . I would like coffee. 

Kalamay ang kinanglan I need sugar, 
ku. 

CI: Anu ang gusto mu? 

Mansanas ang gusto ku. 

C2 : Anu ang luyag mu? 
Luyag nakun kafe. 

C3: Anu ang kinanglan mu? 
Kalamay ang kinanglan 
ku. 



C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Gusto nakun manuk. I would like some 

Manuk ang gusto ku. chicken. 

Gusto namun karne. I would like some meat 
Karne ang gusto namun. 

Gusto niya ilimnun. He would like some 

Ilimnun ang gusto niya. beverage. 

Gusto nila kan'un. They would like some 

Kan ' un ang gusto nila. rice. 

101 



102 



Luyag nakun utan. 
Utan ang luyag nakun. 



I would like some 
vegetables . 



Luyag namun sorbete. We would like some ice 
Sorbete ang luyag namun. cream. 



Luyag niya tsa. 
Tsa ang luyag niya 



She would like some tea. 



Luyag nila isda'. 
Isda' ang luyag nila. 



They would like some 
fish. 



Luyag nila patatas . 
Patatas ang luyag nila. 



They would like some 
potatoes . 



Kinahanglan ku asin. 
Asin ang kinahanglan ku . 



I need s alt 



Kinahanglan ku plato. 
Plato ang kinahanglan 
ku. 



I nee d a plat e . 



Kinahanglan niya 

tsokolate . 
Tsokolate ang 

kinahanglan nya. 



She needs some chocolate. 



Kinahanglan nila tubi' 
Tubi' nng kinahanglan 
nila. 



They need water. 



Chain Substitution Drill 



(a) 

T: Anu ang gusto mu? 



Cue 



SI: Manuk ang gusto ku. 
Anu ang gusto mu? 



manuk 



S2: Karne ang gusto ku. 
Anu ang gusto mu? 



karne 



S3: Isda' ang gusto ku . 
Anu ang gusto mu? 

S^t: Kan ' un ang gusto ku . 
Anu ang gusto mu? 



i s da 



kan ' un 



103 



S5: Utan ang gusto ku . 

(b) 

T : Anu ang luyag mi? 

SI: Luyag nakun tsokolate 
Anu ang luyag mu? 



utan 



tsokolate 



S2 : Luyag ku tsa. 

Anu ang luyag mu . 

S3: Luyag ku kaf e . 

Anu ang luyag mu? 

S 1* : Gatas ang luyag ku. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

Sentence patterns: 

(a) 

Ob.j NomVb 

Tsa ang gusto 

Sorbete ang luyag 



Act 



ku. 



tsa 



kaf e 



gatas 



'Tea is what I like . ' 

'Ice ere am is what 
we like . ' 



(b) 



PV 



Act 



Ob, 



Gusto nakun tsa. 'I would like some tea. 
Luyag niya isda'. 'She likes fish.' 



VOCABULARY LIST 

apple mansanas 

chicken manuk 

chocolate tsokolate 

coffee kafe 

cooked steamed rice kan'un 
drinks, beverage 

liquor ilimnun 

fish isda' 

ice cream sorbete 



10lt 



meat 

plat e 

potato 

refined sugar 

s alt 

tea 



karne 

plato 

patatas 

asukar, kalamay 

asin 

t s a 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE — Ordering a meal 

David: Anu ang gusto mu , Carlos? 

Carlos: Gusto ku karne, isda' , kag kan'un. 

David: Gusto kunu sya sang karne, isda' kag kan'un. 

Waiter: Anu ang gusto mu nga ilimnun? 

Carlos: Cocacola. 

Waiter: Kag ikaw, Sir? Anu ang order mu? 

David: Gusto ku manuk , salad kag patatas. Luyag 

man aku sang kafe. 
Waiter : Sigi . 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 

1. Hold a five minute test on glottal stop recogni- 
tion using Phonology Drill 6. Read the items 
orally. The students write a check if the an- 
swer is with a glottal stop and a cross if with- 
out one . 

2. Hold a five minute vocabulary mastery review of 
past vocabulary items. 

3. Bring visual aids for introduction of food 
vocabulary items. You may use real objects, 
models, or pictures of different entries. 

h. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
11, Vegetables; and Supplementary Vocabulary 
List 12, Condiments. 

5 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Two PCV's order a meal in a restaurant. 



105 
(b) A PCV is treated to lunch by his co-teacher. 



(c) A PCV tells her maid what to buy at the 
grocery store . 



LESSON FOURTEEN 
Activities 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Gusto + Pronoun + /mag-/ Verb root, 

Luyag 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



(NP) 



1. 

Ml: 



M2 



CI 



C2 



2. 
Ml; 



Anu ang gusto mu? 
Anu ang gusto niya? 

Gusto ku magsa'ut. 
Gusto ku magtu'un. 

Anu ang gusto mu? 
Gusto ku magsa'ut. 

Anu ang gusto niya? 
Gusto nya magtu'un. 



Anu ang gusto mu? 
Anu ang luyag mu? 



M2 : Gusto ku magka'un 

s ang adobo . 
Gusto ku mag'inum 

sang ts a. 
Gusto ku maglutu' 

sang panyaga. 

CI: Anu ang gusto mu? 
Gusto ku magka'un 
sang adobo. 

C2 : Anu ang gusto mu? 
Gusto ku mag'inum 
s ang t s a . 

C3: Anu ang luyag mu? 
Luyag ku maglutu' 
sang panyaga. 



What would you like? 



I want t o dance , 
I want to study, 



What would you like? 



I would like to eat 

adobo . 
I would like to drink 

tea. 
I would like to cook 

lunch . 



106 



DRILLS 



107 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Arm ang gusto mu? 

Gusto ku maglaba sang 

bayu ' . 
Anu ang gusto mu? 

Gusto ku magbakal 

s ang s apatus . 
Anu ang gusto ninyu? 

Gusto namun magtan ' aw 

s ang s ini . 
Anu ang gusto nila? 

Gusto nila maghambal 

sang Hiligaynon. 
Anu ang luyag mu? 

Luyag ku maglanguy. 
Anu ang luyag niya? 

Luyag nya magpamasyar. 

Anu ang luyag ninyu? 

Luyag namun magbasa. 
Anu ang luyag nila? 

Luyag nila magtrabaho. 



What would you like (to 

do)? 
I would like to wash 

clothes . 
Wh at would you like (to 

do)? 
I would like to buy 

shoes . 
What would you like (to 

do)? 
We would like to see a 

movie . 
Wh at would they like (to 

do)? 
They would like to speak 

Hiligaynon . 
What would you like (to 

do) ? 
I would like to swim. 
What would he like (to 

do) ? 
He would like to take a 

walk . 
What would you like (to 

do) ? 
We would like to read. 
What would they like 

(to do)? 
They would like t o do 

s ome work . 



2. Chain Substitution Drill 



T: Anu ang gusto mu? 



SI: Gusto kii magkanta. 
Anu ang gusto mu? 

S2: Gusto ku maglingkud. 
Anu ang gusto mu? 

S3: Gusto ku magtindug. 
Anu ang gusto mu? 

Sk : Gusto ku maghampang. 



magkanta 
maglingkud 
magtindug 
maghampang 



108 



3 . Question and Answer Drill 

(a) Cue 

Gusto mu maghambal? Would you like to speak? 

Hu'u, gusto ku Yes, I would like 

maKhambal . to speak . 

magbulig to help 

magpani'udtu to eat lunch 

magkanta to sing 

magkuna ' kuna ' to think 

magtan'aw to observe 

magpamangkut to ask a question 

(b) Cue 

Gusto mu magdala sang Would you like to bring 
pagka'un? some food? 

Hu'u, gusto ku magdala Yes, I would like to 
sang pagka'un. bring some food. 

magkuha' sang mang to get some fruit 

prutas 
maghulam sang libro to borrow a book 
magdakup sang pispis to catch a bird 
maghabuy sang basura to throw out the garbage 
magka ' un sang panyapun to eat dinner 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. / mag -/ is infinitive actor focus affix. 

2. Sentence pattern: 

PV Act Inf 



Gusto 


nakun 


magka ' un 


Gusto 


aku 


magka ' un 


Luyag 


namun 


magbuli g 


Luyag 


kami 


magbuli g 



'I would like to eat.' 
'I would like to eat.' 
'We would like to 

help. ' 
'We would like to 

help. ' 



VOCABULARY LIST 



bird pispis 

dinner panyapun 

lunch, (to eat) lunch panyaga, /mag/pany aga , 

pani ' udtu 
movie sini 



109 



shoes 




s apatus 


trash, garbage 




basur a 


(to 


ask 




/ m a g / p am a n gk u t 


(to 


borrow 




/mag/hulam 


(to 


catch with h 


ands 


/mag/ dakup 


(to 


help 




/mag/bulig 


(to 


ob s erve , wat 


ch 


/mag/ tan ' aw 


(to 


read 




/mag/bas a 


(to 


swim 




/mag/languy 


(to 


s t and 




/mag/ t indug 


(to 


think 




/mag/huna'huna 


(to 


throw out 




/mag/habuy 


(to 


take a walk 




/mag/pamasyar 


(to 


wash clothes 




/mag/ lab a. 


(to 


work 




/mag/ t r abaho 


CUMULAT] 


:VE EXERCISE — 


Readin 


g Comprehension 



Si Juan kag si Pedro nagka'un sa restaurant. Gusto 
ni Pedro magka ' un sang kan'un kag utan. Gusto man 
o niya mag'inum sang serbesa. Si Juan luyag mag'inum 
sang 'coke' lang kag magka'un sang sorbete. 
Ginhambal (or Ginsiling) nila ang gusto nila sa 
'waitress ' . 

1. Anu ang gusto ni Juan? 

2. Luyag sya magka'un sang patatas , indi ' bala? 

3. Sin'u kay Juan o kay Pedro ang gusto mag'inum 

s ang serb es a? 
k. Luyag bala ni Pedro magka'un sang utan? 

5. Anu ang gustong pagka'un ni Juan? 

6. Di'in sila subung? 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 
1. Chain-substitution Drill. 



The teacher asks the question first and gives 
the cue word for the response. Student 1 an- 
swers. Student 1 then asks the cue question of 
Student 2. The teacher gives a cue word and 



110 



Student 2 answers using the cue given. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Two friends plan for a weekend at the beach. 

( t> ) A family plan for a Sunday picnic. 

Teach the song, Daw Pispis nga Bukaw . 



UNIT IV 
Goal Focus 



LESSON 15: Survival Kit 

LESSON 16: Clothes 

LESSON 17: Cooking 

LESSON 18: Miscellaneous 

LESSON 19: The Hospital 



UNIT IV 

Goal Focus 

What is focus? Focus is a key concept in Philippine 
languages. It is crucial to sentence structure and 
me aning . 

In English, when a speaker wants to emphasize one part 
of the sentence, he usually does it "by intonation vari- 
ation. The voice is louder or stronger on the part 
that is emphasized. 



1. The child is buying candy from the store for 

her friend. 

The child is "buying candy from the store for 

her f ri end . 

The child i's buying candy from the store for 

her friend. 

The child is buying candy from the store for 

her friend. 



The child is buying candy from the store for 
her friend with money . 



Further, English uses active and passive grammatical 
constructions to put focus on the actor as subject or 
the object as subject: 



The child bought candy, 
by the child . 



The candy was bought 



In Philippine languages, sentence focus is built into 
the sentence construction by a grammatical mechanism. 
This phenomenon is called focus. Focus is marked by 
verbal affixes and a special particle before the noun 
in focus. With the following vocabulary items, 
Hiligaynon translations of the above English sentences 
are given to show the different focus forms of 
Hili gaynon . 



b at a ' 
b akal 
pas t i ly as 
t indahan 
ami go 
kwart a 



' child' 
'buy ' 
' candy ' 
'store ' 
' friend ' 
' money ' 



Magab akal ang bat a ' sang pastilyas sa t indahan 
para sa iya amigo. 



112 



113 

2. Ginab akal sang bata' ang pastilyas sa tindahan 

para sa iya amigo. 

3. Ginab aklan sang bata' sang pastilyas ang 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 

h. Ginab aklan sang bata' sang pastilyas sa 
tindahan ang iya amigo . 

5. I_bakal sang bata' sang pastilyas sa tindahan 
para sa iya amigo ang kwarta . 



Inflecti 
other . 
words . 
five sen 
Hiligayn 
cedes b a 
2 focuse 
precedes 
is an ex 
is a r ef 
tance to 
a refere 
of an ac 
are both 
the verb 
struct i o 
the inst 
as the i 
used in 



on of the 
Also , anR 
The words 
tences il 
on . Sent 
t a ' whi ch 



s on the 

past ilya 
ample of 
erent foe 
the loca 
nt focus 
tion. Th 
included 
al affixe 
ns are ex 
rument us 
n s t r um e n t 
spoken or 




m one s ent e 
goes befor 
are in focu 
common foe 
the actor . 
the sentenc 
the action 
J ect . This 
truct ion . 
ng grammati 
Sentence 
s s ing the b 
nefactor co 
focus group 
rkers in th 
Sentence 5 
acti on . Th 
t focus is 
on . 



nee to the 
e different 
s . Thes e 
uses in 

Ang pre- 
e . Sentence 
• Ang 

sentence 
Sentence 3 
cal impor- 

h is also 
enef actor 
ns t ructions 

b ecaus e 
e s e con- 
points out 
is is known 
rarely 



The particle ang usually functions as a focus marker, 
preceding the word in focus. However, it can have other 
functions which are beyond the scope of this book. 
Wherever ang appears, before the actor, object, place 
etc. , it generally points out the focused part of the 
sentence. Two other elements can fill the position of 
the topic of a'sentence aside from an ang- phr ase : a 
personal name preceded by s i , or any of the nominal 
pronouns . 



Actor Hagab akal ang bata' sang manga pastilyas sa 
tindahan para iya amigo. 
Hagabakal si Maria sang manga pastilyas sa 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 
Nagab akal sya sang manga pastilyas sa tindahan 
para sa iya amigo. 



lilt 

Goal Gina bakal sang b at a ' ang manga p astil y as sa 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 
Ginab akal ni Maria ang manga pastilyas sa 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 
Ginab akal niya ang manga pastilyas sa tindahan 

para sa iya amigo. 

Referent Ginab akl an sang bata' sang manga pastilyas ang 

t i ndah an para sa iya amigo. 
Ginab akl an ni Maria sang manga pastilyas ang 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 
Gi nab akl an niya sang manga pastilyas ang 

tindahan para sa iya amigo. 

If the phrase is not in focus, then the marker s ang pre- 
cedes a common noun, or a ni precedes a personal name — 
or the source pronoun set is used. Another particle, 
s a , marks direction of an action, be it to a place, per- 
son , or thing . 

It is easy to talk about focus, but there are no rules 
stating when to use one over the other. Suffice it to 
say that goal focus constructions seem to be the 
'favorite sentence' type of Hiligaynon speakers. As 
suggested above, English uses the passive to focus the 
goal of the action as subject. Such constructions are 
not as common in English speech as they are in Hiligaynon, 
and since English passive and Hiligaynon goal focus are 
sometimes equated, we turn to this unit early in the 
s tudy . 

This unit introduces the following verbal affixes of the 
goal focus : 

Completed action: /gin-/ 

Durative action: /gina-/ 

Proposed action: /-un/ 



The lessons in this unit deal chiefly with the verbal 

affixes shown above, as these are the most productive 

forms in Hiligaynon and the most practical to learn 

for the beginning student. There are other affixes for 

causative mode, distributive mode, etc. , but these 

are beyond the scope of this book. The grammar reference 

text will cover other forms. 



LESSON FIFTEEN 
Survival Kit 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/gin-/ VR 
/gina-/ VR 
/-un/ VR 
Particles: pa, na 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml 



Gingutum ka ka'ina? 

Ginatuyu ka subung? 
Basi' hilanatun ka 
bwas . 



Did you feel hungry 

earlier? 
Are you sleepy now? 
You might come down with 

a fever tomorrow. 



M2 : Hu'u, gingutum aku . 
Indi ' . 
Basi ' . 

CI : Gingutum ka kaina? 
Hu'u gingutum aku. 

C2 : Ginatuyu ka subong? 
Indi ' . 



Yes, I felt hungry. 

No. 

Mayb e . 



C3: Basi' hilanatun ka 
bwas . 
Basi ' . 



2 . 

Ml : 



M2 : 



Ginatamad ka na? 
Natamad ka na? 
Ginauhaw ka pa? 
Nauhaw ka pa? 

Hu'u ginatamad na 

aku . 
Indi ' , indi ' pa . 
Hu'u natamad na aku. 
Indi' , indi' na aku 

g i n a ' uh aw . 
Hu'u, na'uhaw pa aku. 



Do you feel lazy already' 
Are you bored already? 
Are you still thirsty? 
Are you still thirsty? 

Yes, I am already lazy. 

No , not yet . 

Yes, I am already bored. 

No , I am not thirsty 

anymore . 
Yes, I am still thirsty. 



115 



116 

C. DRILLS 

1 . Repetition Drill. 

Ginatuyu aku . I am sleepy. 

Ginakapoy ikav. You are tired. 

Ginamingaw sya. He/she is lonely. 

Ginanerbyos kami. We are nervous. 

Ginahadluk kita. We are afraid. 

Ginasip-un kamu. You have a cold (running 

nos e ) . 

Ginakataru sila. They have a cold. 

Ginahilanat si Mariano has a fever. 

Mar i ano . 

Gina'ubu si Edna. Edna has a cough. 

2. Fixed Substitution Drill . 

(a) Ginagutum na si Carlos, 
gina ' uhaw 

ginatuyu 
ginakapuy 
ginahadluk 
ginat amad 

(b) Ginsip ' un ang manga estudyante. 
ginhilanat 

gingutum 
gintuyu 
ginkapuy 
gint amad 

(c) Sip ' unun ang manga bata kun sigi ang pag'ulan. 
kat aruhun 

ubuhun 
hilanatun 

3. Transformation Drill . Change the affixes of the 
verbs from /gin-/ to /gina-/ to /-un/. 

Gingutum si Consuelo sa bus. 
Gin'uhaw si Maria sa kwarto . 
Ginhilanat sya sa hospital. 
Ginkapuy kami sa pagbulig. 
Gintamad aku sa klase. 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. Verb roots in this lesson are stative verbs, 



117 

used to express states of "being or existence 
when affixed with the /-un/ affixes. 

/ -un/ has an alternate form /-nun/, used after 
roots that end in vowels, the /-un/ variant 
follows consonants. 



3. Ha expresses 'already, now'. 

k. Pa expresses 'still, yet'. 

5. Sentence pattern: 

Vb Act 

/ gin- / / gina- / /-un/ Pron! 

(1) Gingutum aku . 

(2) Ginakapuy kami 

(3) Kapuyun 

(1) 'I felt hungry. ' 

(2) 'We are tired now.' 

(3) 'The child will tire out.' 



Adv 



karun 



ang b at a ' 



VOCABULARY LIST 



( is ) af rai d 


/gina/hadluk 


(has) c old/s 


/gina /kataru 


( is ) coughing 


/gina/ubu 


earlier in the day, 




a while ago 


ka ' ina 


(will have) fever 


hilanat /un/ 


( was ) hungry 


/gin/gutum 


if 


kun 


(is ) lazy 


/ gina/tamad 


(is) lonely 


/gina/ming aw 


(is) nervous 


/ gina/nerby os 


( part i cles ) 


pa , na 


rain 


/pag/ ' ulan 


(has) running nose 


/gina/sip ' un 


( is ) sleepy 


/gina/tuyu 


(is) thirsty 


/gina/ ' uhaw 


(is) tired 


/gina/kapuy 



118 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 



Phonology Drill for five minutes. Use Phonology 
Drill 7 on the ng sound. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV just arrived at a barrio and stays 
the night at the house of the barrio captain. 
The barrio captain and his wife offer him their 
hospitality . 

(b) Two friends look for refreshments after 
swimming at a beach resort. 



LESSON SIXTEEN 
Clothes 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/gin-/ VR + post-position source pronoun 

/gina- / 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



M2 : 



Gin'anu mu ang de 

largo ? 
Gin ' anu mu ang 

s apatus ? 

Ginbaligya' ku ang 

de largo . 
Ginbakal nakun. 
Ginbakal ku. 



CI: Gin'anu mu ang de 
largo? 
Ginbaligya' ku ang 
de largo . 

C2 : Gin ' anu mu ang 
s apatus ? 
Ginbakal nakun. 

C3 : Gin'anu mu ang 
s apatus ? 
Ginbakal ku. 



What did you do with the 
pair of long pants? 

What did you do with the 
pai r of shoes ? 

I sold the pair of long 

pant s . 
I bought it . 
I bought it . 



2. 
Ml: 



Gina' anu mu ang 

falda? ,' 
Gina' anu mu ang 

kalu' ? 



What are you doing with 

the skirt? 

What are you doing with 

the hat? 



M2 : Gina'uli' ku sa 
e s t ant e . 
Ginatilaw nakun. 

CI: Gina'anu mu ang falda? 

Gina'uli' ku sa estante. 



I am returning it to the 

shelf. 
I am trying it on. 



119 



120 



C2 : Gina'anu mu ang kalu ' ? 
Ginat Hal* nakun. 



Ml: Anu ang ginbaligya' 
niya? 
Anu ang ginabakal 
niya? 

M2: Tsinelas ang 

ginbaligya' niya. 
Panyu' . 

CI: Anu ang ginbaligya' 
niya? 
Tsinelas ang 
ginbaligya' niya. 

C2 : Anu ang ginabakal 
niya? 
Panyu ' . 



What did she sell? 
What is she buying? 



She sold a pair of 
s Uppers . 



A handkerchief. 



C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Question and Answer Drill . 



Anu ang ginapangita' 

mu? 
Blosa ang ginapangita 

ku. 



What are you looking fori 

I am looking for a 
blous e . 



Anu ang ginpangita' 

nila? 
K am isadentro ang 

ginpangita' nila. 

Anu ang ginabilid niya? 
Medy as . 

Anu ang ginbilid niya? 
Medyas . 

Anu ang gin'uli' nimu? 
Gin ' uli ' ku ang 
kurbat a . 



What were they looking 

for? 
They were looking for 

a shirt . 

What is he looking at? 
Socks . 

What was she looking at? 
Stockings . 

What are you returning? 
I am returning the tie. 



Anu ang gin'uli' nimu? 
Ang b ay u ' . 



What did you return' 
The dress.. 



Transformation Drill. 



121 



Change the /gin-/ to /gina-/ 



Gindala nila ang manga baligya'. 

Ginbakal namun ang tela. 

Gintan'av ku ang 'bargain sale' sa 'Kress' 

Ginbilid natun ang manga kamis adentro . 

Gin'uli' niya ang blosa. 

Gintilaw nila ang manga de largo. 

Ginpangita' nila ang tyanggi. 



3 . Question and Answer Drill , 

Anu ang ginabaligya' mu? 
Kalu' ang ginabaligya' ku . 

Anu ang ginabakal nila? 

Anu ang ginatilaw mu? 

Anu ang ginatan'aw namun? 

Anu ang ginapangita' ku? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Cue 
kalu' 

medy as 

falda 

'sale' 

panyu ' 



/- un / set of affixes is used in constructions 
focusing on the object of one's action. /gin-/ 
expresses completed action and / gina -/ expresses 
durative action. 



Sentence patterns: 



(a) Vb 



Act 
Pron3 



Gin ' anu mu 
Ginbakal ku 
Gindala nila 



(b) Ob.j 



NomVb 



N/IP an; 



Vb 



Ob: 



an fi 



N 



ang papel? 
ang sapatus 
ang lames a. 

Act 



Pron3 



'What did you do 
with the paper?' 

' I bought the 
shoes . ' 

'They carried the 
table. ' 



Anu ang ginbakal nila? 'What did they buy?' 
Kalu' ang ginbakal ku. 'I bought a hat. ' 



122 



VOCABULARY LIST 



blous e , top 

cloth 

handkerchief 

hat 

inspecting, looking at 

items for sale 

long pants 

(am) looking for 

pre- verb 

(was ) returned 

shelf 

shirt (men) 

skirt 

s lipper 

sock , stocking 

store, small street 

corner store 
t ie , necktie 
(am) trying on 



bios a 

tela 

panyu ' 

kalu ' 

/gina/bi 1 id 

baligy a ' 

de largo 

/gina/pangita 

gin ' anu 

/gin / ' ul i ' 

est ant e 

kamis adent r o 

falda 

t sinelas 

me dy as 

tyanggi 
kurbata 
/ gina/tilaw 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 
1. Question and Answer Drill. 



Aside from asking questions, the teacher cues 
the answers also. Students respond in the 
pattern being drilled, making complete sentence 
constructions . 

Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
13, Women's Clothes; and Supplementary Vocabulary 
List lU, Men's Clothing Items. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Set up a grocery store in the classroom and 
have the students act as vendors and customers. 



(b) Three PCV ' s go to town to buy new clothes 



LESSON SEVENTEEN 
Cooking 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/-un/ or /-nun/ VR + Pron3 

Markers: ni , sang, nanday 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Anu ang lutu'un ni 
Maria? 
Anu ang lutu'un sang 
kus inero ? 

M2 : Sud ' an ang lutu'un 
ni Mar i a . 
Lutu'un sang kusinero 
ang sud ' an . 

Ml: Anu ang lutu'un ni 
Mar i a? 
Sud'an ang lutu'un 
ni Mar i a . 



What will Maria cook? 
What will the cook cook? 



Maria will cook the meat 

dish . 
The cook will cook the 

meat dish . 



M2 : Anu ang lutu'un sang 
kus inero? 
Lutu'un sang kusinero 
ang sud ' an . 



C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Question and Answer Drill . 

Cue 



Anu ang kuha'un mu? 
Lapis ang kuha'un ku. 



lapis 



Anu ang pangayu'un ni Carlos? papel 

Anu ang baklun ni Mildred? sapatus 

Anu ang imnun ni Camilo? serbesa 

Anu ang dal'un nanday Hector? ilimnun 

Anu ang ka'unun mu? manuk 

Anu ang tahi'un ku? bayu' 

Anu ang sulatun nila? sulat 

Anu ang tudlu'un sang manga PCV? Math 

Anu ang hulamun sang bata? libro 

Anu ang tamnun sang estudyante? lubi 



123 



12U 



Expansion Drill . Connect the cues to the origi- 
nal sentence: 



Ka'unun nya. 

Ka'unun nya ang dulsi. 

Ka'unun nya ang dulsi sa lata. 

Ka'unun nya kag ni Alfonso ang 
dulsi s a lat a . 



Cue 

ang dulsi 

s a lata 

kag ni Alfonso 



Dal'un sang bata. 

Dal'un sang bata' ang baskit. ang baskit 

Dal'un sang b at a ' ang manga manga 

baski t . 
Dal'un sang b at a ' ang manga sang prutas 

baskit sang prutas. 
Dal'un sang bata' ang manga sa balay 

baskit sang prutas sa balay. 
Dal'un sang bata' ang manga nila 

baskit sang prutas sa balay 

nila. 



Completion Drill . Complete the utterance. The 
student makes his own sentence patterned after 
the cue sentence, changing the aspect as clued: 

Ginlutu' na nila ang adobo? 

Wala' pa. Ginalutu' pa nila. durative 

Wala pa. Lutu'un pa nila. proposed 

Ginhulam na ni Marcia ang libro? durative 

propose d 



Ginka'un na nila ang 'cake'? 
Gintanum na nila ang palay? 
Gindala na nila ang kahon? 



Ginhatag na ninyu ang manga 
lapis ? 

Ginplantsa na sang mutsatsa 
ang bayu ' ? 



durative 
proposed 

durative 
propos e d 

durative 
propos e d 

durative 
propos e d 

durative 
propos e d 



D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. / - un/ expresses proposed action for goal 
constructions . 



125 



focus 



2. Sentence patterns 
( a ) 0"b,T ( t opi c ) 



N/IP 

(1) Anu 

(2) Anu 

(3) Anu 
(h) Adobo 

(5) Libro 

(6) Libro 



ang Vb 



'Act 



Pron3 PerName 



ang lutu'un mu? 

ang baklun 

ang dal ' un 

ang lutu'un ku. 

ang baklun 

ang dal ' un 



ni Maria? 

s ang 

nanday Jose, 
s ang 



bata ' ? 



bata ' . 



(1) 'What will you cook?' 

(2) 'What will Maria buy?' 

(3) 'What will the child bring?' 
(h) 'I will cook adobo . ' 

(5) 'Jose (and others) will buy books 

(6) 'The child will bring a book.' 



(b) Vb 



'Act 



Obj ( topic ) 

N ang N 



Pron3 PerName 

(1) Dal'un mu ang libro? 

(2) Dal'un ni Jose ang libro. 

(3) Kuha'un sang tawu ang libro. 

(1) 'Are you going to bring the book?' 

(2) 'Jose will bring the book.' 

(3) 'The man will get the book. ' 



126 

(a) and (b) *Act 

Pron3 Per Name 



nila 

natun 

ni Cora 
ni Fina 



sang doktor 
s ang ma 1 est r o 



3 . Hi marks singular non-focused personal names. 
Manday marks plural non-focused personal names 



VOCABULARY LIST 



(will) ask for pangayu'/un/ 

basket baskit 

beer serbesa 

box, carton kahun 

child bata' 

(was) given /gin/hatag 

letter sulat 

maid, girl servant mutsatsa 

(will) plant tamn/un/ 
(was) pressed, ironed /gin/plantsa 

rice plant palay 

(will) sew tahi'/un/ 

tincan lata 

(will) use gamit/un/ 

vi and sud ' an 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Expansion Drill . 

The cue sentence is made longer or expanded with 
the addition of cues given. The teacher gives 
the cue words or phrases and the students add 
these on to the cue sentence putting them in the 
right slots . 

2 . Completion Drill . 

The students are divided into two groups. One 
group gives the durative aspect responses while 
the other group gives the proposed aspect 



127 

responses. The teacher asks the questions and 
cues the aspect of responses. 

3 - Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A young man invites a lady for a snack. 

(b) A couple take their coffee "break at the 
school cafeteria. 

h . Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
5, List of Common /gin-/ Verbs. 



LESSON EIGHTEEN 
Miscellaneous 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



PV 



+ /mag-/ 
/-un/ 



VR 



B. DICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml : 



Anu ang gusto mu 
buhatun? 



What do you want to do? 



M2 : Gusto ku imnun ang 
tubi ' . 
Gusto ku mag'inum 
s ang tubi ' . 



I want to drink the 

wat e r . 
I would like to drink 

s one wat e r . 



CI: Anu ang gusto mu 
buhatun? 
Gusto ku imnun ang 
tubi ' . 

C2 : Anu ang gusto mu 
buhatun? 
Gusto ku mag'inum 
s ang tubi ' . 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill . 

Gusto ku imnun ang 

s erbes a . 
Gusto ku lutu'un ang 

adobo . 
Gusto ku husayun ang 

problema . 
Gusto ku basahun ang 

pery odiko . 
Gusto ku dal'un ang 

libro . 



I want to drink the 

beer . 
I want to cook the 

adobo . 
I want to solve the 

problem . 
I want to read the 

newspaper . 
I want to bring the 

book . 



Fixed Substitution Drill . 

Gusto ni Kulas sa'utun ang Tiniklinf 

b ugaloo 



128 



129 

twist 

soul 

jerk 

Gusto nya basahun ang peryodiko . 

is t ory a 
libro 
sulat 

Gusto ku magtudlu' sa Pilipinas . 

eskwelahan 
kwarto 
Pepeekeo 
Detroit 

Transformation Drill . The student changes the 
statements to questions: 

Gusto ku imnun ang tubi'. 
Anu ang gusto mu imnun? 

Gusto ku husayun ang problema. 

Gusto nya baklun ang manga medyas . 

Gusto mu basahun ang magasin. 

Gusto ku lu'tu'un ang utan. 

Gusto nya kan ' un ang mansanas. 

Gusto mu kuha'un ang siya. 

Gusto nya sa'utun ang 'soul'. 

Gusto mu dal'un ang libro. 



Deletion Drill 
words listed: 



Delete from the cue sentence the 



Gusto ku kan'un ang tinapay, 

sorbete, kag 'cake'. 
Gusto ku kan'un ang tinapay sorbete 

kag ' cake ' . 
Gusto ku kan'un ang tinapay. kag 'cake' 



Luyag nila magtanum sang kamatis, 

kamuti, kag mais sa hardin. 
Luyag nila magtanum sang kamuti kamatis 

kag mais sa hardin. 
Luyag nila magtanum sang kamuti sa hardin 

kag ma 'is. 
Luyag nila magtanum sang ma' is. kamuti kag 
Luyag nila magtanum. sang ma'is. 



130 



Kinahanglan natum talamay , 
asin, kag gatas subung. 

Kinahanglan natun kalamay 
kag gatas subung. 

Kinahanglan natun kalamay 
kag gat as . 

Kinahanglan natun kalamay. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



s ubung 
kag gatas 



1. /-un/ and /mag-/ are infinitive verbal affixes 



2. Sentence patterns: 
(a) FV Act 

Pron3 Per Name 



N 



(1) Gusto ku 

(2) Gusto ni Cora 

(3) Luyag sang bata' 



Vb Obj (topic) 
/-un/ ang N 



imnun ang tubig. 
imnun ang tubig. 
imnun ang tubig. 



(1) 'I would like to drink water. ' 

(2) 'Cora would like to drink water.' 

(3) 'The child would like to drink water.' 

(b) PV Act Vb Ob.j (topic) 

Pron3 Per Name N_ / mag - / sang N_ 

(1) Gusto ku magkuha' sang papel. 

(2) Gusto ni Amy magkuha' sang papel. 

(3) Luyag sang tawu magkuha' sang papel. 

(1) 'I would like to get some paper. ' 

(2) 'Amy would like to get some paper.' 

(3) 'The man would like to get some paper.' 

VOCABULARY LIST 



bread 

corn 

garden 



1 1 nap ay 
ma ' l s 
hardin 



131 



(will) make, do buhat/un/ 

native custard leche flan 

newspaper peryodiko 

problem problema 

(will) solve husay/un/ 

story, conversation istorya 

tomato k am at is 

yam, sweet potato kamuti 

F. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al : Nay, ari si Fe, kuha'un nya ang bayu' nya. 
Tapus na? 



Bl : Hu'u, ara' sa lamesa. 

A2 : Fe, dal'un mu ini kay Nanay mil, ha. 
ini. Ginlutu' ku k a ' i n a . 



' Cake 



CI: Salamat gid. Gusto ni Nanay sang 'cake'. 
Tudlu ' an mu man aku maglutu' sa Dominggo . 

A3: Sigi. Kadtu lang di sa b al ay . 

C2 : Sigi. Dal'un ku ang manga kinahanglan natun. 
Anu ang manga kinahanglan natun? Gusto ku 
maglutu' sang 'chiffon cake'. 

AU: Ti ' , magdala ka sang itlug, harina, '"baking 

powder' , kag gatas. Bahala' na aku sa iban. 



C3 : , sigi 



Salamat liwat 



VOCABULARY LIST 



be responsible for 

egg 

finished 

flour 

here 

others 

S u n d ay 

there 



bahala ' 
itlug 
t apus 
harina 
di 

iban 

Dominggo 
ara ' 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: k) 

1. Transformation Drill . Have students change the 



132 



statements into questions. 

Deletion Drill . The deletion drill starts with 
a long sentence given by the teacher. T he 
students delete the part cued and end up with a 
shorter sentence. 



3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A young lady refuses an invitation to go 
swimming, but suggests a movie date instead. 

(b) An invitation to a fiesta in a certain 
barrio is extended to a PCV . 



LESSON NINETEEN 
The Hospital 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Negation of /mag-/ and /-un/ statements 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Gusto mu tawgun ang 
doktor? 

M2: Hu'u, gusto ku t aw gun 
ang dokt or . 
Indi ' , indi ' ku gusto 
tawgun ang doktor. 

CI: Gusto mu tawgun ang 
doktor? 
Hu'u gusto ku tawgun 
ang doktor. 



Do you want to call the 
doctor? 

Yes, I want to call the 

doctor . 
No, I don't want to call 

the doctor. 



C2: Gusto mu tawgun ang 
doktor? 
Indi' , indi' ku gusto 
tawgun ang doktor. 



2. 
Ml: 



Gusto mu magtawag sang Would you like to call 
doktor? a doctor? 



M2 : Hu'u. 
Indi ' . 



Yes 

No . 



DRILLS 



Fixed Substitution Drill , 

Indi' ku gusto magka'un I don't want to eat 

sang ' cake ' . cake . 

dulsi candy 

kan ' un rice 

ubas grape 

peras pear 



133 



13k 



Gusto ku magkuha' sang I would like to get the 

' temperature ' . temperature (reading). 

bulung medicine 

tabletas tablets 

ineksyun injection 

dagum needle 

Transformation Drill . Convert the statements in 
the preceding substitution drill into questions: 

Indi ' ku gusto magka'un sang ubas . 
Anu ang indi' mu gusto kan'un? 

Expansion Drill . The student adds the cues to 
the cue sentence. 

Gusto ni Nonoy . Cue 

Gusto ni Nonoy magtawag. magtawag 

Gusto ni Nonoy magtawag sang nars . sang nars 

Gusto ni Nonoy magtawag sang nars kag doktor 

kag doktor. 

Gusto ni Nonoy magtawag sang nars sa kwarto 

kag doktor sa kwarto. 

Gusto ni Nonoy magtawag sang nars sang ospital 

kag doktor sa kwarto sang ospital. 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki . 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita. magbisita 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita sa ospital 

sa ospital. 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita sa syudad 

sa ospital sa syudad. 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita sang Bacolod 

sa ospital sa syudad sang Bacolod. 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita bwas 

sa ospital sa syudad sang Bacolod 

bwas . 

Indi' luyag sang lalaki magbisita sa hapun 

sa ospital sa syudad sang Bacolod 

bwas sa hapun . 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Sentence patterns: 



(a) Adv 



Act 



135 
FY Vb /-un/ Obj (topic) 



Pron3 *PerName N 



N 



(1) Indi' ku gusto tawgun ang doktor . 

(2) Indi' nanday Vida luyag kuha'un ang lamesa. 

(1) 'I don't want to call the doctor.' 

(2) 'Vida (and others) do not want to get the 

table. ' 



(b) Adv 





Act 


Pron3 


*Per 




Name 



PV Vb / mag- / 



*0b: 



N 



(1) Indi' sang amay luyag magtan'aw 

(2) Indi' ni Lito gusto magtu ' un 

*ObJ_ 
sang N_ 

( 1 ) s ang s ini . 

(2) sang Hiligaynon. 

(1) 'The father does not want to go to a movie. ' 

(2) 'Lito does not want to study Hiligaynon. ' 



* PerName 
ni nanday PerName 



ni 




Carmen 


ni 




Ginny 




nanday 


Fina kag Miguel 




nanday 


Elena kag Lulu 



136 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 

candy dulsi 

city syudad 
endearment term for 

young boys Nonoy 

grape ubas 

hospital ospita.1 

injection ineksyon 

man, male person lalaki 

medicine bulung 

needle dagum 

nine nwebe 

pear peras 

tablets tab let as 

(to) visit /mag/bisxta 

F. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al : Sin'u ang gusto mu nga 'singer'. 

Bl : Ang grupu ni Peter, Paul kag Mary. Kag ikaw? 
Gusto mu sila? 

A2 : Indi ' , indi ' ku gusto ang manga kanta nila. 
Gusto ku magpamati' sa manga kanta sang 
'5th Dimension' . 

B2 : Gusto ku man sila. Ginbakal ku kahapun ang 
plaka nila. 

A3: Mahimu pamati'an subung? 

B3: Indi' mahimu subung. Kadtu'un ku pa si 
Benjamin. Bwas nalang. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



group grupu 

(to) listen /mag/pamati ' 

nine nwebe 

(particle) nalang 

phonograph record plaka 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
l6 , Trees and Flowers; and Supplementary Vocab- 



137 



ulary List 17, Places. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV inquires at the reception desk for a 
friend he wants to visit in the hospital. 

(b) A doctor and a nurse confer on the condition 
of a p at i ent . 

(c) A PCV malaria worker is confined in the 
hospital for fever and symptoms of malaria. 

Assign Written Exercise h from the supplementary 
materials as homework. 



UNIT V 
Actor Focus 



LESSON 20 

LESSON 21 

LESSON 22 

LESSON 23 



Quest ions 
Miscellaneous 
Travel 
Travel 



UNIT V 
Actor Focus 



The sentence pattern of Hiligaynon which comes nearest 
to the English sentence construction is the actor focus 
pattern. As the term implies, the topic is the actor. 
It has the simplest form and admits of the fewest root 
changes and reductions. The focused part of the sen- 
tence, then, carries the focus marker ang or s i , or is 
represented by the nominal set of pronouns. 



Ang ma ' est ro nagk adt o 

sa eskwelahan. 
Si Mr . Mar q_uez nagk adt o 

sa eskwelahan. 
Hag k a dt o sya s a 

eskwelahan . 



'The teacher went to 

s chool . ' 
'Mr. Marquez went to 

s chool . ' 
'He went to school.' 



Verbal affixes for this focus are: 

Completed action: /nag-/ 
Durative action: /naga-/ 
Proposed action: /ma-/ 



LESSON TWENTY 
Ques t ions 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
San'u. . . /ma-/ Vb . . . ' 

Ma' anu . . . ? /ma-/ Vb . . 

Nag ' anu . . . ?/nag-/ Vb 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml : Ma ' anu ka? 

M2 : Maka'un aku . 

Mahampang aku. 

CI : Ma' anu ka? 

Maka ' un aku . 



Sa. . . 

S ang . 



What will you do? 

I will eat . 
I will play. 



C2 : Ma' anu ka? 

Mahampang aku. 



2. 

Ml 



M2 



Nag ' anu ka? 
Nag ' anu sy a? 

Nagka'un aku. 
Nagtudlu ' sya sang 
Engli s h . 



CI: Nag'anu ka? 

Nagka'un aku. 

C2 : Nag ' anu sya? 

Nagtudlu' sya sang 
Engl ish . 



3. 
Ml : 



San'u ka makadtu sa 

eskwelahan? 
San'u ka nagkadtu sa 

eskwelahan? 

litO 



What did you do? 
What did he/she do? 

I at e . 

He taught English. 



When will you go to 

school? 
When did you go to 

school? 



lUl 



M2 : Karun sa alas syete. 
Kaina sang alas sejrs. 

CI: S an ' u ka makadtu sa 
eskwelah an? 
Karun sa alas syete. 

C2 : San'u ka nagkadtu sa 
eskwelahan? 
Ka'ina sang alas seys 



Later at seven o'clock. 
Earlier at six o'clock. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill. 

San'u ka masulat? 
Karun s a gab ' i . 
San'u ka m a s i mb a ? 

Bwas s a aga . 
San'u ikaw makanta? 
Karun sa hapun. 
San'u si Ana mabakal 

s ang b ayu ' . 
Bwas sa udtu. 
S an ' u si J aime 

matulug? 
Karun dayun . 
San'u si Thelma 

maligu ' ? 
Bwas sa ka'agahun. 

San'u sya naglakat 

sa Hilo? 
Ka'ina sang alas 

kwat r o . 
San'u .si Carmen 

nags imba? 
Kahapun . 
San'u nag'upud si 

Jaime sa baryu? 
S ang Lunes . 
San'u nagsakay si 

Cielito sa eroplano? 
Sang nagligad nga 

s emana . 



When will you write? 

Tonight . 

When will you go to 

church? 
Tomorrow morning. 
When will you sing? 
Later this afternoon. 
When will Ana buy a 

dress? 
Tomorrow at noon . 
When will Jaime go to 

sleep? 
Ri ght now . 
When will Thelma take 

a bath? 
Early tomorrow morning. 

When did he go to 

Hilo? 
Earlier (this afternoon) 

at f our . 
When did Carmen go to 

church? 
Yest er day . 
When did Jaime go (with 

them) to the barrio? 
Last Monday. 
When did Cielito take 

the plane? 
Last week . 



lU2 



Mabantay aku sang bus. 
Mahibi' si Nena. 
Madiskurso ang 

Pres ident e . 
Mapa'uli' ang trainee 

sa 'mainl and ' . 



I will watch, for the bus. 

Nena will cry . 

The President will speak, 

The trainee will go back 
to the mainland. 



Nagbantay aku sang bus 
Naghibi ' si Nena. 
Nagdiskurso ang 

Pres i dent e . 
Nagpa'uli' ang trainee 

sa ' mai nland ' . 



I watched for the bus, 

Nena cried. 

The President spoke. 

The trainee went back 
to the mainland. 



Completion Drill . The student constructs his 

sentences changing the verbs in the statements 

as cued, and the topic in the questions also as 
cue d : 



Ma ' anu ka? 



aku 

si Roberto 
si Juan 
Gr egorio 
si Nina 
si Teres a 
ang b at a ' 



Maka ' un aku . 

s ul at 

kant a 

hamp ang 

t anum 

lakat 

upud 

pungku ' 



Transformation Drill . The student changes the 
affixes : 



Maka'un aku. 



Nagka' un aku , 



Mahampang ikaw. 
Matanum sya. 
Mahibi' si Nena. 
Maupud si Graciana. 
Mapungku ' ang ma'estra. 
Madiskurso ang 
Pr esidente . 

Com p letion of Affixes . The student puts in the 
blanks the correct aspect affix. The choice is 
between /n a g - / and / ma- / : 



_tanum sya kahapun. 

bakal aku ka'ina. 

tudlu ikaw bwas . 
_sulat si Manuel karun sa gab'i 



1U3 



_s a k a y ang lalaki sa bus karun. 

Jbulig ang estudyante kahapun . 

_pa'uli ang trainee sa dormitoryo sa alas tres 



Com p letion Drill . The student supplies the 
appropriate time particles for the utterances 
given below: 



Nagka'un si Maria_ 
Mapa'uli ang tawu 
Nagbantay aku 



Naghulat sya sang "bus 

Naghulam ikaw sang libro 
Matulug si Corazon 



Nagtudlu ang ma'estra sa klase_ 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1 . Actor focus constructions have the ang preceding 
the doer of the action. / ma -/ expresses proposed 
action. It is the short form of / maga- / . / nag -/ 
indicates that the action is completed. 



2. 
(a) 



(1) 
(2) 



Sentence patterns: 



Vb 



'Act 



Mab akal 
Matu ' un 



aku 
s i la 



Ob 



/ nag - / /naga- / 

/ma-/ /n_ag-/ Pronl PerName N_ sang 

/ naga - //ma-/ 



N 



s ang s apatus . 
sang Hiligaynon. 



(1) 'I will buy a pair of shoes.' 

(2) 'They will study Hiligaynon.' 



lit!* 

(b) 



(c) 



Vb * Act Qb.j 

Pronl PerHame N s a N 

(1) Malakat kami sa Hilo. 

(2) Masakay sila sa bus. 

(3) Malingkud ang bata' sa siya. 

(1) 'We will go to Hilo. ' 

(2) 'They will ride the bus.' 

(3) 'The child will sit on the chair.' 

Vb 

Pronl PerName N Adv 



(1) Masimba si Maria bwas . 

(2) Nagdiskurso ang Presidente kag'ina. 

(3) Nag'upud sya kaga'i. 

(1) 'Maria will go to church tomorrow. ' 

(2) 'The President spoke earlier. ' 

(3) 'He/she went with (the group) last 

ni ght . ' 

(a) , (b) and (c) *Act 

Pronl PerName N 



si PerName 



ikaw 

kamu 

si Jose 
si Els a 



ang sekretarya 
ang pintor 



MORE DRILLS (from Zorc, and Hilado, Advanced Drills 
in Hiligaynon) 



ll»5 



San'u ka nag'ahut diri sa Iloilo' 



Sang Lunes . 
Martes 
My erkoles 
Hwebes 
By ernes 
Sabado 
Dominggo 



Anung oras ka nagkadtu sa sini? 



Sang ala una , 
ala una y 

medya 
alas dos 
alas tres 
alas singko 
alas syete 
alas nwebe 



San'u ka mapa'uli' sa 'States'? 



Sa Mayo . 
Hunyo 
Hulyo 
Agosto 
Septy embre 
Noby embre 
Desyembre 



San'u ka nagpa'uli' sa 'States' 
halin sa 'Europe'? 



Sang mil nwebe 
syentos sing- 
kwenta y otso. 
1959 
I960 
1961 
1962 
1963 



Anung oras ka malakat sa baryo' 



Sa alas s eys . 

alas syete 

alas otso 

alas nwebe 

alas dyes 



VOCABULARY LIST 



airplane 

August 

bus 

coming from 

( will ) cry 

dawn, early morning 



eroplano 

Ago s t o 
bus 
halin 
/ma/hibi ' 
ka ' aganhun 



1U6 



dormitory 

fifty 

four 

Friday 

(will ) go home 

(will) go along 

(will) go to church 

hundred 

later 

Monday 

pass, last, passed 

proverb 

(will ) ride 

Saturday 

(will) speak, give 

a speech 
(will) take a "bath 
thous and 
Thur s day 
Tues day 
(will ) wat ch 
Wednes day 
week 
yesterday 



dormit oryo 
s ingkwenta 
kwa.tr o 
By ernes 
/ma/pa ' uli ' 
/ma/ ' upud 
/ma/ s imba 
sy ent os 
karun 
Lunes 

/nag/ligad 
nag ' anu 
/ma/sakay 
Sabado 

/ma/diskur so 

/ma/ligu' , ligus 

mil 

Hweb es 

Mar tes 

/ma/bantay 

My erkoles 

s emana 

kahapun 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 

18, Fruits; and Supplementary Vocabulary List 

19, Time Particles. 

2. Hold a five minute drill on identification of 
food items. Use pictures to cue responses. 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Ask for the time of day, date, and day of 
the week for a party you have been invited to. 

(b) Set up an interviewer and interviewee 
situation between an employer and employee for a 
teaching J ob . 



(c) Give a brief autobiography, 



LESSON TWENTY-ONE 
Mis cellaneous 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/naga-/ VR...(Verb Root) 

/ga-/ VR... 

s a versus s ang 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Naga'anu kamu? What are you (plural) 

doing? 
Naga'anu sila? What are they doing? 

M2 : Nagatanum kami sang We are planting tomatoes 

kamat i s . 
Nagatanum. Planting. 

CI: Naga'anu kamu? 

Nagatanum kami sang 
kamat i s . 

C2 : Naga'anu sila? 
N agat anum . 

2. 

Nl : Naga'anu si Manuel? What is Manuel doing? 

M2 : Nagahambal sya sa He is talking on the 
telepono. telephone. 

Nagasakay sya sa awtu. He is riding in the car. 

CI: Naga'anu si Manuel? 
Nagahambal sya sa 
t e 1 e p o n'o . 

C2 : Naga'anu si Manuel? 

Nagasakay sya sa awtu. 

3. 

Ml: Ga'anu kita? What are we doing? 

M2 : Gahampang kita sang We are playing basket- 
'basketball ' . ball . 

11*7 



iki. 



CI: Ga'anu kita? 

Gahampang kita sang 
'basketball' . 

DRILLS 



Completion Drill , 
blanks : 



Supply s a or s ang in the 



Nagadala ang t aw u 

prut as . 
Nagaka'un sya 

balay . 
Nagabakal si Maria 

ma ' is . 

Nagatubu' ang tanum 

dut a ' . 

Nagaka'un aku 

abokado . 
Nagakuha ' sila 

kamut i . 
Nagasaka' sya 

kahuy . 
Gadala ang lalaki 

libro . 

Gaka'un ang babayi 

'restaurant'. 

Galanguy sila 

dagat . 
Gatan'aw kami 

t eleb i sy on . 
Gapamati' kamu 

radyo . 
Gakadto si Noel kag 

si Jose Hilo. 



The man is carrying 

fruit . 
He is eating in the 

hous e . 
Maria is buying corn. 

The plant is growing 

in the soil. 
I am eating avocado. 

They are gathering 

kamo t i . 
He is climbing a tree. 

The man is carrying a 

book . 
The lady is eating in 

a restaurant . 
They are swimming in the 

sea. 
We are looking at 

t elevi s ion . 
You are listening to 

the radio . 
Noel and Jose are 

going to Hilo. 



Movable Substitution Drill. 



Nagatanum si Marlena sang kamuti sa hardin 
Claro 



_humay 
mai s 



kuha ' 



F lorencia 



1 amesa 
kahun 



1U9 



Transformation Drill, 



Change the short form 
/pa-/ to / nap a— /; then change / naga- / to / nag - / 
and /ma- / . 



Gatahi' sya sang bayu'. 
Gabakal sya sang 

kapayas . 
Gapamati sila sang 

di skurs o . 
Gasulat sya s a 

Pilipinas . 
Gadala kami sang manga 

kwaderno . 
Gasakay kamu sa trak. 
Ga'obra aku sang kalu ' . 
Gatawag ikaw sa 

t elepono . 

Expansion Drill. 
Ga'inum si Sara. 

Nagakanta si Doming. 



She is sewing a dress. 
She is buying a papaya. 

They are listening to the 

s peech . 
She is writing to someone 

in the Philippines . 
We are bringing some 

notebooks . 
You are riding on a truck. 
I am making a hat. 
You are calling on the 

t elephone . 



Cue 

Coca-cola 
sa balay 

kag si Arturo 

sang 'Ay, ay kalisud' 

sa programa 

sa buluthu'an 

s ubung 



5 . Fixed Substitution Drill . 

Maga pa ' uli ' sila subung. They are going home now, 

kadtu going 

baligya' selling 

tu'un studying 

tudlu' teaching 

hambal speaking 

basa reading 

sul'at writing 

ilis changing 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. /naga-/ is an actor focus verbal prefix which 

marks actions in progress, and is thus durative. 
It can be equated to both the present and the 
present progressive forms in English. 



150 

2. /pa-/ is the short form of / naga- / . 

3. / sa / is used to introduce locational phrases, 
/ san g/ introduces other non-focus phrases. 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



avocado abokado 

call(ing) /naga/tawag 

car, automobile awto 

climb ( in g) /naga/saka' 

everyday adlaw'adlaw 

grow(ing) /naga/tubu' 

land, soil duta' 

materials, devices materyales 
make(ing) /naga/'obra 

man, person tawu 

papaya kapayas 

pay bayad 

program program a 

rice plant humay 

sea, ocean dagat 

telephone telepono 

television telebisyon 

tree kahuy 

truck trak 

wait(ing) /naga/hulat 

woman, female babayi 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Al : Greg, mamati kita sa diskurso ni Humphrey sa 

rady o . 

Bl : Makadtu nalang kita sa balay ni Caridad kag 

matan'aw sang 'football' sa telebisyon. 

A2 : Ikaw gid Greg, indi' ka gid ma'ayu nga Amerikano. 

Sin'u abi ang mada'ug sa eleksyon? 

B2 : Ambut lang. Gusto ku si McCarthy. Parehu kami . 

Indi' namun gusto ang gera sa Vietnam. 

A3: A, 'Democrat' ka gali. 'Republican' aku. Gusto 
ku si Rockefeller mada'ug. 

B3: Nagbutu ka na? 



151 

Alt: Hu'u, atung isa pa ka tuig. Kag ikaw? 

Bit: Hu'u, eh. Beynte y singko anyos na aku . 

VOCABULARY LIST 

election eleksyon 

I don't know. Ambut . 

one isa 

(particles) abi, a, ka, eh. 

same pareho 

vote(d) /nag/boto 

war gera 

(will) win /ma/da'ug 

year tu'ig, anyos 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1. Drill thoroughly on the use of s a and s ang as 
time indicators. Add your own entries to the 
drills if possible. This is one basic grammat- 
ical point which has to be mastered by the 
student s . 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Discuss election results. 

(b) Describe the kind of work you do. 

3. Do Written Exercise 5 from the supplementary 
materials in class for five minutes. 



LESSON TWENTY-TWO 
Travel 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
lna.ga.-l VR + NP? Wala' 
/nag-/ Hu ' u . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Nagalyahe si Maria? 
Gasakay ang pasahero 
sa "bus? 



Is Maria taking a trip? 
Is the passenger riding 
on the "bus? • 



M2 : Hu'u nagahyahe si 
Mar i a . 
Wala' . 



Yes, Maria is taking a 

trip . 
No. 



CI: Nagahyahe si Maria? 
Hu'u nagabyahe si 
Maria . 

C2 : Gasakay ang pasahero 
s a "bus ? 
Wala' . 

2. 

Ml: Nagkadtu sila? 

Nag ' upud ang "b at a ' 
sa banwa kahapun? 

M2 : Hu'u. 

Wa ' ay nag'upud ang 
"bat a ' . 

CI: Nagkadtu sila? 
Hu'u. 

C2 : Nag'upud ang "bata' 
sa banwa kahapun? 
Wa ' ay nag'upud ang 
"bat a ' . 



Did they go? 
Did the child go with 
them yesterday? 

Yes . 

No, the child did not 
go. 



152 



153 
DRILLS 

1 . Repetition Drill . 

Nagabakasyun sya Is she on vacation 

subung? now? 

Wala' . No. 

Nagatu'un ang manga Are the students 

estudyante? studying? 

Wala' . No . 

Nagatudlu ' ang PCV Is the PCV teaching 

sang Math? Math? 

Wala' . No. 

Nagahimus sya sang Is he putting away 

karga? pieces of baggage? 

Wala ' . No. 

2 . Repetition Question and Answer Drill . 

(a) Gabyahe si Carlos Does Carlos take a trip 

bulanbulan? every month? 

Hu'u, nagabyahe sya Yes, he goes to Manila. 

p a-Manila ' . 

Gasakay sila sa ero- Do they ride the plane 

piano kun kis'a? sometimes? 

Hu'u, gasakay man Yes, they do (ride). 

sila. 

Gapamati' kamu sang Are you listening to 

'lecture'? the lecture? 

Hu'u, gapamati' kami . Yes, we are listening. 

Gapaligu' ka Do you take a bath 

adlawadlaw? every day? 

Hu'u, gapaligu' aku . Yes, I do. 

(b) Nagbakasyun sya sang Did he take a vacation 

nagligad nga tu'ig? last year? 

Wa'ay sya nagbakasyun. No, he did not take a 

vacat ion . 

Nagtu'un ang manga Did the students 

estudyante? study? 

Wa'ay sila nagtu'un. They did not study. 

Nagtudlu' ang PCV Did the PCV teach 

sang Math? Math? 

Wa'ay sya nagtudlu' He did not teach 

sang Math. Math. 

Naghimus ang tawu Did the man put away 

sang karga? some bags? 

Wa'ay, wa'ay sya No, he did not. 

naghimus . 



15U 

(c) Nagbyahe si Carlos sang Did Carlos take a trip 

nagligad nga tu'ig? last year? 

Hu'u, nagbyahe sya pa- Yes, he went to 

Manila' . Manila. 

Nagsakay sila sa ero- Did they take the plane 

piano kahapun? yesterday? 

Hu'u, nagsakay sila. Yes, they did. 

Nagpamati' kamu sang Did you listen to the 

'lecture'? lecture? 

Hu'u, nagpamati' kami . Yes, we did. 

3. Question and Answer Drill . The student gives 
the affirmative responses first, and then the 
negative responses to the following questions: 

Nagasimba ka Do you go to church 

adlawadlaw? every day? 

Nagasakay ka sa dyip Do you ride the jeep 

adlawadlaw? every day? 

Nagatulug ka sa otel Do you stay in a hotel 

kun kis'a? sometimes? 

Nagahambal ka sa Are you talking on the 

telepono subung? phone now? 

Nagasulat ka sa pisara Are you writing on the 

subung? blackboard now? 

Nagbakal ka sang Did you buy an apple 

mansanas ka'ina? earlier today? 

Naghulam ka sang Did you borrow a book 

libro kahapun? yesterday? 

Nagtan'aw ka sang Did you see a movie 

sinikagab'i? last night? 

Nagbakasyun ka sa Did you go to Baguio 

Baguio? for a vacation? 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Wala ' and wa ' ay are dialect variants of 'no, 
none ' . 

2. Sentence pattern: 



155 



Adv 
Neg 

(1) Wala' 

(2) Wala' 

(3) Wala' 



Vb 



Act 



/ nag - / /naga-/ Pronl PerHame N_ 

nag'upud aku . 

naga'upud si Lito . 
nagabyahe ang estudyante. 



(1) 'I did not go along. ' 

(2) 'Lito is not going along. ' 

(3) 'The student is not going on a trip 



VOCABULARY LIST 

cargo, baggage 

hot el 

j eepney 

last night 

monthly- 
passenger 

pro-verb (to go to) 
(is) putting away 

s omet imes 

(is) travelling 

(is) vacationing 



karga 

otel 

dyip 

kagab ' i 

bulanbulan 

pas aher o 

pa-Manila ' 

/naga/himus 

kis ' a 

/naga/byahe 

/naga/bakasyun 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Concentrate on negative responses in drilling. 
Make sure the students have automatic mastery of 
usage before the next lesson is introduced. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Two PCV's compare their travel experiences 
enroute to the Philippines. 

(b) Three trainees compare their route from the 
mainland to Hawaii. 

(c) A student arranges for his trip to Europe 
through a travel agent. 

3. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
20, Means of Transportation. 



LESSON TWENTY-THREE 
Travel [continued] 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/ma-/ VR + NP? Indi "... 

Hu'u. . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Magabyahe si Maria sa Will Maria take a trip 

sunud nga semana? next week? 

Masakay ang pasahero Will the passenger take 
sa tren? a train? 

M2 : Hu'u, magabyahe si Yes, Maria will take a 

Maria . t rip . 

Indi', indi 1 sya No, he will not. 
mas akay . 

CI: Magabyahe si Maria 

sa sunud nga semana? 
Hu'u, magabyahe si 
Mar i a . 

C2 : Masakay ang pasahero 
sa tren? 
Indi ' , indi ' sya 
mas akay . 

2. 

Ml: Ma ' abut sila sa Will they arrive on 
Dominggo? Sunday? 

Nag'abut sila sang Did they arrive last 
Dominggo? Sunday? 

M2 : Indi' sila ma'abut. They will not. 

Wala' sila nag'abut. They did not arrive. 

CI: Ma'abut sila sa 
Dominggo? 
Indi' sila ma'abut. 

156 



C2 : Nag' abut sila sang 
Dominggo ? 
Wala ' sila nag'a"but. 

DRILLS 



157 



Will you go with us 

t omorrow? 
No. 
Will she go to Davao 



Repetition Drill 

Maga'upud ka sa amun 

bwas ? 
Indi' . 
Magabakasyun sya sa 

Davao sunud nga bulam? next month? 

Indi'. No. 

Matu'un ang manga Will the students 

estudyante? study? 

Indi ' . No . 

Matudlu' ang PCV sang Will the PCV teach Math 

Math sa Lunes? on Monday? 

Indi ' . No . 

Masakay sila sa bapor? Will they ride in the 

boat? 



Indi ' . 

Mabyahe si Carlos sa 

Bagu io? 
Indi ' . 
Magasakay sila sa 

eroplano sa Sabado? 
Hu'u magasakay sila. 
Magalakat kamu 

pa-banwa? 
Hu'u malakat kami. 
Mamati' sya sang 

' lecture ' ? 
Hu'u, mamati' sya. 



No. 

Will Carlos go to 

Bagui o? 
No. 
Will they take the plane 

on Saturday? 
Yes , they will . 
Will you go to town? 

Yes , we will . 

Will she listen to the 

lecture ? 
Yes , she will . 



Question and Answer Drill . The student gives 
both affirmative and negative responses to the 
following questions: 

Masimba ka sa Dominggo? Will you go to church on 

Sunday? 
Nagsimba ka sang Did you go to church last 

Dominggo? Sunday? 

Ma'upud ka sa Lunes? Will you go (along) on 

Monday? 



Nag'upud ka sang Lunes? Did you go (along) last 

Monday ? 



15! 



Mahambal ka sa telepono 

karun? 
Naghambal ka sa 

telepono ka'ina? 
Mabakal ka sang bayu' 

bwas ? 
Nagbakal ka sang bayu' 

kahapun? 
Mat a' aw sila sang sini 

karun sa gab ' i ? 
Nagtan'aw sila sang 

sini kagab'i? 



Will you talk on the 

telephone now? 
Did you talk on the 

telephone earlier? 
Will you buy a dress 

t omorrow? 
Did you buy a dress 

yesterday? 
Will they go to a movie 

tonight? 
Did they go to a movie 

last night? 



Transformation Drill , 
statements into negative. 



Make these affirmative 



Makanta si Carlos 



Indi ' makanta si Carlos 



Mabasa ang estudyante. 
Mahambal ang Mayor. 
Mahulat si Vida. 
Mamakinilya si Elsa. 
Mamati' ang b at a ' . 
Malupad ang pispis. 
Makadtu sila sa Maui. 
Masakay kami sa tren. 
Mabyahe si Senen sa 

Yuropa . 
Mahalin kami sa Amerika. 

Fixed Substitution Drill 



Ha ga s imba sila 
adlawadlaw . 
i num 
ka ' un 
s akay 
lutu ' 
hulat 
obra 
languy 



They go to church every 
day . 

drink 

eat 

ride 

cook 

wait 

work 

swim 



Hag lakat sila kahapun 
kadtu 
hamb al 
hampang 
sugilanun 

pany aga 



They left yesterday , 
went 
spoke 
played 
told stories , 

conve rs e d 
ate lunch 



159 

harana serenaded 

umpisa star 

lab a washed clothes 

Ma kadtu sila bwas. They will go tomorrow, 

baligy a ' sell 

bayad pay 

sakay ride 

pa ' ul i ' go home 

tu'un study 

b as a read 

paligu' take a bath 

5. Transformation Drill . Make these affirmative 
statements into negative constructions: 

Nagakanta si Carlos. Wa ' ay gakanta si Carlos 

Nagabasa ang estudyante. 
Nagahambal ang Mayor. 
Nagahulat si Vida. 
Nagamakini lya si Elsa. 
Nagapamati' ang manga 

b at a ' . 
Nagalupad ang pispis. 

Nagkadtu sila sa 

Honolulu . 
Nagsakay kami sa tren. 
Nagbyahe sya sa Yuropa. 
Naghalin kami sa 

Amer ika . 
Nagpa'uli' aku sa 

Pilipinas . 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Mamat i ' is mang- + pamati and is the result of a 
morphophonemi c change. Morphophonemi c change is 
the alteration in the sound-shape of morphemes, 
usually conditioned by surrounding sounds or 
morphemes. Morphophonemics can occur at word 
or morpheme boundaries. In mamati ' , the root 
p amati ' 'to listen' was affixed with / man g-/ . 
The bilabial stop p_ changes to m in this envi- 
roment . This phenomenon is called assimilation, 



160 



2 . 
(a) 



i.e., 'when two phonemes acquire common charac- 
teristics, or become identical.' Morphophonemic 
change is common in Philippine languages. P_ 
and b_ become m, 1 becomes r, t becomes n_, etc. 
conditioned by the shape of the morpheme affixed 
to the root . 



Sentence patterns: 
Vb Act 



*Adv 



Pronl PerName 



'l) Magabyahe aku 

'2) Malakat si Juan 



s a Dominggo . 
s a alas tr es , 



3) Nagbyahe 



ang lalaki sang Lunes 



(b) 



Vb 



(1) 'I will take a trip on Sunday. ' 

(2) 'Juan will go at 3:00.' 

(3) 'The man went on a trip last Monday. ' 



Act 



/ nap, - 1 / naga -/ / ma -/ / mafia -/ Pronl PerName N_ 
[l) Nagsulat 



aku . 

(2) Nagasulat 

(3) Masulat 

{h) Magasulat kami 

(1) 'I wrote. ' 

(2) 'Juan is writing. ' 

(3) 'The child will write.' 
(h) 'We will write. ' 



s i Juan . 

ang b at a ' 



"Mario Pei , Glossary of Linguistic Terminology , Garden 
City, New York: Doubleday and Co. 1966. p . 22 . 



Cc ) *Adv 



l6l 



,k) 



TM 



( Adv 1 C npa ) t ime day week month year 



( 1 ) s a sunud nga 

(2) sa 

( 3 ) sang 



s ang 



( 1 ) ' next y ear ' 

(2) 'on Tuesday' 

(3) 'last Tuesday' 
(h) 'last April' 



VOCABULARY LIST 

(will) arrive 
boat, ship 
Europe 
(will) fly 
s t ar t , begin 
story 
t i cket 



Mar tes 
Mart es 



/ma/ ' abut 

b apor 

Yuropa 

/ma/lupSd 

ump i sa 

sugilanun 

tikit 



tu 'ig 



Abril 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE --At a Bus Station 

A: Di'in ka makadtu, Jose? Daw sa mabakasyun ka 

haw? 
B: Hu ' u , mabakasyun aku sa Baguio. Ginhatagan aku 

sang tatlu ka semana nga bakasyun sang 'boss' 

ku. 
A: Ma'ayu ka pa. Tani ' masakay man aku pakadtu sa 

Manila', apan wala' aku sang tyempo subung. 

Matugnaw.' siguro sa Baguio subung no? 

B: Tuud. Amu gani nagdala aku sang 'sweater'. 

A: Hu ' u maayu gid nga magdala ka . Abaw ginagutum 
na aku. Wala' aku nagka'un ka'ina. Maka'un 
' t a a nay . 



Sigi, wala' pa man ang bus 



162 

G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Drill on the use of indi ' and wala ' in negative 

responses. Add your own drills if there is time. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Two PCV's discuss their trip to Manila. 

( t> ) A PCV talks to his co-teacher about a planned 
workshop for next month. 

(c) A barrio worker answers questions on methods 
of building a proposed road through one part of 
the barrio. 

(d) A food production worker talks over plans 
for building a piggery. 



UNIT VI 
The Source Pronouns 



LESSON 2h: The Things We Own 
LESSON 25: Whose are They? 
LESSON 26: More on Ownership 



UNIT VI 

Pre-p o s it ion Source Pronouns 

The second set of source pronouns is the pre-position 
set. This set occurs before the thing possessed in the 
word order of a construction. Unit III dealt with the 
post-position source pronouns which occur after things 
pos ses s ed. 



Ang akun libro ara' 

s a lame s a . 
Ang libro nakun ara' 

sa lamesa. 



'My book is on the 

table . ' 
'My book is on the 

t ab 1 e . ' 



This unit introduces the pre-position source pronouns: 



akun 
imu 
iya 
at un 



myu 
ila 



my , mine 
'you, yours (singular) 
' hi s , her s , her ' 
'our, ours, (yours, 

mine, and others) 
'our, ours (mine, and 

others but not yours) 
'your, yours (plural) ' 
' thei r , theirs ' 



Some particles mark personal or non-personal possessors, 
The following are personal possessor markers included 
in this unit . 

ni used before a personal name occurring 

after the possessed object in the utter- 
anc e . 

nan day used before two or more personal names 
occurring after the possessed object in 
the utterance. 

kay used before a personal name occurring 

before the thing possessed in the utter- 
ance. 

kanday used before two or more personal names 
occurring before the thing possessed in 
the construction. 



161+ 



165 

s ang used before personal nouns occurring before 

or after tte thing possessed in the sentence. 

Sang functions both as a personal and non-personal pos- 
sessor marker and also can occur before or after the 
thing possessed in the construction. 



Ina' ang b alay ni 

Mrs . Reyes . 
Ina' ang balay nanday 

Carmen kag Jose . 
Ina' ang balay sang 

prinsipal . 
Ina' kay Carmen nga 

balay . 
Ina ' kanday Carmen kag 

Jose nga balay . 



'That's the house of. 

Mrs . Reyes . ' 
'That's the house of 

Carmen and Jose.' 
'That's the house of 

the principal.' 
'That's Carmen's 

hous e . ' 
'That's Carmen and 

Jos e ' s hous e . ' 



LESSON TWENTY-FOUR 
The Things We Own 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Kay sin'u...? Akun . . . 
imu 
iya 
kay . . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Kay sin'u libro ini? Whose "book is this? 

Kay sin'u sapatus Whose shoes are these? 



M2 : Kay Maria libro ini. This is Maria's book. 
Kay Maria ini These are Maria's 

s apatus . shoes . 

CI: Kay sin'u libro ini? 
Kay Maria libro ini. 

C2 : Kay sin'u sapatus 
ini? 
Kay Maria ini 
s apatus . 

2. 

Ml: Kay sin'u tudlu' Whose finger is this? 

ini? 

Kay sin'u pa'a ina'? Whose leg is that? 

Kay sin'u kutsilyo Whose knife is that 
atu? (yonder ) ? 

M2 : Akun libro ini. This is my book. 

Imu libro ina'. That is your book. 

Iya libro atu. That is his book. 

CI: Kay sin'u libro ini? 
Akun libro ini . 

C2: Kay sin'u libro ina'? 
Imu libro ina'. 

166 



C3: Kay sin'u libro atu? 
I y a 1 i."h ro atu. 



167 



3. 

Ml: Kay sin'u sipilyo ini; 

Kay sin'u habun ini? 

Kay sin'u pulbus atu? 



Whose toothbrush is this? 
Whose soap is this? 
Whose powder is that 
( yonder ) ? 



M2 : Akun, 
Imu . 
Iya. 



Mine . 
Yours . 
Hi s /hers , 



CI: Kay sin'u sipilyo ini? 

Akun . 

C2 : Kay sin'u habun ini? 
Imu . 



C3: Kay sin'u pulbus atu? 
Iya . 



C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 
Kay sin'u ini? 



Akun ini . 
Ini akun , 
Akun . 



Kay sin'u ina'? 



Akun ina ' , 
Ina ' akun , 
Akun . 



Kay sin'u atu? 



Akun atu. 
Atu akun . 
Akun . 



Kay sin'i^ ini? 



I mu ini. 
Ini imu , 
Imu . 



Kay sin'u i na 



' u ina'? 



Imu ina ' . 
Ina ' imu . 
Imu . 



Kay sin'u atu? 



Imu atu . 
Atu imu. 
Imu . 



i6( 



Kay sin'u ini? 



Kay sin'u i na ' ? 



Kay sin'u atu? 



Kay sin'u ulo ini? 

Akun ini ulu . 

Ulu nakun ini . 

Kay sin'u kamut ini? 

Imu ina ' kamut . 

Kamut nimu ina' . 

Kay sin'u ti'il ina'? 

Iya ina ' ti'il. 

Ti'il niya ina' . 

Kay sin'u abaga atu? 

Kay Clarita atu abaga. 

Kay sin'u li'ug ina'? 
Kay Juan li'ug ina'. 



Iya ini . 

Ini iya . 
Iya. 

Iya ina ' . 
Ina ' iya . 
Iya . 

Iya atu . 
Atu iy a . 
Iya. 

Whose head is this? 
This is my head . 
This is my head. 
Whose hand is this? 
That is your hand. 
That is your hand. 
Whose foot is that? 
That is his foot. 
That is his foot. 
Whose shoulder is that 

(yonder ) ? 
That (yonder) is 

Clarita's shoulder. 
Whose neck is that? 
That is Juan's neck. 



2. Chain Drill . The teacher begins. The students 
should ask about different items. 

(a) 

T: Kay sin'u ini pap el? 

S2: Imu ina' papel. 

Kay sin'u ini siya? 

S3: Imu ina' siya. 

Kay sin'u ini lapis? 

S 1+ : Imu ina' lapis, 
etc . 

(b) 

T: Kay sin'u ina' tudlo ' ? 

SI: Akun ini tudlu ' . 

Kay sin'u ina pa' a? 



169 



S2: Akun ini pa'a. 

Kay sin'u ini kamut? 

S3: Akun ini kamut. 
et c . 

(c) 

T: Kay sin'u ina' kwaderno? 

SI: Kay Maria ina' kwaderno. 
Kay sin'u ina' libro? 

S2: Kay Pedro ina' libro. 

S3: Kay sin'u ina' kutsilyo? 

S 1+ : Kay Martin ina' kutsilyo. 
et c . 

3. Movable Substitution Drill 



Akun ilung ini 

ba'ba' 

Imu 



lavas 



Iya 



atu 



Kay Maria_ 
mat a 



buhok 



Kay Sener 



Transformation Drill 

Akun ilung ini. 

Akun ilung ini. 
Akun ba'ba' ini . 
Imu buhuk ina' . 
Imu t i ' il ina ' . 
Iya ulu atu . 
Iya abaga atu. 
Akun 1 i ' ug ini . 
Akun buhuk ini . 
Imu tudlu ' ina ' . 
Iya manga kamut ina' 
Iya manga mata atu. 
Iya manga pa'a atu. 



Mata nakun ini 



170 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Source pronouns function usually as possessors 
of objects in a construction. The pre-position 
set occurs before the noun in the construction. 
The post-position set occurs after the noun of 
which it is an attribute. 

2. Kay marks singular possessor preceding personal 
names . 

3. Sentence patterns: 

(a) ( IP = Interrogative Pronoun) 
Topic Comment 

IP Pron2 (D) (n) 

(1) Kay sin'u ini libro? 

(2) Akun ini libro. 

( 3) Iya ina ' . 

CO Iya. 

(l) 'Whose book is this?' 

(2 ) 'This is my book. ' 

(3) 'That is hers . ' 

(h) ' Hers . ' 



(b) 



IP Pron2 (N) (D) 

(1) Kay sin'u libro ini? 

( 2 ) Imu ina ' . 

(1) 'Whose book is this?' 

(2) 'That ' s yours . ' 



VOCABULARY LIST 



body 


lavas 


eye 


mat a 


finger 


tudlu 


foot 


ti'il 


hair 


buhok 



171 



hand 

head 

his, her, hers, its 

knife 

mouth 

my , mine 

ne ck 

nose 

powder 

shoulder 

so ap 

thigh 

toothbrush 



kamut 

ulu 

iya 

kut silyo 

baba' 

akun 

li ' ug 

ilung 

pulbus 

abaga 

habun 

pa'a 

s ipily o 



your, yours (singular) lmu 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Al : Noel, kay sin'u 'sweater' ini sa imu katre! 

Bl : Kay Gabriel ina'. 

A2 : Hulamun ku anay . Nalipatan ku ang akun sa 
eskwelahan kag matugnaw ang hangin . 



Silingun ku 



B2 : Indi' man siguru sya ma'akig. 
lang sya. 

A3 : S al amat . 

B3 : Di'in ka makadtu? 



Alt: Kay Donaldo. Mahulam aku sang iya libro sa 
' So ciology ' . 

Bk : Palihug nalang, ina' nga kwaderno sa lamesa, 
uli' kay Donaldo. Iya ina'. 

A5: Sigi. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

(will be) angry /ma/akig 

cold /ma/tugnaw 

forgot(ten) / na/lipat / an/ 

(will) tell, say siling/un/ 

wind hangin 



172 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEE TEACEER CContact hours: 5) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
21, Parts of the Body; and Supplementary 
Vocabulary List 22, Math Terms. 

2. Make a brisk introduction of new vocabulary on 
parts of the body by pointing to parts or by the 
use of a big drawing. Always make the students 
repeat each new vocabulary term at least three 
times after you have modelled it. 

3. To enliven drills or reviews at the end of the 
day, hold a contest among the students. Divide 
the class into two groups. Have the students 
answer by turns, one per team. The first con- 
testant to identify the part pointed to gets a 
point for his team. The team with the most 
points wins . 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A young man visits his doctor for an 
examination of an aching back and swollen ankle 
after a fall during a basketball game. 

(b ) A PCV visits his dentist for his six-month 
check-up . 

(c) A science teacher introduces the visible 
part of the head to her class. 



LESSON TWENTY-FIVE 
Whose Are They? 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Kanday sin'u. 



Kanday , 
Amun . . , 
Atun . . , 
Inyu. . . 

Ila. . . 



MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



Kanday sin'u manga 

baso ini? 
Kanday sin'u manga 

t as a ini ? 



Whose glasses are 

these? 
Whose cups are these' 



M2 : Kanday Clarita, 

Priscila, kag Lita. 
Kanday Marilyn, 
Cristina, kag Susana. 

CI: Kanday sin'u manga 
baso ini? 
Kanday Clarita, 
Priscila, kag Lita. 

C2: Kanday sin'u manga 
tasa ini? 
Kanday Marilyn, 
Cristina kag 
S us an a . 



Those are Clarita's, 
Priscila's and Lita's. 

Those are Marilyn's, 
Cristina's and Susana's. 



2. 

Ml: 



Kanday sin'u manga 

t ine dor ini ? 
Kanday ■sin'u manga 

kutsara ini? 



Whose forks are these? 
Whose spoons are these? 



M2 : Amun manga tinedor 
ini . 
Ini amun manga 
kut s ar a . 



These forks are ours 

( exclus i ve ) . 
These spoons are ours. 



173 



17lt 



CI: Kanday sin'u manga 
tinedor ini? 
Amun manga tinedor 
ini . 

C2: Kanday sin'u manga 
kutsara ini? 
Ini amun manga 
kut s ar a . 

3. 

Ml: Kanday sin'u manga Whose plates are those? 
pinggan ina'? 
Kanday sin'u manga Whose cups are those? 

tasa ina'? 
Kanday sin'u manga Whose saucers 

platito ina'? are those? 

Kanday sin'u manga Whose chairs are those? 
s iy a ina ' ? 

M2 : Amun. Ours (exclusive). 

Atun. Ours (inclusive). 

Inyu. Yours (plural). 

Ila. Theirs. 

CI: Kanday sin'u manga 
pinggan ina ' ? 
Amun . 

C2 : Kanday sin'u manga 
tasa ina'? 
Atun . 

C3: Kanday sin'u manga 
platito ina'? 
Inyu. 

CU: Kanday sin'u manga 
siy a i na ' ? 

Ila. 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

i) Kanday sin'u manga Whose plates are those? 
plato atu? 

Amun manga plato atu, Those plates are ours. 

Amun atu. Those are ours. 

Amun . Our s . 



Kanday sin'u manga 

medyas atu? 
Inyu manga medyas 

atu . 
Inyu atu. 
Inyu. 
Kanday sin'u manga 

tu ' alya ini ? 
Atun manga tu'alya 

ina' ? 
Atun ina ' . 
Atun . 
Kanday sin'u manga 

serbilyeta ina'? 
Ila manga serbilyeta 

ini . 
Ila ini . 
Ila . 



175 

Whose socks are those? 

Those socks are yours. 

Those are yours. 

Yours . 

Whose towels are these? 

Those are our towels. 

Tho s e are ours . 

Ours . 

Whose table napkins 

are thos e ? 
These are their table 

napkins . 
These are theirs. 
Theirs . 



Kanday sin'u manga 

mantel atu? 
Kanday Alejo, Noel, 

kag Victor. 
Kanday sin'u manga 

kutsarita ina? 



Whose table cloths 

are those? 
Alejo's, Noel's and 

Victor's. 
Whose teaspoons are 

those? 



Kanday Teresa, Marites, Teresa's, Marites' 
kag Rosa. and Rosa's. 

Kanday sin'u manga Whose knives are these? 
kut s i ly o ini? 

Kanday Naldo, Berting, Naldo ' s , Berting's 
kag Ray . and Ray ' s . 



Movable Substitution Drill 

Kanday sin'u manga libro atu? 

s apatus 

ini 

kamisadentru 



blus a 



ts inelas 



_jpit aka_ 



Ila manga libro atu. 

Amun 

kwaderno 



atu 



^Cue Question, 



(Cue Question) 



176 



Inyu_ 
Atun 



jpapel 

ini 



Ila 



Cecile, Lucia kag Felicitas 

Expansion Drill 
Amun . 



ini 



manga sya 
sa kwarto 

Atu . 

ang ila 

b a lay 

sa baryu 

sang Buenavista 

GRAMMATICAL NOTE 

1. Source pronouns of the pre-position set are: 



akun 

imu 

iya 

atun 

amun 

inyu 

ila 



'mine , my ' 

'your , yours ' 

'his, her, hers, its' 

'ours (inclusive)' 

'ours (exclusive)' 

'your, yours (plural) 

'their, theirs ' 



2. Kanday marks plural possession used before 
enumerated personal names. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



cup 

drinking glass 

fork 

napkins (table) 

our , ours 

( exclus i ve ) 
our , ours ( in- 

clus i ve ) 
plate 
s aucer 
spoon 



t as a 

baso 

t inedor 

s erb i ly et a 

amun 

at un 

plato, pinggan 
plat it o 
kut s ar a 



177 



tablecloth 
t easpoon 
their , theirs 
towel 
your, yours 



mant el 

kut s ar ita 

lla 

t u ' alya 

inyu 



CUMULATIVE MONOLOGUE — Biography 

Aku si Carlos Pacheco. Taga Nevada aku sa syudad 
sang Las Vegas. Ang akun manga ginikanan si Mr. kag 
Mrs. Robert Pacheco. Taga Nevada man sila. Ang 
akun Tatay nagatudlu sa kolehiyo kag ang Nanay nakun 
nagatrabaho sa opisina. Secretarya sya. Si Marta 
ang akun utud. Nagatrabaho sya sa ospital sang Las 
Vegas. Nars sya. 

Natawu aku sang Mayo 23, 19*+3 sa Phoenix, Arizona. 
Nagestar kami sa Las Vegas sang nagtudlu' ang akun 
Tatay sa kolehiyo. Natapus ku ang 'Elementary 
Education' sa Universidad sang Ohio. Nagtudlu' aku 
sa Ohio sang Math. Nagpa'uli' aku sa Las Vegas kag 
nag'asawa. Akun asawa si Gabriela. Taga New Mexico 
sya. Ma'estra sya sang English. Gusto namun mag- 
tudlu' sa Pilipinas. 

Ang amun balay atu didtu sa Las Vegas. Naga'estar 
sa amun balay subung si John. Amigo namun sya. 
Ginarentahan nya ang balay. 



VOCABULARY LIST 



178 



college kolehiyo 

(is) living, residing /nag/'estar 

office opisina 

(is) renting / gina/r ent a/han/ 

H. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 

1. Anu ang ngalan sang tawu? 

2 . Taga di ' in sya? 

3. Sin'u ang iya manga ginikanan? 

k. Anu ang trabaho sang iya amay? 

5. Anu ang trabaho sang iya iluy? 

6. Doktor ang iya utud nga babayi, indi'bala? 

7. San'u si Carlos natawu? Di'in? 

8. Anu ang gintudlu' ni Carlos sa Universidad sang 

Ohio? 

9. Sin'u ang as aw a niya? 

10. Taga di'in si Gabriela? 

11. Ma'estro kag ma'estra bala sila? 

12. Di'in sila gusto magtudlu' karun? 

13. Sin'u sa ila ang luyag sang English? 
lU . Di'in ang ila balay? 

15. Sin'u ang naga'estar sa balay nila subung? 
I. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
23, Dining Room Utensils; and Supplementary 
Vocabulary List 2U, Kitchen Utensils. 

2. Introduce the song, Lumabaylabay n g a Daw Asu . 



179 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

Cal A malaria volunteer tries to convince a 
family to let him spray their house. 

(b) A food production volunteer explains the 
procedure of mixing feed for pigs and chicken. 

(c) A teacher of science explains the necessity 
of sanitation to people living in one house. 



LESSON TWENTY-SIX 
More on Ownership 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Kay s in ' u . . . 



sang . . . 
ni 

nanday 



B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml 



M2: 



Kay sin'u libro ini? 
Kay sin'u pap el ina'? 

Li"bro sang ma'estra 

ini . 
Libro ni Arturo ini . 



Whose book is this? 
Whose paper is that? 

This is the teacher's 

b ook . 
This is Arturo's book. 



CI: Kay sin'u libro ini? 
Libro sang ma'estra 
ini . 

C2: Kay sin'u papel ina'? 
Papel ni Arturo ina'. 



2 . 
Ml 



Kanday sin'u manga 

lapis atu? 
Kanday sin'u manga 

kwaderno atu? 



Whose pencils are those? 

Whose notebooks are 
those? 



M2 : Manga lapis nanday 
Elena, Fely, kag 
Dorotheo atu . 
Atu manga kwaderno 
nanday Elena, Fely, 
kag Dorotheo . 

CI: Kanday sin'u manga 
lapis atu? 
Manga lapis nanday 
Elena, Fely, kag 
Dorotheo atu . 



Those are the pencils 

of Elena, Fely, and 

Dorotheo . 
Those are the notebooks 

of Elena, Fely, and 

Dorotheo . 



180 



181 



C2; Kanday s in ' u manga 
kwaderno atu? 
Atu manga kwaderno 
nanday Elena, Fely, 
kag Dorotheo . 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Kay sin'u libro ini? Whose book is this? 

Libro sang prinsipal This is the book of 

ini. the principal. 

Kay sin'u awtu ini? Whose car is this? 

Awtu sang direktor This is the car of 

ini. the director. 

Kay sin'u lamesa ini? Whose table is this? 

Lamesa ini sang This is the table of 

ma'estro. the teacher. 

Kay sin'u kamiseta Whose undershirt is 

ini? this? 

Kamiseta ini sang This is the undershirt 

bata. of the child. 

Kay sin'u libro ini? Whose book is this? 

Libro ni Mr. Reyes This is Mr. Reyes' book. 

ini . 

Kay sin'u pomada Whose hair dressing is 

ini? this? 

Pomada ni Mr. Santos This is Mr. Santos' 

ini. hair dressing. 

Kay sin'u lamesa ina'? Whose table is that? 

Lamesa ina' ni Miss That is the table of 

Ramos. Miss Ramos. 

Kay sin'u bola ina'? Whose ball is that? 

Bola ina' ni Toto'. That is Toto's ball. 

Kanday sin'u manga Whose papers are those? 

papel atu? 
Manga papel nanday Pat, The papers of Pat, Rosita, 

Rosita, kag Victoria. and Victoria. 

Kanday sin'u manga Whose chairs are those? 

sya atu? 

Manga sya nanday Paz The chairs of Paz and 

kag Mila . Mila . 



182 



Movable Suts t itut ion Drill 







atu . 




Jose 




Kalu 








Lito 




Awtu 






Medyas 




sang lal 


aki 




b ab ay i 




ina ' . 


Bayu 




Sap at 


us 






es tudy an 


te 



Completion Drill . The student constructs his 
own question and answer from the cue: 



Kay sin'u payung ini' 

abaga 

ti 'il 

mat a 

ilung 

buhuk 



Payung ni Delia ina' 

J aime 

Alicia 

Lucila 

es tudy ant e 

ma ' es t r a 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Ni is singular, nanday plural; both are posses- 
sion markers which precede personal names (i.e. 
mark the pos s es s or ( s ) ) . 

2. Sang is a possession marker which precedes common 
nouns . 



Kanday and kay are pre-position personal name 
markers, while nanday and ni are post-position 
personal name markers. 



183 



Sentence patterns: 

Ca) Topic ^ Comment 



Manga N_ Pron3 PerHame N_ (d) 

(1) Libro nakun ini . 

(2) Libro ni Jose ina' 
( 3 )( Manga) Libro nanday Jose ina' 
( k ) Libro sang bata' atu . 

(1) 'This is my book. ' 

(2) 'That is Jose's book.' 

(3) 'Those are Jose's (and others) books.' 
{h) 'That was the child's book.' 

(a) 'Comment (from previous chart) 



Pron3 PerHame 



(l) nakun 

(2) 

(3) 

(h) 



ni / nanday PerName 

ni Noel 

nanday Noel kag Jose 



N 

sang 



sang iluy 



(1) 'my' 

( 2 ) 'Noel ' s ' 

(3) 'Noel's and Jose's 

( k ) ' the mother ' s ' 



181* 



(b) 



*Comment 



Pron2 PerName 



(l) Akun 

(2) 

(3) 

(1*) 



Kay Maria 

Kanday Lourdes 
kag Lumen 



Topic 

(N) (D) 

libro ini . 

libr o ini . 

b al ay ini . 

Sang bata' libro ini. 



(1) 'This is my book. ' 

(2) 'This is Maria's book.' 

(3) 'This is Lourdes' and Lumen's house.' 
(1+) 'This is the child's book.' 

(b ) 'Comment (from previous chart) 

Pron2 PerName N 



kay / kanday PerName sang N_ 



(l) Ila. 

(2) 

(3) 



Kay 



S enen . 



S ang ma ' estr o . 



(1) 'Theirs . ' 

(2) 'Senen 's . ' 

(3) 'The teacher's 



VOCABULARY LIST 



ball 

director 

hair dressing for 

men 
undershirt 



bola 

di r ektor 

pomada 
kami s St a 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE — Fertilizer Problem 



Al : David, maupud ka sa akun? Makadtu aku sa baryo 
Nalo'ok para magdiskurso tungud sa paggamit 
sang abunu. 



Bl ; Sigi. Mahambal aku sa manga tawu sang Bar o 
Pu ' is bnas tungud man sa abunu. 

A2 : Ang manga tawu indi ' pa siguru sa paggamit 
sang abunu sa ila uma . Gusto nila ang 
madamu' nga ani pero wala' man sila 
naga'usar sang ma'ayung klase nga humay 
kag abunu . 

B2: Hu'u, gani' . Gintudlu' ku na sa manga 

mangunguma sang Pu'is ang pagbutang sang 
abunu sa tanum, pero wala' nila ginsunud 
ang akun panugyan. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



about, concerning 

f ert i lizer 

harvest 

kind 

many , plenty 

(p art i cle ) 

put , to put 

suggestion 

use 



tungud 

abunu 

ani 

kla.se 

/ma/damu ' 

gani ' 

/pag/but ang 

panugyan 

us ar 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 



Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
25, Topographical Terms; and Supplementary 
Vocabulary List 26, Natural Elements. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A missionary gives a brief explanation of 
paradise, and Adam and Eve. 

(b) A malaria worker makes a survey of houses 
and population in a barrio his team is assigned 
to spray . 



UNIT VII 
Basic I nt err ogati ves 



LESSON 27 

LESSON 28 

LESSON 29 

LESSON 30 

LESSON 31 

LESSON 32 

LESSON 33 

LESSON 3k 

LESSON 35 

LESSON 36 

LESSON 37 



Where? 

Where is i t ? 

Where is it (continued)? 

Buying and Selling 

Bargaining and Math 

Marketing 

Pets 

Numbers, Days and Months 

The Big Question of Why 

For Whom? 

Which One? 



UNIT VII 
Basic Int er r ogati ves 



This unit introduces the following question words: 



' where ' 

' when ' 

'who ' 

'how much for each, 

how much ' 
'how much, how many' 
'why ' 
'what ' 

'which (of these)' 
'which (of those)' 
'which (of those over 

there ) ' 
'whose (singular)' 
'whose (plural), who 

( plural ) ' 
' f o r whom ' 



di ' in 




s an ' u 




s in ' u 




t agpil 


a 


pila 




nga ' a 




anu 




di ' in 


s ini 


di ' in 


s i n a ' 


di ' in 


s adtu 



kay sin ' u 

k anday s in ' u 

para kay sin'u 



Tied in with the question patterns are responses using 
place adverbs. Two lessons deal with place adverts. 

This unit includes terms for bargaining and marketing, 
a 'skill' which must be mastered for a 'more economical 
way of life in the Philippines. 



LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN 
Wh ere? 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Di ' in si. 
ang 



Si. . 
ang 



. ar i diri sa. 
ara ' dira ' 
atu didtu 



MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Di'in si Charley Rech: 
Di 'in si Dick McGinn? 
Di'in si Terry Ramos? 

M2 : Si Charley ari diri 
sa opisina. 
Ari diri sa opisina. 
Ari di sa opisina. 

Ari . 



Where is Charley Rech? 
Where is Dick McGinn? 
Where is Terry Ramos? 

Charley is here in the 

office . 
Here in the office. 
Here in the office. 
Here . 



CI: Di'in si Charley Rech: 
Si Charley ari diri 
sa opi s ina. 

C2: Di'in si Dick McGinn? 
Ari diri sa opisina. 

C3: Di'in si Terry Ramos? 
Ari di sa opisina. 

CU: Di'in si Charley? 
Ari . 



2. 
MI 



M2 



Di'in ang kwaderno? 

Di'in ang libro? 

Di'in ang payung? 

Di'in ang pisara? 

Ang kwaderno ara' 
dira' sa lamesa. 
Ara' da' sa lamesa. 
Ara ' dir a ' . 



Where is the notebook? 



The notebook is on the 

t able . 
There on the table. 
There . 



CL: D i ' in ang kwaderno? 

Ang kwaderno ara' dira' 
s a lames a . 



189 



C2: 



Di'in ang libro? 
Ara' da' sa lamesa. 



C3: 


Di ' in 


ang 


payung? 




Ara ' 


lira. 




Ck: 


Di ' in 
Ara ' . 


ang 


p i sar a? 


3. 








Ml : 


Di ' in 


ang 


' po s t 




office ' ? 






Di ' in 


ang 


' r es t au- 




rant 


' ? 






Di ' in 


ang 


estasyon 




s ang 


bus? 





Where is the post 

office? 

Where is the restaurant? 

Where is the bus station? 



M2: Ang 'post office' 

atu didtu sa kanto. 
Atu didtu sa kanto. 

Atu didtu . 



The post office is on 
that far corner. 

There on that (yonder) 
corner . 

There . 



CI: Di'in ang 'post 
office ' ? 
Ang 'post office' 
atu didtu sa kanto. 

C2: Di'in ang 'restaurant'? 
Ang 'post office' 
atu didtu sa kanto. 

C3: Di'in ang estasyon 
sang bus? 
Atu didtu . 



It. 
Ml 



Di'in ang ma'estro? Where is the teacher? 
Di'in si Miss Alcalde? 



M2 : 



Ambut . 
Ambut lang. 



I don ' t know . 
I don ' t know . 



190 

C. DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Di ' in ang bulak? 

Ari diri ang bulak. 

Ari dir i . 

Di ' in ang dahun? 

Ar a ' dir a ' . 

Di'in ang kahuy? 

Atu didtu ang kahuy, 

Atu didtu. 

Di ' in ka? 

Ari aku sa kwarto. 

Ari aku . 

Di'in sy a? 

Ara' da' sa sulud. 

Ar a ' sy a . 



Where is the flower? 

The flower is here. 

Here . 

The leaf is there. 

There . 

Where is the tree? 

The tree is over there. 

Over there. 

Where are you? 

I am here in the room. 

I am her e . 

Where is he? 

He is there inside. 

He is there. 



2. Completion Drill . Construct your own answers 
giving the correct location of your position: 



Di'in aku? 

Di'in ikaw? 

Di ' in sya? 

Di'in si Nina? 

Di'in si Julia? 

Di'in si J uan? 

Di'in ang bintana'? 

Di'in ang pwerta? 

Di ' in ang atup? 

3 . Expansion Drill 

Ang bulak ara' da', 
sa florera 
sa lamesa 



Ari diri ik aw . 



Ang utan ari . 
di 
s a s ulud 
sang baskit 

Ang libr o atu . 
sa Math 
di dt u 
sa estante 
sa libreriya 



191 

Integration Drill . The student makes only one 
sentence out of the two given, combining the 
sentences together: 

Ang libro atu. Ang libro didtu sa 

est ant e . 

Ang libro atu didtu sa estante . 

Ang balay atu. Ang balay sang 

ma'estro didtu. 



Ang makinilya ara'. Ang makinilya sa 

lame s a . 



Si Sara atu. Si Sara sa 

eskwelahan . 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Locative deictics point out the location of an 
object, in relation to distance of that object 
from the speaker. 

ari diri 'here (near the speaker) 

ara' dira' 'there (far from the 

speaker ) ' 
atu didtu 'there (very far from 

both the speaker and 
the hearer ) ' 

2. Short forms are: 



diri 


di 


di r a ' 


da 


di dtu 


tu 



3. There is no difference in meaning when these 

deictics are used in pairs or singly. However, 
only the first words in the phrase can occur 
alone . 



192 



Ari diri . Ari di. 
Ara 1 dira'. Ara' da' 
Atu didtu. Atu tu. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

"bus station 

flower 

here 

leaf 

library 

roof 

street corner 

there 

there (yonder) 



Ari . 
Ara ' 
Atu. 



'Here . ' 

'There. ' 

'There (yonder) 



estasyon sang "bus 

bulak 

ari, ari diri, diri , di 

dahun 

libr er iy a 

atup 

kanto 

5ra' , ara' dira.' , dira' , 

da' 
atu, atu didtu, didtu, 

tu. 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Al : Tyu , mahimu mangutana' 
nga otel? 



Di'in di ang malapit 



Bl: Nonoy , ara' lang da' sa sunud nga kanto. Liku 
ka diri sa tu'u kag pagliku' man sa wala sa 
sunud nga kanto. 

A2 : Anu ang ngalan sang otel? 

B2: Park View Hotel. Otel ina' sang manga Laserna. 

A3: Ginagutum na aku . Di'in ang 'restaurant'? 

B3 : Ara' man sa otel. Sa idalum ang 'restaurant', 
sa i bah aw ang manga kwarto. 

AU: Salamat gid, Tiyu'. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

above 

below 

near 

next 

pos s ible 



ib abaw 
i dalum 
/ma/lapit 
sunud 
mahimo 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours 



193 



1. Completion Drill , 



Have the students construct responses describing 
their exact position in the room. 

Integration Drill . 

An integration drill calls for the incorporation 
of two or more phrases or sentences into one 
grammatically acceptable sentence. The teacher 
gives two cue sentences and the students integrate 
them. There may "be several acceptable or possi- 
ble answers. 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV arrives in a small town and stops a 
young boy to ask for directions on how to get to 
a restaurant, a hotel where he can stay for the 
night, and where his assigned barrio is. 

(b) Two PCV's get into Iloilo City and ride a 
calesa. They ask the rig driver to take them to 
the Peace Corps Regional Office. The rig driver 
gives them a brief "guided tour" of the city. 

Assign Written Exercise 6 from the supplementary 
materials. Students are to fill the bubbles in 
this cartoon in Hiligaynon. Give them one night 
to complete this exercise. 



LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT 
Where is it? 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

...ari sa ibabaw. . . 
i dalum 
luyu/likud 
sulud 

atubangan 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Di'in ang libro nimu? 
Di ' in ang husay nya? 

M2 : Ari diri sa ibabaw 
sang lamesa. 
Ara' sa sulud sang 
pit aka . 

CI: Di'in ang libro nimu? 
Ari diri sa i b ab aw 
s ang 1 ame s a . 

C2: Di'in ang husay nya? 
Ara' sa sulud sang 
pi t aka . 



2. 
Ml 



Imu manghud ang 
babayi sa likud ni 
Mr . C uaresma? 



Where is your book? 
Where is her comb? 

Here on top of the 

t ab 1 e . 
There inside the purse 



Is the girl behind 
Mr. Cuaresma your 
younger sister? 



Imu manghud ang babayi Is the girl in front 



sa atubangan ni 
Mr. Cuaresma? 



of Mr. Cuaresma 
your sister? 



M2: Hu'u, manghud nakun 
sya. 
Indi' , magulang 
nakun sya. 

CI: Imu manghud ang babayi 
sa atubangan ni 
Mr . Cuaresma? 
Indi' , magulang nakun 
sya. 



Yes, she is my sister. 

No, she is my elder 
sister. 



19 1 * 



C2 ; Imu manghud ang babayi 
s a li kud ni Mr . 
Cuar esma? 
Hu ' u , manghud nakun 
sya. 



DRILLS 



Kepetition Drill 



195 



Ang banyu atu sa luyu 

sang kasilyas. 
Ang otel sa atubangan 

sang "balay ni Joe. 
Ang kapitolyo ara' sa 

ibabav sang bungtud. 
Ang husay ari sa 

idalum sang aparador. 
Ang sulat atu sa sulud 

s ang bus un . 



The bathroom is "behind 

the toilet . 
The hotel is in front 

of Joe's hous e . 
The capitol is on top 

of the hill. 
The comb is under the 

cabinet . 
The letter is in the 

mailbox . 



Atu sa luyu sang 
kasilyas ang banyu. 

Sa atubangan sang 
balay ni Joe ang otel. 

Sa ibabav sang bungtud 
ang kapitolyo. 



The bathroom is behind 

the toilet . 
The hotel is in front 

of Joe's house . 
The capitol is on top 

of the hill. 



Sa idalum sang aparador The comb is under the 

ang husay. cabinet. 

Sa sulud sang busun ang The letter is in the 

sulat. mailbox. 

Fixed Substitution Drill 



Ang papel sa i dalum sang sya. 
ibabav 
luyu 
atubangan 

Ang libr o sa ibabav sang lamesa, 
plato 
t as a 

bandihado 
baskit 



Sa sulud sang kahun ang lap is . 

plat i to 
pinggan 
s ulat 



196 



3. Conversion Drill . The student changes the word 

order of the sentences, forming acceptable utter- 
ance s . 

Sa sulud sang baskit 

ang dulsi . 
Ang dulsi sa sulud 

s ang baskit. 

Sa ibabaw sang atup The nest of the bird is 
ang pugad sang pispis. on the roof. 

Sa idalum sang balay His bicycle is under 

ang bisikleta niya. the house. 
Sa luyu sang eskwelahan The beach is at the 

ang baybay. back of the school. 

Sa sulud sang kahun ang The books are in the 

manga libro. box. 

k. Deletion Drill 



(a) Sa idalum sang balay ang manga sya sang babayi, 

manga 

sang babayi 
sang balay 

(b) Ang manga utan kag karne ara' sa sulud sang 

baskit sa ibabaw sang lamesa sa kusina. 

sa kusina 

manga 

utan kag 
ara 

sa ibabaw sang lamesa 
sang baskit 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. Sentence patterns: 
(a) C Topi c ) * Comment 

(D) sa_ Dir 

(1) Ari diri sa ibabaw sang libro. 

(2) Ang papel sa ibabaw sang libro. 



197 



Cl) 'It's here on top of the "book.' 
(2) 'The paper is on top of the book, 



(a) *Comment 



Dir 



CD_) s a Adv sang / ni N_ PerHame 

(1) Ari sa likud sang siya. 

(2) Ari sa likud ni Lourdes 

(l) 'Here "behind the chair. ' 

2) 'Here "behind Lourdes. ' 



(b) 



Topi c 
IP £ 



N 



( Comment ) 
Pron3 PerName 



N 



(1) Di'in ang libro mu? 

(2) Di'in ang libro ni Cora? 

(3) Di'in ang libro sang ma'estra? 

(1) 'Where is your "book?' 

(2) 'What is Cora's "book?' 

(3) 'Where is the teacher's "book?' 

VOCABULARY LIST 



"back 

"b athr 00m 

"beach 

"b i cycle 

cabinet, closet 

c api tol 

comb 

front 

hill 

kitchen 

mailbox 

nest 

older sibling 

platter 

toilet 



luyu, likud 
bany o 
baybay 
bis iklet a 
apar ador 
kapi t olyo 
hus ay 
atub angan 
bungtud 
kus ina 
busfin 
pugad 
magul ang 
b andihado 
kas ily as 



198 

F. INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Conversion Drill . 

Word order is the only thing that is changed in 
a conversion drill, unlike in transformation 
drills where grammatical change is accomplished. 
This type of drill requires only movement of 
some words or phrases from initial position to 
medial or final position in the construction. 

The teacher gives the cue sentence while the 
students answer with full converted sentences. 
The teacher always reinforces the correct 
response and makes the whole class repeat for 
reinforcement . 



Place adverts can he illustrated "by using one 
object and moving it from one place to another 
in relation to a chair or a table in the room. 
The object can he placed on top, underneath, 
beside, near, far, etc., the chair or the table. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Bring a map to class and have the students 
describe the location of different countries or 
continents in relation to the oceans that 
surround them, the countries that are near them, 
et c . 

(b ) Give a brief geographical description of the 
United S t at e s . 

(c) Describe the location of things in the class- 
room. 



LESSON TWENTY-NINE 
Where is it (continued)? 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

. .-'.kilid/higad. . . 
malapit 
malay u 
tunga' 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



M2: 



CI: 



2. 
Ml: 



Di ' in ang ospital? 
Di'in ang balay sang 
Mayor ? 

Ara 1 sa kilid sang 

kapi t olyo . 
Ara' sa higad sang 

kapi t olyo . 

Di'in ang "balay sang 

Mayor ? 
Ara' sa higad sang 

kapi tolyo . 



Di'in ang munisipyo? 
Di'in si Imelda? 



Where is the hospital? 
Where is the house of 
the Mayor? 

There "beside the 

Cap it o 1 . 
There alongside the 

Capit ol . 



Where is the municipal 
hall? 



M2: Atu sa Kalye Rizal, 
malapit sa 'post 
office ' . 
Ara' sa tunga ni 
Mario kag ni Pedro. 

CI: Di'in ang munisipio? 
Atu sa Kalye Rizal, 
malapit sa 'post 
office ' . 



There on Rizal Street 
near the post office. 

There "between Mario and 
Pedro . 



C2: Di'in si Imelda? 
Ara' sa tunga' ni 
Mario kag ni Pedro, 



199 



200 

C. DRILLS 



Fixed Substitution Drill 

Ang baybay sa kilid sang Pepeekeo. 
h igad 
luyu 
atubangan 

Ang silhig ari sa tunga ' sang salug. 
h igad 
kilid 
i"b a"b aw 
i dalum 

Ang eskwelahan malapit sa munis ipyo . 

s imbahan 
tyanggi 
banwa 
syudad 

Ang s i mb ah an malayu sa eskwelahan. 
opi s ina 
balay 
plas a 
restaurant 

Conversion Drill . Move the position of the 
locative and make acceptable sentences: 

Ang simbahan malayu' sa eskwelahan. 
Malayu' sa eskwelahan ang simbahan. 

Ang bata' ara' sa tunga' sang iya manga 
ginikanan . 

Ang manga kahuy atu sa kilid sang karsada. 

Ang manga sya ara' sa higad sang dingding. 

Ang syudad malayu' sa baryu. 

Ang libro ara' sa aparador malapit sa lamesa. 

Si Cristobal ari sa tunga' ni Conrado kag ni 
Davi d . 

Si Cristina atu sa malayu'. 



201 

Inte g ration Drill . Put the elements of the cue 
sentences together and make one acceptable sen- 
tence: 

Cue 



Ang 1 i"br o ar i . 
Ang lit>ro sa lamesa. 

Ang lamesa malapit sa or Ang libro malapit sa 
akun . akun ari sa lamesa . 

Ang o tel ar a ' . 

Ang otel sa Kalye Quezon. 

Ang otel malayu' sa plasa. 

Ang tyanggi atu. 
Ang tyanggi iya ni 

Mrs . Sant o s . 
Ang tyanggi sa higad 

sang eskwelahan. 

Ang makinilya ari. 
Kay Carlos ang makinilya. 
Ang makinilya sa tunga' 
sang lamesa. 

Ang manga estudyante 

nagal akat . 
Pakadtu sa Hilo. 
Ang manga estudyante sa 

kilid sang karsada. 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Kilid and higad mean practically the same thing. 
Kilid is '"beside or side', higad is '"beside or 
alongs i de ' . 

2. Mai ayu ' and malapit are used as adverbs and 
modifiers . 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



alongside, side higad 

"beside, side kilid 
"between, middle, 

c ent e r tunga. ' 

"broom s llhig 



202 



church simbahan 

floor salug 

municipal hall munisipyo 

plaza, park plasa 

street, road karsada, kalye 

CUMULATIVE MONOLOGUE — Geography of the United States 



Ang Estados Unidos ara' sa tunga' sang 'Canada' kag 

'South Amerika'. Sa i b at av sang Estados Unidos ang 

'Canada' kag sa idalum ang 'South Amerika'. Ang 

Estados Unidos ginatawag man nga 'North Amerika'. 

Sa iya kilid ang manga dagat sang 'Pacific' kag 

'Atlantic'. Malayu' ang 'Estados Unidos sa iban 

nga manga nasyon. 

G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 

1 . Conversion Drill . 

Cue the students on how this drill is done. 
Give the first cue sentence and also the first 
response. Then have the students repeat this 
response. Teacher gives the second sentence. 
This time the students give the answer. Teacher 
reinforces the correct answer and makes the 
class repeat it. 

2 . Integration Drill . 

There are several possible answers to every item 
in this drill. Try to get all the possibilities 
so that the students will know various Hiligaynon 
constructions. Always reinforce correct re- 
sponses and correct the wrong ones. Make the 
drill as brisk as you can. 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A science teacher points out the parts of a 
gumamela or hibiscus to her students in grade 
four . 



203 

(b ) A young boy walks home with, his teacher and 
points out the names of the hills on the hori- 
zon, the location of the post office, the church, 
the town market, the town hall, and the court. 

k . For a brisk review, bring a big drawing of a 

town or a city. Label the different buildings. 
Have the students identify the position of each 
building in the drawing. 

5. Assign Written Exercise 7- Allow the students 
to complete this in two days time. Be sure to 
collect and correct the papers. Do not pay 
attention to the spelling. Check carefully the 
grammatical construction of sentences. If 
possible, go over the papers with the students 
individually so they will know their mistakes. 

The students can write either a short narrative 
of the drawing or a dialogue of 15 to 20 lines. 



LESSON TKIRTY 
Buying and Selling 
STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Tagpila ang . . . ? 

Pila 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Tag. 



1. 
Ml: 



M2 : 



Tagpila ang tu'alya' 
Pila ang i s a ka 
tu' alya? 

Tag uno singkwenta. 

Tag dos diyes . 



How much is one towel? 
How much is one towel? 



One peso and fifty 

cent avo s . 
Two pesos and ten 

cent avo s . 



CI: Tagpila ang tu'alya' 
Tag uno singkwenta. 

C2: Pila ang is a ka 
tu' alya? 
Tag dos diyes . 



2. 
Ml: 



M2: 



Tagpila ini? 
Tagpila ina ' ? 

Tag heynte sentimos 
Tag s alapi ' . 
Tag pisos . 



CI: Tagpila ini? 

Tag beynte sentimos 

C2: Tagpila ina'? 
Tag salapi ' . 

C3: Tagpila ini? 
Tag pisos. 



How much is this? 



Twenty centavos 
Fifty centavos. 
One peso. 



Ml: Pila ining manga 
lapis ? 



How much are these 
pencils? 



20U 



205 



Pila inang manga 
lap is ? 



How much, are those 
pencils ? 



M2: Tag singko sentimos. 
Tag dyes ini . 



Five centavos each. 
Ten centavos each. 



C : Pila ining manga 
lapi s ? 
Tag singko sentimos 

C2: Pila inang manga 
lap is? 
Tag dyes ini. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Tagpila ang gantang 

sang "bugas? 
Tagpila ang hilug 

sang mansanas? 
Tagpila ang metro 

s ang tela? 
Tagpila ang duha 

ka tumpuk nga mani? 



How much is one ganta 

of r ice ? 
How much is one apple? 

How much is a meter of 

cloth? 
How much is one pile 

of peanuts? 



Pila ang tatlu ka 

kilong karne? 
Pila ang tunga' sa 

gantang nga ma'is? 
Pila ining patatas? 

Pila inang lima ka 

"bugkus nga sitiuyas? 
Pila inang repolyo? 



How much is three 

kilos of meat? 
How much is half a 

ganta of corn? 
How much are these 

pot at oes ? 
How much are those 

five "bundles of onion? 
How much is that 

cabh age ? 



One peso per ganta. 
Ten pesos a piece. 



Tag pisos ang gantang? 
Tag dyes pisos ang 

bi lug . 
Tag salapi' ang dosena. Fifty centavos a dozen. 

Fixed Substitution Drill 



.a) Tagpila ang dosena sang mans anas ? 

per as 
pahu ' 
pinya 
itlug 



pear 
mango 
pineapple 
egg 



206 



(b) Tagpila ang gantang s,ang bugas ? 

ma ' is 
liarina 
gawgaw 
musko"bado 

kalamay 



[ c ) Pila ining s aging ? 
repolyo 
t alung 
gabi 
kamat i s 
kalabasa 

[d) Tag pi sos ang gantang 
s al api ' 
s et ent a 

beynte y singko 
kwatro pisos 
tres pisos 



corn 
flour 
s t arch 
unr e fined 

sugar 
refined 

sugar 
peanuts 



cabbage 
eggplant 
yam, taro 
tomato 
s q u'a s h 



Completion Drill . The student makes his own 
questions to ask for market prices of items 
most likely sold in the measure given: 

Pila ining isa ka tumpuk nga kamatis? 

ganta ganta 

kilo kilogr am 

metro meter 

bugkus bundle 

karton box 

pakete pack 

botelya bottle 

Expansion Drill 

Tagpila? 



ming 
isa 

ka kilong 
mans anas 



207 



Pila? 

inang 
duha 

ka tumpuk 

nga kamatis 

Tagpila? 

ang tatlu 
ka bilug 

nga repolyo 

5 . Deletion Drill 

Tag salapi' ang anum ka "bugkus nga sibuyas . 

nga sibuyas 
ka "bugkus 
ang anum 

Tag singko sentimos ang isa ka dosenang isda' 

is d a ' 

ka dosenang 

ang isa 

s entimo s 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Ka marks number quantity and is obligatory after 
a number. 

Nga connects two nouns, deictics and nouns, 
adjectives and nouns, or nouns and verbs. Dis- 
tribution is phonologi c ally conditioned. 

(a) When the preceding word ends in a vowel, nga 
is contracted to / - ng / and attached to the 
preceding word. 



ma ayu nga aga 
ini nga tela 



ma ayung aga 
ining tela 



(b ) When the preceding word ends in n_ , the n be- 
comes ng . 



atun nga balay v atung balay 



208 



It. 
(a) 



Cc) All other environments retain nga . 

tumpuk nga kamatis > tumpuk nga kamatis 

Tagpila expresses distributive quantity in that 
when used it indicates that the speaker wants to 
know the cost of each item. Tag p is os is used 
in the reply to indicate that each item is a 
peso. Pila asks how much for all. 

Sentence patterns: 

* Comment ( Topi c ) 

IP Hum ang H_ sang H_ 

(1) Tagpila ang tumpuk sang kamatis? 

(2) Pila ang gantang sang "bugas? 

(3) Tag pisos ang gantang sang hugas. 

(1) 'How much is one pile of tomatoes?' 

(2) 'How much is one ganta of rice?' 

(3) 'One peso per ganta of rice.' 



(a) * Comment 

IP Hum 

ValM Val 



Tag salapi' . 'Fifty centavos each. ' 
Tag lima ka pisos. 'Five pesos each. ' 



(b) 



Comment C Topi c ) 

IP Hum . ang * Ad,jP nga H_ 

(1) Pila ang duha ka tumpuk nga mani? 

(2) Tag 30(? ang duha ka tumpuk nga mani. 



209 



(ll 'How much is one pile of peanuts?' 
C2) 'Thirty centavos.' 



CM *AdjP 



Hum ka 



N 



duha ka gantang 'two gantas ' 

anum ka libro 'six hooks' 

CULTURAL NOTE , 

Spanish loan words are commonly used in counting 
rather than the Hiligaynon terms. However, to 
count from one to ten in Hiligaynon is not uncommon 
in the rural areas. 

Buying and selling is done in the metric measure 
and other 'native' forms of measurement which might 
he in bundles , piles, etc. Some Philippine open 
markets have a very limited supply of produce, 
mostly homegrown hy small farmers in their backyard 
gardens . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



banana 

bottle 

h ox 

bundle 

c abbage 

cent avos/ cents 

do zen 

eggplant 

expensive, dear 

fifty centavos 

five 

four 

gant a 

ground or polished 

rice grains 
how much 
kilogram 
mango 
met er 
onion 
pack/package 



s aging 

hot ely a 

kart on 

bugkus 

repolyo 

sentimos /sentabos 

dos ena 

t alung 

mahal 

s alap l ' 

lima. ' 

apat /kwatro 

gant ang 

bugos 

t agpila/pila. 

kilo 

pa.hu ' /mangga 

metro 

s i buy as 

pakete 



210 



Cparti cles 1 

peanut 

peso 

Ca ) piece 

pile 

pineapple 

s eventy 

six 

starch 

squash, pumpkin 

three 

two » 

unrefined sugar 

yam, taro 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



t ag , ka 

man! 

p l s OS 

"bllug 

tumpuk 

pinya 

s et ent a 

anum 

gawgaw 

kalabasa 

t at lu 

duha 

mus kobado 

gabi 



Al 

Bl 
A2 
B2 
A3 
B3 



Tagpila ang bugkus sang sibuyas? 

Tag f0.h5. Anu pa ang gusto mu baklun? 

Ini nga ma' is, pila ang duha ka gantang' 

f0. 90. Gusto mu? 

Hu'u, Ari ang bayad. 

Ari ang sensilyo mu . 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Completion Drill . 

The completion drill is a substitution-comple- 
tion drill in that the teacher provides cues 
for substitution and the students give complete 
stimulus sentences and responses. 

2. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
27, Ways of selling items; and Supplementary 
Vocabulary List 28, Common expressions and terms 
in science. 



3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Set up a store in the classroom and have 
the students act as customers and vendors. 



211 



C"b ) Let the students read the cumulative 
dialogue and have them narrate the dialogue. 



Cc} A person gets on the "bus and asks for 
information on how to get to the town of Marvel. 
He sits "beside an old man and starts exchanging 
pleasantries. He stops the "bus when he reaches 
his destination. 



LESSON THIRTY-ONE 
Bargaining and Math. 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Particles: nalang, abaw, sus, tanan, mu 

Formulas for bargaining 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Tyu ' , tagpila ang 

gantang sang bugas? 

Tyu' , tagpila ang 

gantang sang ma'is? 

M2 : Tag dos treynta ang 
gantang. Mabakal 
ka? 
Tag dos treynta. 
Mabakal ka? 

M3 : Abaw'. Kamahal.' 

Mahatag sa ?2.10? 

Sus '. Kamahal ! 
f2.1Q nalang. 

M 1 * : Ti'...sigi nalang. 
, sigi . 

CI: Tyu' , tagpila ang 

gantang sang bugas? 
Tag dos treynta ang 

gantang. Mabakal 

ka? 
Abaw! Kamahal! 

Mahatag sa ?2.10? 
Ti' . . .sigi nalang. 

C2: Tyu' , tagpila ang 

gantang sang ma'is? 

Tag dos treynta. 
Mabakal ka? 

Sus! Kamahal! ?2 . 10 
nalang . 

0, sigi . 



Tyu' , how much is one 

gant a of rice? 

Tyu' , how much is one 

ganta of co.rn? 

Two thirty a ganta. 
Will you buy? 

Two thirty a ganta. 
Will you buy? 

My, it is very expensive. 

Can you give it for 

?2 .10? 
My, it is expensive! 

How about ?2.10? 

Well , okay . 
Oh , okay . 



212 



213 



Ml; Inday , pila ini 
t an an? 
Nonoy, pila ini 
t anan? 



Inday, how much, for all 

of these? 
Nonoy, how much for all 

of these? 



M2: Ang pulbus , fl . 70 ; 
ang husay, 7*0.50; 
kag ang 'lipstick' , 
75.00. 77.20 tanan. 



The powder is 71.70; the 
comb is 70.50; and the 
lipstick is for 7*5.00. 
It sums up to 77.20. 



M3: Abawl Kamahal sang 
lipstick . 
Kwatro pisos nalang' 



MU: Indi ' gid mahimu. 

'Imported' ini, mu 
Indi' gidl 



My! But the lipstick 

i s expens ive . 
Can you give it for 

7*1.00? 

Can't be. This is 

imported, you know. 
Really no '. 



CI: Inday, pila ini tanan? 
Ang pulbus, 7*1.70; and 

husay, 7*0.50; kag ang 

' lipstick' , 75.00. 

77.20 tanan. 
Abawl Kamahal sang 

'lipstick' . Kwatro 

pisos nalang . 
Indi' gid mahimu. 

'Imported' ini, mu . 

C2: Nonoy, pila ini tanan? 
Ang pulbus, 71.70; ang 

husay, 70.50; kag ang 

lipstick, 7*5.00. 

77.20 tanan. 
Abawl- Kamahal sang 

lipstick. Kwatro 

pisos nalang . 
Indi ' gidl 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Tres singkwenta nalang? Can you give it for 73.50? 

Alkansi gid. Tres I am at a loss. I'll 

otsenta na. let it go for 73.80. 

Salapi' nalang? How about fifty centavos? 



2lU 



Indi' gid. Seysenta Really no.' Last price 

na. is ?Q.6Q. 

Piaos nalang? One peso? 

Alkanse . Uno beynte I'm at a loss. Last 

gid. price is fl . 20 . 

Dos singkwenta gid Is this really for 

ini? ?2 . 50? 

Hu'u, dos sing kw enta Yes, it is for 

gid. ?2.50. 

3. Nagapatindug sang t ay t ay ang manga tawu sang 
Baryo San Luis. Kinahanglan sang enhenyero 
kwarenta y singko ka "bilug nga kahuy para sa 
tulay. Mabakal ang isa ka "bilug nga kahuy sa 
f6 . 78 . Pila tanan ang magastu para sa tulay? 

1* . Ang dosena sang bulak tag 7*0.60. Ginayu' ni 
Imelda sa ?0 . 5 5 . Ginhatag sang tindera sa 
presyong J*1.15 ang duha ka dosena. Nagbakal si 
Imelda sang apat ka dosena. Pila ang iyang 
ginhayad sa tindera? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Malang is used to indicate lack of choice or 
alternative. In this lesson, it is more of a 
'limiting particle' like lang meaning 'only, 
just ' . 

Abaw and sus are exclamatory fillers meaning 
'My : ' or 'Oh! ' . 

Tanan is the 'generalizer particle' meaning 
'all' or 'all in all'. 

Ti ' is a hesitating particle which is fairly 
equivalent to the hesitating use of 'Well. . . ' 
in English. 



215 

5. Mu is a rejoiner like 'you know'. 

E. CULTURAL NOTE 

Bargaining is part of the buy-and-sell process in 
the Philippines. There are several "bargaining 
techniques, some of which are included in this 
lesson. In the first instance, "bargaining can "be 
tedious, "but it grows on the person and can "become 
a great deal of fun, an instrument "both for language 
learning and meeting people. 




Tiyo (literally 'uncle') Respect 

term for older men. 
Manung Respect term for older 

men . 
Tiya' (literally 'aunt') Respect 

term for older women. 
Manang Respect term for older 

wome n . 
Dodong, Nonong, Endearment terms for 

Nonoy , Toto ' younger "boys. 

Inday, Nene , Endearment terms for 

Palangga younger girls. 

Palangga is used for 'honey' or 'darling' among 
adults . 

The Filipinos are very particular about imported 
goods. There is a social prestige attached to the 
use of these items "because of their expensive price 
t ags . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



all tanan 

(is) bargain(ing) / gina/ ' ay u ' / an/ 

"bridge taytay 

butcher matadero 

eight walu 

eighty otsenta 



216 



endearment term for 

boys 
endearment term for 

girls 
failure to gain 
foot (measure) 
hundred 
money 

more , exces s 
nine 

( part icles ) 
pig, pork 
price 
pro -verb 
ran 
s even 
s eventy 
(will ) spend 
ten 

too much 
yard (measure) 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Nonong, Nonoy, Toto' 

Jnday , Nene' , Palangga' 
alkans e 

gatus 

kwarta 

lab aw 

s iy am 

abaw , siis , o 

b ab uy 

pr esyo 

anhun 

/nag /dalagan 

pit u 

s et ent a 

/ma/gas t us 

napulu ' 

masy ado 

y arda 



Al : Inday, pila ang kilo sang babuy? 

Bl: Tag J*3.50. Gusto mu? 

A2 : Indi ' . Kamahal, kag wala' aku sang kwarta. 

B2 : Sigi J*3.20 nalang para sa imu. Amerikano ka ti', 
damu ang imu kwarta. 

A3: Indi' , wala' gani ' aku sang kwarta. Peace Corps 
Volunteer aku. 

B3: Ay, Peace Corps ka gali ' ? 5*3.00 para sa imu. 

AU: Ay, salamat. Mabakal aku sang duha ka kilo. 

BU: Ini nga karne gusto mu? Tag 1*3.00 lang. 

A5: Mahal, eh. Mahatag sa {*2.80? 



B5 : Abaw, indi' gid. Alkansi aku. 
sa matadero sa {*3.00 ang kilo, 



Ginbakal ku ini 



A6 : Ti , wala' na gali sang ayu ' 



217 

B6: Wala' na. 5*3.00 gid. Bakal nalang. Indi ' man 
mahal masyado. 

AT: Anhun ku man ang madam ' nga karne? Wala' aku 

sang 'refrigerator' nga butangan. Mabuluk lang 
ina . 

BT: Ti' , ini nalang nga babuy ang "baklun mu? 

A8: Hu'u, duha ka kilo, ha. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Let the students read the math questions in 
class and have them figure out the answers. For 
a "written exercise ask them to make three of 
their own arithmetic problems for the level of 
education they are supposed to teach in their 
future j oh . 

2. Remind the students of the "bargaining terms 
given in the supplementary material section 
under common expressions. 



Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV haggles with a jeepney driver about 
the price of a field trip to a "beach resort for 
his c las s . 

( "b ) A PCV negotiates for a "boat ride to go to a 
nearby island. 

(c) A PCV bargains for a calesa ride to the 
regional office which is only five blocks away. 



LESSON THIRTY-TWO 
Market ing 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

May . . . ? Hu'u... 

Wala' . . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 

Ml: May "baligya 1 kamung Do you have pins for 

si"bit? sale? 

May patatas kamu? Do you have potatoes? 

M2 : Hu'u, may ara'. Yes, we have. 

Wala' kami sang We don't have 

patatas. potatoes. 

Wala ' . None . 

CI: May "baligya' kamung 
si"bit? 
Hu ' u , may ar a ' . 

C2: May patatas kamu? 

Wala' kami patatas. 

C3: May patatas kamu? 
Wala' . 

2. 

Ml: Tagpila? How much? 

M2 : Tag singko sentimos Five centavos apiece, 
ang "bilug. Matakal will you "buy? 
ka? 

M3 : Hu'u, (mabakal aku) Yes, (i will "buy) 
kinse ka "bilug. fifteen pieces. 

Indi ' . No . 

CI: Tagpila? 

Tag singko sentimos 
ang "bilug. Mabakal 
ka? 
Hu'u, mabakal aku 
kinse ka "bilug. 

218 



219 



C2: Tagpila? 

Tag singko sentimos ang 

bilug. Mabakal ka? 
Indi' . 



DRILLS 



Substitution Drill 



May baligya' kamung 
luwag ? 
plants a 
dapug 
s ilhig 
kulun 
b anig 
k alah a ' 



Do you have a ladle for 
sale? 

iron 

stove 

broom 

c 1 ay pot 

mat 

frying pan 



Mabakal sy a beynte ka 
b ilug . 

ikaw 

aku 

s ila 

kita 

kamu 

kami 

Beynte ka bilug . 
gant ang 
s ent imos 
pesetas 
pisos 

Question and Answer Drill . Answer the questions, 
first in the positive, and then in the negative 
Maimer: 



May kutsara sya? 



Hu'u, may kutsara sya. 
Wala' , wala ' sya kutsara. 



Madala aku sang papel? Hu'u, pagdala sang papel. 

Indi ' , indi ' pagdala 
sang papel. 

May manga plato kamu? 

May manga kaserola sila? 



220 



May bandekado sa lames a? 

May banig ang katre? 

Mahambal aku sang 
Hiligaynon? 

Matudlu' aku sang 
English? 

Matrabaho aku sa 
b aryo ? 

Mama'estro aku sang 
' Science' ? 

Matukar aku sang 
py ano? 

Expansion Drill 

Mabakal aku. 

s ang i s da ' 
karun 

sa hapun 

Maka ' un aku . 



s ang i s da ' 

kag mansanas 
karung gab'i 

Integration Drill 
of the two given: 



Make only one sentence out 



Naghampang sila sang 

'basketball' . 
Naghampang sila sa 

1 court ' ka ' ina. 

May ara' aku papel. 
May ara 1 aku lapis. 

May ara' sya mansanas. 
Wala ' sya sang peras . 



Naghampang sila sang 
' basketball' sa 'court ' 
ka ' ina . 



221 



Mahampang kami sang 

' volleyball ' . 
Indi ' kami mahampang 

sang 'football'. 

Mabakal si Ramon sang 

kamis et a . 
Mabakal sya sa tyenda 

sa Ala Moana. 

Tag pisos ang gantang. 
Tag pisos ang bugas . 

Nagtanum kami sang 

kamut i . 
Nagtanum kami sa 

hardi n . 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Existential sentences mean 'there is (are, was, 
will be, etc.) [the existent]'. The existent 
is either a noun or a verb and is introduced by 
may . 3 



2. Sentence patterns: 

may Ex Topi c 

Vb/N/D Pronl ( nga ) N 

(1) May baligya' kamu nga banig? 

(2) May ara' sila nga balay? 

(3) May balay kamu? 
( h ) May ara ' . 

(5) May balay sila. 



John Wolff, Beginning Cebuano Part I, New Haven, Conn: 
Yale University Press , 1966 , p~^ 91 . 



222 



(1) 'Do you sell mats?' 

(2) 'Do they have a house?' 

(3) 'Do you have a house?' 
ik] 'There is. ' 

(5) 'They have a house. ' 

E . VOCABULARY LIST 

clay cooking pot kulun 

frying pan kalaha' 

(to) have pro-verb may 

ladle luwag 

liter lltro 

(woven) mat banig 

pin s itiit 

("big sauce-) pan kaserola 

piano pyano 
(will) play musical 

instrument /ma/tukar 

small store tyenda 

stove dapug 

twenty centavo piece pesetas 

F. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al : May patatas kamu? 

Bl : Hu ' u , tag fO . 60 ang kilo. Pila ka kilo ang 
gusto mu? 

A2 : Tatlu ka kilo. Ini ang ginaka'un ku. Indi' 
aku gusto sang kan'un. 

B2 : Amerikano ka gid gali ' . Indi' mu luyag 
magka'un sang pagka'un nga Pilipino. 

A3: Indi' man subung sina'. Gusto ku gid ang 

adubu. Ang indi' ku lang gusto, ang kan'un. 

B3: San'u ka pa diri sa Pilipinas? 

Ah: Isa kag tunga ka tuig na aku di . 

B3: Siguru sa pila ka bulan magustohan mu man ang 
amun kan ' un . 



223 



VOCABULARY LIST 



month. 
that 



bulan 
s ina, ' 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV tries to "buy fruits and vegetables 
from an open market in Iloilo. 

(b) A PCV goes into a department store to "buy 
new c lothes . 

(c) A PCV asks for information on where to buy 
oil for his lamp. 

2. Assign Written Exercise 8 from the supplementary 
materials. Allow two days for this exercise. 

3. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
29 > for English teachers only. 



LESSON THIRTY-THREE 
Pets 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
May . . . ? Hu'u... 

Wala' . . . 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: May i du ' ka? 

May kuring ka? 

M2 : Hu'u may ara'. 

Wala' , wala' aku 
s ang kuring . 

CI: May i du ' ka? 

Hu ' u may ara' . 

C2: May kuring ka? 

Wala' , wala' aku 
s ang kuring . 



2. 
Ml: 



May ara' bisita si 

Per la . 
Walay bisita si 

Per la . 
Wala' sing bisita 

si Perla . 



Do you have a dog? 
Do you have a cat? 

Yes , I have . 
No , I don ' t h ave 
a c at . 



Perla has a visitor. 
Perla has no visitor. 



M2: A, gali ' ? 

Ti ' , dali ' . Bisita- 
han nat un , eh . 

CI: May ara' bisita si 
Perla. 
A, gali'? 

C2 : Walay bisita si Perla. 
Ti', dali', bisitahan 
natun , eh . 



Is that so? 
Well, let's go and 
vis it her then . 



22U 



C3: Wala' sing "bisita ai 
Perla. 
Ti' , dali" . Bisitahan 
nat un , eh.. 

DRILLS 



225 



Repetition Drill 

May kuring si Maria. 

May gansa' si Carlos. 

May kanding si Cecile 

May pispis ang bat a'. 

May baka sa uma. 

May karbaw sa uma. 



Mary has a pet cat. 

Carlos has a pet goose. 

Cecile has a pet goat. 
The child has a bird. 

There is a cow in the 

field. 

There is a carabao in 

the farm. 



Question and Answer Drill 

May karnero sa gwa'? Is there a sheep outside? 

Hu'u may ara'. Yes, there is. 

May karnero si Tomas? Does Thomas have a sheep? 

Wala' , wala' sya sing No, he doesn't have a 

karnero. sheep. 

May b ab uy sa lagwerta? Is there a pig in the 

yard? 
Hu'umay ara'. Yes, there is. 

May babuy si Manuel? Does Manuel have a pig? 

Wala' , wala' sya sang No, he does not have a 
b abuy . pig • 

May manuk sa lagwerta? Is there a chicken in 

the yard? 
Hu'umay ara'. Yes, there is. 

May manuk ang bata'? Does the child have one? 

Wala' , wala' sya sang No, he doesn't have 
manuk . one . 

Fixed Substitution Drill 



May manuk aku , 
karnero 
kanding 
kuring 
pispis 
baka 
k a r b aw 



226 



Wala' aku sing manuk . 
b ab uy 
"baka 
idu' 
gansa ' 
p abo 

Movable Substitution Drill 



May libro sya. 

a.ku , 

lapis . 



tulun ' an_. 

si Jaime. 

a n g e s kw e 1 a . 



Wala' si Cynthia sang manga pagka'un. 
Marta 



ilimnun . 



_Carlos 
M or it a 



isda ' 



5. Transformation Drill . Make negative statements 
from the following: 

May kwarta aku. Walay kwarta aku. 

May dyip gali' ikaw. 

May suga' man. 

May balay sila didtu. 

May tawu dira' sa higad. 

May tubi' kami. 

May b at a ' sy a . 

May asawa aku. 

May serbesa ikaw. 

May balay kamu didtu? 

May bisita si Perla subung? 

May amigo ka gali' sa Amerika? 

May kwarta ikaw? 

May lugar bala sa dyip? 

May kasilyas ang imu kwarto? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Sentence pattern: 



Comment 



Topic 



Megative Adv Pronl PerName N_ 
Wala' sya 
Wal a ' s i Jose 



227 

Ex 

sans N. 
s ang pap el . 
sang papel. 



Wala' 



ang tawu sang papel. 



'She has no paper. ' 
'Jose has no paper.' 
'The man has no paper. ' 



VOCABULARY LIST 

"b ook t ulun ' an 

carabao, water "buffalo karbaw 



cat 

come on, let's go 
cow- 
dog 
goat 
goose 
light 
o ut s i de 
place 
sheep 

student, pupil 
turkey 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



kuring 
dali ' 
b aka 
idu' 
kanding 
gans a 
suga. ' 
gwa.' 
lugar 
karnero 
eskwela 
pabo 



A: May ara' kamu nga isda'? 

B: Hu'u, karun lang ini nag'abut halin sa dagat . 

A: Tag pila ang kilo sang inyung "bangrus? 

B: Tag ?2.00 lang. Pila ka kilo ang gusto mu? 

A: Baw, kamahal man sina'. Mahatag sa 1*1.50? 
Wala' na aku sang kwarta. 

B: Alkanse gid. Lab'as gid ini, mu . 

A: Ti, pagkilo abi sang apat ka bilug, tan'awun ku 
kun pila. 



22i 



B: J 1 U . ka pisos ini tanan. Dalagku' abi ini. 

A: Ay, indi' nalang aku anay magbakal. Silingun ku 
ang akun amu kun gusto nya. Mabalik nalang 
aku karun. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
30, Animals and Pets. 

2. To introduce new terms for animals, bring pictures 
to class. Drawings of animals can also be used 

if pictures are not available. 

3. Transformation Drill. 



For the first part, positive statements are to 
be made into negative. In the second part, the 
questions are to be made into negative statements. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations. . 

(a) A PCV is invited to be a guest speaker at the 
meeting of a local troop of Girls Scouts or 

Boys Scouts and is asked to answer questions 
about activities of young girls and boys in the 
United States . 

(b) A PCV inquires about things he needs in the 
house, in a hardware store, or a grocery store. 

(c) Two young women tell each other about books 
and records they have at home. 

Drill on the pattern of May . . . Wala ' thoroughly 
because this is one point of difficulty for 
Hiligaynon learners. Drill especially on the 
us e of wala ' . 



LESSON THIRTY-FOUR 
Numbers, Days and Months 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



Pila ka , 



. ang . 
s a 



(number ) . . . ang . 
s a 



MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1 . 
Ml 



M2 : 



Pila ka adlaw ang isa 

ka semana? 
Pila ka bulan sa isa 

ka tu'ig? 



How many days (are there) 

in one week? 
How many months (are 

there) in one year? 



Pitu (ka adlaw ang isa (There are) seven days 

ka s emana ) . 
Dose (ka "bulan sa isa 

ka tu'ig) . 



in one week. 
(There are) twelve months 
in one y ear . 



CI: Pila ka adlaw ang isa 
ka semana? 
Pitu ka adlaw ang isa 
ka semana. 

C2: Pila ka "bulan sa isa 
ka tu'ig? 
Dose ka bulan sa isa 
ka tu'ig. 



2. 
Ml: 



M2 : 



Anu ang adl aw b w a s ? 
Nanu nga bulan su"bungi 

Lune s bwas . 
Agosto subung. 



What day is it tomorrow? 
What month is it now? 

Tomorrow is Monday. 
It is August now. 



CI: Anu ang adlaw bwas? 
Lunes bwas . 

C2: Nanu nga bulan subung? 
Agosto subung. 



229 



230 

C. DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Pila ka adlaw ang isa How many days are there 

ka semana? in a week? 

Pitu ka adlaw. Seven days. 

Pila ka adl aw ang isa How many days are there 

ka "bulan? in a month? 

Treynta o treynta y Thirty or thirty-one. 

uno . 

Pila ka adlaw ang How many days in two 

duha ka semana? weeks? 

Katorse ka adlaw. Fourteen days. 

Pila ka "bulan ang How many months in a 

tunga' sa tuig . half year? 

Anum ka "bulan. Six months. 

Pila ka semana ang How many weeks are there 

tunga' sa "bulan? in half a month? 

Duha ka semana. Two weeks. 

Completion Drill . The student answers the ques- 
tions "by putting in the time element given: 

Anu ang adlaw subung? subung 

Anu ang adlaw k ah a pun? kahapun 

Anu ang adlaw "bwas? bwas 

Anu ang adlaw sunud 

bwas? sunud "bwas 

Anu ang "bulan subung? subung 

Anu ang sunud nga ang sunud nga 

"bulan? "bulan 

Anu ang tu'ig subung? subung 

Anu ang petsa subung? subung 

Anu ang adlaw sunud 

sa Lunes? s unud sa Lunes 

Anu ang adlaw sunud sunud sa 

sa Myerkoles? Myerkoles 

Anu ang adlaw sunud sunud sa 

sa Dominggo? Dominggo 

Anu ang "bulan sunud sunud sa 

sa Abril? Abril 

Anu ang bulan sunud sunud sa 

sa Septyembre. Septyembre 

Nanu nga adlaw sunud 

bwas? sunud bwas 

Nanu nga adlaw sunud 

sa Lunes? sunud sa Lunes 



231 



Nanu nga adlaw aunud 

sa Martea? 
Nanu nga bulan aunud 

sa Nobyembre? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



s unud sa Martes 
sunud sa 



Nobyembre 



Anu and nanu are dialect variants of 'what'. 



Sentence pattern: 
Comment 



Topic 



N 



IP Num ka N_ ang sa num ka 

(1) Pila ka adlaw ang is a ka semana? 

(2) Pitu ka adlaw ang is a ka semana. 

(3) Pila ka bulan sa isa ka tu ' ig? 
(h) Dose ka bulan sa isa ka tu'ig. 

(1) 'How many days are there in a week?' 

(2) 'Seven days in a week. ' 

(3) 'How many months are there in a year? 
(h) 'There are twelve months in a year. ' 

VOCABULARY LIST 



dat e 

day 

f ourt een 

what 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



pet s a 
adlaw 
kat or se 
nanu 



Al : Pila ka tu'ig ka na? 

Bl : Beynte y kwatro anyos na aku . 

A2 : Magulang gali ' aku sa imu. Beynte y singko na 
aku . 

B2: Di'in ka nag'estar sang beynte ka tu'ig? 

A3: Diri sa Amerika, pero naghalin ang akun familya 
sang balay sang singko anyos pa lang aku. 



232 



B3: Kami man. Sang trese anyos aku , nagkadtu kami 
sa Canada kag nag'estar kami didtu sang lima 
ka tu'ig. Subung nag balik na kami diri sa 
Amerika. Ang amun balay atu didtu sa Rockport, 
Massachusetts. Nakita mu na ang Rockport? 

AU : Indi ' pa. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

family familya 

thirteen trese 

(able) to see, to meet /na/k£ta' 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 

1. This time, start on a narration process. Always 
have the students read the cumulative dialogues 
a day in advance. Then get about two or three 
of them to narrate what happened in these dia- 
logues. Also you can ask them to narrate what 
they did the day or night before. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) An English teacher teaches her students the 
days of the week and months of the year. She 
also introduces the use of the calendar. 

(b) A math teacher explains the number of days 
in a month, week, year, etc. 



(c) A science teacher uses the sun and the moon 
to explain the phenomenon of day and night. 



LESSON THIRTY-FIVE 
The Big Question of Why 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Nga' a. . . ? Kay . . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Nga'a makadtu ka sa 
t indahan ? 
Nga'a makadtu ka sa 
Hilo? 

M2 : Kay mahakal aku sang 
sorhe t e . 
Kay may 'appointment' 
aku sa doktor. 



Why will you go to the 

s tore? 
Why will you go to 

Hilo? 

Because I will "buy ice 

cream . 
Because I have an 

appointment with the 

doct or . 



CI: Nga'a makadtu ka sa 
tin dahan? 
Kay mahakal aku sang 
s orbet e . 

C2: Nga'a makadtu ka sa 
Hilo? 
Kay may 'appointment' 
aku sa doktor. 



2 . 
Ml 



Nga'a nagdalagan si 

Alfredo? 
Nga'a nagdalagan si 

Alicia? 



Why did Alfredo run? 
Why did Alicia run? 



M2 : Kay nagdali' sya. 
Kay ulihi na sya. 



CI: Nga'a nagdalagan si 
Alfredo? 
Kay nagdali' sya. 



Because he was in a 

hurry . 
Because she was already 

lat e . 



233 



23U 



C2: Nga'a nagdalagan si 
Alicia? 
Kay ulihi na sya. 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Nga'a masulat ikaw? 
Nga'a makadtu ka sa 

Pilipinas ? 
Nga'a madiskurso si 

Presidente Nixon? 
Nga'a mabakal ka sang 

s igar ily o? 
Nga'a matulug ka 

subung? 



Why will you write? 
Why will you go to 

the Philippines? 
Why will President 

Nixon speak? 
Why will you buy 

c i garett es ? 
Why will you sleep 

now? 



Nga'a nag'upud si 

Tomas? 
Nga'a nagkadl aw k a ? 
Nga'a natuyu sya 

s ub u n g ? 
Nga'a naghibi' si 

Gloria? 
Nga'a nagpalta si 

Jose kahapun? 



Why did Thomas go with 

them? 
Why did you laugh? 
Why is she sleepy 

now 2 
Why did Gloria cry? 

Why was Jose absent 
yesterday? 



Question and Answer Drill . Provide answers to 
the following questions. The answers can be any- 
thing provided they are grammatically correct. 
(Some guidelines are given.) 



Nga'a matulug ka 

s ubung? 
Nga'a makadtu ka sa 

Pilipinas ? 

Nga'a mabakal ka sang 

si gar ily o? 
Nga'a nagdala ka sang 

libro? 
Nga'a nagkadl aw k a ? 
Nga ' a gusto mu 

magtrabaho sa 

baryu? 
Nga'a 'Science' ang 

' ma j or ' mo ? 



Kay ginatuyu aku . 

Kay gusto ku magtudlu' 
sang manga bat a' sa 
Pilipinas . 

Kay matabaku' aku. 

Kay mabasa aku. 

Kay nagkadlaw man sila. 
Kay kinahanglan sang 

manga t aw u sa baryo 

ang bulig . 
Kay luyag aku sang 

'Science ' . 



235 



3. Chain Drill . Teacher starts the chain: 

T: Nga'a ari ikaw sa Honohina? 

SI: Kay naga'training' aku sa Peace Corps. 

SI: Nga'a ari ikaw sa Honohina? 

S2: Kay naga'training' aku sa Peace Corps. 
Nga'a ari ikaw sa Honohina? 

S3: Kay naga'training' aku sa Peace Corps, 
et c . 

Substitute ikaw with: si Arturo 

si Charley Rech 
si Mr . Guerrero 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Sentence pattern: 
(a) 



IP *Vb *Act 



(1) Nga'a nagdalagan ka? 

(2) Nga'a nagatahi ' ang mananahi ' ? 

(1) ' Why did you run? ' 

(2) 'Why is the seamstress sewing?' 

(b) 

Conj * Vb * Act * Obj /* Dir 

(1) Kay nagdali ' sya. 

(2) Kay nagkuha' si Maria sang dagum. 

(3) Kay makadtu kami sa Hilo. 

(1) 'Because he/she is in a hurry. ' 

(2) 'Because Maria got a needle.' 

(3) 'Because we will go to Hilo.' 



236 



f Act 



*Obj 



>Dir 



f Vb 



Pronl PerName 



si PerName anj 



N 



ikaw 
kamu 



'you (singular ) 
' you (plural ) ' 
si Marta 'Marta' 

si Josefa 'Josefa' 

ang doktor 'the doctor' 
ang pintor 'the painter' 



sang W_ 

sang libro 'a book' 

sang mani 'a peanut' 

sa Dir 

sa Manila 'to Manila' 

sa syudad 'to the city' 

/ nag - / / naga - / / ma - / 
nagsulat 



nagas ulat 



masulat 



/ maga -/ 



magasulat 



VOCABULARY LIST 

(was) absent 
be caus e 
ci garet t e 
cried 
hurry ( ed) 
laugh ( ed) 
why 



/nag /p alt a 

kay 

s igar lly o 

/nag/hibi ' 

/nag/ dali ' 

/nag/kadl aw 

nga ' a 



237 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Al : Nga'a ang Peace Corps nagapadala sang manga 
ma'estra sa ibang nasyon? 

Bl : Kay gusto sang Amerika magbulig sa manga tawu 
sang kalibutan. 

A2 : Nga'a, wala' bala sang problema ang Amerika? 

B2 : May ara'. Madamu' gani ' . Pero gusto lang sang 
manga Amerikano magkadtu sa ibang lugar para 
maghimutad sang pangabuhi sang manga tawu nga 
indi' Amerikano. 

A3: Ma'ayu ina'. Pero indi' bala, 'propaganda' lang 
ang Peace Corps? 

B3 : Indi' , ang Peace Corps ginhimu ni Presidente 

Kennedy kag ni Presidente Johnson para gid sa 
pagbulig sa ibang tawu. 

A.k : Madamu sang kwarta ang Amerika, anu? Magastu 

ang pagpadala sang manga bata sa Asya , sa Afrika, 
kag kun di'in pa nga lugar. 

Bk : Hu'u, gani'. Pero ina' ang ginasiling nga 

kinahanglan sang Amerika ang manga amigo sa 
ibang lugar. Mahal nga 'project'. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



country, nation nasyon 

life, way of life pangabuhi' 

made, did /gin/himu 

(to) observe /mag/himutad 

world, earth kalibutan 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Question and Answer Drill . 

Responses can be any logical response to ques- 
tions, provided these are grammatically accept- 
able to native speakers. 



236 



2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Have the students defend the existence of the 
Peace Corps to an inquiring crowd of young stu- 
dents in Bacolod. 

(b ) Can Americans defend the presence of the 
United States in Asia? 



(c) A PCV goes to a cockfight to bet on a cock 
owned by a friend. 



LESSON TRIRTY-SIX 
For Whom? 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Para kay sin'u. . .? Para k ay . . . ' 
s a anu s a 

MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Para kay sin'u ang 
bulak? 
Para sa anu ang 
bulak? 



For whom is the flower? 
What is the flower for? 



M2: Para kay Miss Ramos 
Para s a imu . 
Para sa lamesa ni 
Mi s s Ramo s . 



For Miss Ramos. 

For you. 

For Miss Ramos' table, 



CI: Para kay sin'u ang 
bulak? 
Para kay Miss Ramos. 

C2 : Para kay sin'u ang 
bulak? 
Para sa imu. 

C3: Para sa anu ang 
bulak? 
Para sa lamesa ni 
Miss R am os . 

DRILLS 

1. Repetition Drill . Teacher should distribute 

drawings and pictures for the students to use: 



ara sa akun 


ang 


r etr at o . 




imu 




lya 




at un 




amun 




myu 





The picture is for me, 



ila 



239 



21+0 



Para kay Nena ang The gift is for Nena. 
r egalo . 

Rosit a 
Renato 
Miguela 

2 . Expansion Drill 

P ar a s a bata. 

ang pagka ' un 
sa ibabaw 

sang lames a 

Para kay Manang Alicia. 

ang libro 
sa idalum 

sang estante 

Para s a akun . 

magulang 
manga 

ang prutas 
sa sulud 

sang kahun 
s a kilid 

sang aparador 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Para means 'for' . When combined with, k ay sin'u 
'whose' , p ara kay sin'u means 'for whom'. 

2. Para sa anu means 'what for' . 

VOCABULARY LIST 

for whom para kay sin'u 

gift regalo 

picture retrato 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Al : Mabakal aku sang bulak. 
Bl : Anung klase? 



2tl 

A2 : Ina nga manga rosas. Tagpila ang dosena sina'? 

B2 : Tag fk .00 . 

A3: Mahatag sa ?3.50? Regalo ku sa akun nobya. 

B3: Indi' mahimu sa ?3.50. ? 3 . 8 gid. 

Ak : Sigi. May 'delivery service' kamu? 

Bk : Hu'u, para kay sin'u ini? 

A5: Ari ang iya 'address' . Pa'deliver' nalang bvas . 
Diy as ny a abi . 

B5: Pila ka dosena ang baklun mu? 

A6 : Duha ka dosena. Ari ang bayad, o. May bayad 
ang ' delivery ' ? 

B6: Wala ' , libre para sa amun manga suki'. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

birthday diyas 
favorite customer, or 

regular customer suki' 

free libre 

roses rosas 

sweetheart , girlfriend nobya 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 3) 



Repetition Drill . 

Bring pictures or articles which students are to 
use while the drill is in progress. You can 
substitute names of different articles. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A teacher hands out Christmas presents to 
his class. 

(b) A family picks up their Christmas presents 
from under the tree during Christmas Day. 



LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN 
Which. One? 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Di ' in s ini . . . ? 
si na' 
sadtu 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Di'in sini ang relo 

ni Daniel? 
Di'in si na ' ang 

libro ni Daniel? 
Di'in s adtu ang 

kwarto ni Daniel? 



Which of these is Daniel's 

watch? 
Which of those is Daniel's 

book? 
Which of those [yonder) 

is Daniel's room? 



M2 : Ini ang relo ni 

Daniel . 
Ina ' ang relo ni 

Daniel . 
Atu ang relo ni 

Daniel . 



This is Daniel's watch. 

That is Daniel's watch. 

That (yonder) is Daniel's 
wat ch . 



CI: Di'in sini ang relo 
ni Daniel? 
Ini ang relo ni 
Daniel . 

C2: Di'in sina' ang libro 
ni Daniel? 
Ina' ang libro ni 
Dani el . 

C3: Di'in sadtu ang kwarto 
ni Dani el? 
Atu ang kwarto ni 
Dani el . 



DRILLS 



Fixed Substitution Drill 

Di'in sini ang libro ku ? 
sya mu 
katre niya 

2^2 



2^3 



balay nila 
lamesa natun 

Di'in sina' ang awtu n i Carlos ? 

bola Tony 

bayu' Maria 

tsinelas Victoria 

delargo Jose 

Di'in sadtu ang blosa sang dalaga ? 
falda babayi 
hampangan bata 
tabaku ' lolo 
makinilya sekretarya 

Movable Substitution Drill 

Ini ang balay nila. 

ku 

Ina' 



sings ing 

nya 



Atu 



sang manga estudyante 

ni Mrs. Motus 

s ang soltero 



3. Transformation Drill . Convert the following 

statements into questions using either sin ' u or 
di'in s ini . 

Ini ang imu . Di'in sini ang imu? 
Si Tomas ina'. Sin'u ina'? 

Si Mrs. Tolentino ina'. 
Atun ini . 

Ini ang balay sang hefe. 
Atu ang iluy sang akun 
eskwel a. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



The form for 'which' in Hiligaynon is dependent 
on the distance between the objects and the 
speaker. When the objects are near the speaker 
di'in sini is used. When the objects are far 
from the speaker, di'in sina' is used. When 
the objects are very far from both the speaker 



2UU 



and the hearer, di ' in s adtu is used. 
VOCABULARY LIST 



chief 

grandfather 
ring 

tobacco , cigar 
toy 

(which of) these 
(which of) those 
(which of) those 
(yonder ) 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



hef e 

lolo 

singsing 

t ab aku ' 

hampangan 

/ di ' in/ s in! ' 

/ di ' in / s ina. ' 

/di 'in/ s adtu 



Al 
Bl 
A2 
B2 
CI 
A3 
DI 



Kay sin'u 'fountain pen' ini? 

Ambut . Bas i ' 'fountain pen' sang b at a ina' 

Di ' in sina ' ? Ina ' ? 

Hu'u, ina' sya. 

Indi ' , 'fountain pen' ni Jose ina'. 

'Fountain pen' mu ini, Jose? 

Hu ' u, akun ina' . 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 1+) 

1. Bring pairs of visual aids to illustrate the 
concept 'which' without going into translation, 

2. Transformation Drill. 



The statements are the possible answers which 
start with either sin' or di ' in s ini . The teach- 
er gives the statements and the students provide 
possible questions which will elicit the kind of 
answers cued. 

Have the students do Written Exercise 9 from the 
supplementary materials for a brief review on 
deictics. Check the papers in class. Allow only 
five or ten minutes for this exercise. 



2k5 



h . Suggested Role-playing Situations , 



Ca) Two roommates study for their exams. One 
requests the other to hand him a book which is 
in the middle of a pile of "books. The other 
requests his friend to pass him his notebook 
from the desk in the corner of the room. 



(b ) A female PCV goes to a clothing store to 
buy several kinds of material for some dresses 
she would like to have sewn for her. 



UNIT VIII 
Modi fiers 



LESSON 38: The Colors 

LESSON 39: Descriptions 

LESSON 1*0: Comparisons 

LESSON Ul: Superlatives 

LESSON 1+2: The Mostest 



UNIT VIII 

Modifiers 

There are a limited number of words in Hiligaynon which 
are modifiers in themselves. Most of the modifiers are 
derived from nouns and affixed with modifying affixes 
/ ma- /or / ka- / . 

The most common way to form modification or attribution 
in Hiligaynon is by putting a nga between two words 
which may be a noun and a noun, a noun and an adjective, 
a noun and a deictic, or a noun and a verb. The nga 
signals the attribution of one word to the other. 



bata' nga lalaki 

bata' nga maniwang 

bata 1 nga ina' 

bata' nga nagahibi' 



' a male child ' 
' a thin child' 
'that child' 
'the child who is 

crying ' 



Nga can be affixed as a /-n_g_/ after words ending in a 
vowel, as a /-£_/ after words ending in n_. 

There are degrees of comparison in Hiligaynon. The most 
common way of forming a comparative or superlative degree 
comparison is by adding the particle mas before the modi- 
fier in the sentence. The superlative degree can also be 
formed by affixing / pinaka -/ to adjectives. 



Si Luisa matahum. 

Si Lourdes mas matahum 

kay Luisa. 
Mas matahum si Carmela 

sat anan . 
Pinakamat ahum si 

C arme 1 a . 



'Luisa is beautiful.' 
'Lourdes is more 

beautiful than Luisa. 
'Carmela is most 

beautiful of all . ' 
'The most beautiful is 

C armel a . ' 



LESSON TEIRTY-EIGHT 
Th.e Colors 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Base adjectives 

MICRO-DIALOGUE 

Ml: Anu ang kolor sang 
bulak? 
Kamusta ang imung 
"bag'ung sapatus? 

M2 : Pula ang bulak. 
Hu'ut . 

CI: Anu ang kolor sang 
bulak? 
Pula ang bulak. 

C2: Kamusta ang imung 
bag'ung sapatus. 
Hu'ut . 



What is the color of the 

flower? 
How is your new pair of 

shoes ? 

The flower is .red. 
It is tight. 



DRILLS 



Fixed Substitution Drill 



Pikit ang bayu' . 

kami s adentro 
delar go 

Halug ang s apatus . 
medy as 
pantalon 
sings ing 

Dalag ang pap el . 

' polo shirt ' 
baso 
pany u ' 
hus ay 
pinta 



The dress is tight. 
shirt 
long pants 

The pair of shoes is loose, 
socks 

long pants 
ring 

The paper is yellow. 
sport shirt 
glas s 

handker chi ef 
comb 
paint 



2k8 



2 1*9 



Rosa ang bayu ' nya . 
sobre 
pap el 
t ela 

Lila ang "bulak. 

lay a ' 

berde 

asul 

daku ' 

dyutay 

H ilaw ang isda'. 

lutu' 

buhi ' 



Her dress is pink. 
envelope 

paper 
cloth. 

The flower is violet . 
withered 
green 
"blue 
"big 
small 

The fish is raw. 

cooked 
alive 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



Some modifiers appear in the base form without 
affixes or markers attached to them. This is, 
however, true only of some adjective forms. 

Sentence pattern: 

Comment Topi c 



Ad.j 
Pikit 
Pula 
VOCABULARY LIST 



N 



ang "bayu ' . 
ang papel . 



'The dress is tight. 
'The paper is red. ' 



alive 

"big 

"blue 

color 

envelope 

green 

loose 

new 

paint 

p ants 

pink 

r aw , unripe 

red 

small , little 



"buhi ' 
daku ' 
asul 
kolor 
sobre 
berde 
halug 
bag ' u 
pi nt a 
pant alon 
ros a 
h ilaw 
pula. 
dyutay 



250 



right 
violet 
withered 
yellow 



hu ' ut , pikit 
lila 
lay a ' 
dalag 



F. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: h ) 

1. Since this lesson is practically a review of 
equational sentence patterns, swift and brisk 
drilling can be done by introducing the colors 
in a meaningful way using visual aids. A model 
or drawing of a rainbow of colors should be 
brought to class for this. 

2. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
31 , Colors . 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Have students describe the colors of each 
others' clothes. 



(b) Have a clothing store or a flower shop set 
up in the room and role-play a customer-salesman 
situ at ion . 



LESSON THIRTY-NINE 
Descriptions 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

. . .nga. . . 

MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Di'in ang b at a ' nga 

lalaki? 
Di'in ang bata' nga 

dyutay? 
Di'in ang b at a ' nga 

nagh ibi ' ? 
Di'in atu nga bata'? 

M2 : Ari sa sulud. 
Atu sa gwa. 
Ari nagakatulug sa 

katr e . 
Sa i dalum sang 
lame s a . 



Where is the male child? 

Where is the small child? 

Where is the child who 

cried? 
Where is that child? 

He is in here . 
He is outs i de . 
Here sleeping in the bed. 

Under the table. 



CI: Di'in ang bata' nga 
lalaki? 
Ari s a s ulud . 

C2: Di'in ang bata' nga 
dyutay? 
Atu sa gwa. 

C3: Di'in ang bata' nga 
naghibi ? 
Ari nagakatulug sa 
k at r e . 

CU: Di'in atu nga bata'? 
Sa i dalum. sang 
lame s a . 

DRILLS 

1. Substitution Drill. 



Insert a nga between the 



two nouns, the adjective and noun, the noun and 
verb, or the deictic and noun to form attribu- 
t i ve phras es : 



251 



252 



Ang bata' lalaki. 
Ang bata' nga lalaki 



The child is a boy. 
The male child 



Ang babayi mat ahum. 
Ang bayu' dekolor. 



The girl is beautiful. 
The dress is multicolored. 



Ang amay abogado. 

Ang estudyante mapisan. 

Ang dalaga ma'estra. 

Ang soltero bugalun. 
Ang panaptun nag'ugis. 
Ang iyang utud 

prope s or . 
Ang eskwela nagabasa. 
Ang t aw u maniwang. 
Ang dalaga reyna. 
Ang manga ginikanan 

nagahambal . 



The father is a lawyer. 
The student is diligent. 
The young woman is a 

t e acher . 
The young man is proud. 
The cloth faded. 
His brother is a 

profess or . 
The pupil is reading. 
The man is thin. 
The young lady is a queen, 
The parents are talking. 



Completion Drill . Complete the sentence by 
supplying a phrase introduced by nga : 



mat ahum 
utud 

akun 

pula 
daku ' 

Pr es i dent e 
maniwang 
ma' a lam 
bugalun 



Ang babayi 
Si Maria 



_nagkadtu sa tyenda. 



_ni Marta nagapungku ' da' 
tiyo nagpa'uli sa 



s a sy a. 
Si Mr. Luces 

Bacolod. 

Ang bayu' nag'ugis. 

Ang eskwelahan madamu' sang 

estudyante . 
Si Johnson 



makadtu s 



'France ' . 



Nagdalagan ang bata' . 

Ang eskwela nagmasakit. 



Gusto magdiskurso ang_ 



kandi dat o . 



Deletion Drill 



Inang librong pula kag 
kwardernong asul ang 
akun manga butang. 



Integration Drill 



Cue 
pula 
asul 
ina ' 
manga 
libro kag 



Ang babayi matahum. Ang babayi reyna. 
Ang matahum nga "babayi reyna . 



Si Mr. Torres amay ni 
Ros emeli a . 



253 

Si Mr. Torres atu didtu 
s a Negr os . 



Si Roberto doktor, 



Si Roberto utud ni 
Reynaldo . 



Ang hardin daku ' 



Ang hardin madamu sang 
t anum . 



Ang manga bayu' pula. Ang manga bayu' madamu'. 



*Comment 



D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 
Sentence patterns: 

Comment * Topi e 
IP/D 

(1) Di'in ang bata' nga ina'? 

(2) Di'in ang dyutay nga bata'? 

(3) Ari diri ang bata' sa sulud. 

(1) 'Where is that child?' 

(2) 'Where is the small child?' 

(3) 'The child is here inside.' 



*Topic 



Adi 



D V 



Adj. 



dyutay 



ang bata' 



ang bata' 
ang bata' 



nga 
nga 
nga 
nagsulat nga dyutay 



,*Topic pattern continued on following page) 



25U 

*Topic pattern continued: 

N D V 

bat a' 'small child' 

'the small child' 
balay 'this house' 

b ab ay i 'the lady who is writing 

ina' 'that child' 

nagsulat 'the child who wrote' 

•Comment 

Ob,i Dir 

sang N_ sa Dir 

sang panaptun 'a piece of cloth' 

sang reyna 'of a queen' 

sa kandidato 'to the candidate' 

sa baryo 'to the barrio' 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



beautiful /ma/tahum 

candidate kandidato 

cloth panaptun 
colored, multi-colored dekolor 

diligent /ma/pisan 

fade(ed) /nag/ugis 

proud , haughty bugalun 

queen reyna 

(got) sick /nag//ma/sakit 

smart, bright /ma/ ' alam 

thin /ma/niwang 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. Students go over Supplementary Vocabulary List 
32, Hiligaynon Base Adjectives and Formatives. 

2 . Completion Drill 

Students are to complete the sentences by supply- 
ing a phrase introduced by nga in the blanks 
provided. This drill can be utilized as a writ- 
ten exercise, especially in intensive language 



255 

programs when class hours extend from five to 
eight hours a day. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A class votes on where to go for a field 
trip. Each student tries to defend his sugges- 
tion. 

("b ) A PCV refuses an invitation to a "baptismal 
party because of a prior invitation to a "birth- 
day party . 



Introduce riddles from the supplementary materi- 
als section. 



LESSON FORTY 

Comparisons 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/ma-/ adjective formative 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 

1. 

Ml: Mabakal ka sining Are you going to buy this 

pulang 'sweater'? red sweater? 

Mabakal ka sining Are you going to buy this 

madamul nga 'sweater'? thick sweater? 

M2 : Kun barato. If it is cheap. 

CI: Mabakal ka sining 
pulang 'sweater'? 
Kun barato. 

C2: Mabakal ka sining 

madamul nga 'sweater'? 
Kun barato. 

2. 

Ml: Maniwang sya. He/she is thin. 

Maniwang si Myrna. Myrna is thin. 

M2 : Maniwang man ikaw. You are thin also. 
Pero matambuk si But Teresita is 

Teresita. fat . 

CI: Maniwang sya. 

Maniwang man ik aw . 

C2 : Maniwang si Myrna. 
Pero matambuk si 
Teresit a. 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Ma'alam ang manga The students are smart 
es tudy ant e . 

256 



257 



Mapisan ang manga 

t awu . 
Ma ' abi ' ah ihun ang 

manga ginikanan. 
Malaba' ang lapis. 
Malamig ang tyempo. 
Magin'ut ang tyempo. 
Madasig ang bata'. 
Ma' arte ang ma'estra. 



The people are diligent/ 

industrious . 
The parents are friendly. 

The pencil is long. 
The weather is cold. 
The weather is warm. 
The child is fast. 
The teacher is artistic. 



Substitution Drill 



Mat ambuk ang bat a' 

mat ahum 

maniwang 

madas i g 

malaw ' ay 

mal a' in 

m ah in ay 

ma ' ayu 



The child is 



fat . 

beauti f ul 

thin 

fast 

ugly 

bad 

slow 

well , good 



Ma ' ab i ' ab ihun man aku . I am also friendly, 
ikaw 
sya 
kit a 
kami 
kamu 
s ila 

si Pedro 
and direktor 

Expansion Drill . Expand the sentences by insert- 
ing nga and the descriptive word given: 

Cue 
matambuk Matambuk nga b at a sya. bata 

ma' abi 'abihun 
mapi s an 
maputi ' 
ma'it um 
maswerte 
m ab u ' u t 

Deletion Drill . Take out the pronouns from the 
following sentences: 



Madamu' ang akun mais. I have much corn. 
Madamu' ang ma 1 is. There is plenty of corn. 



25! 



Madamu' ang iyang 

repolyo . 
Madamu ' ang amun 

s ibuyas . 
Madamu' ang ila 

prut as . 
Madamu' ang inyu 

t anum . 



ang ila b alay , 
ang akun 



Madaku ' 
Madaku ' 

kwarto . 
Madaku' ang inyu 

eskwelahan . 
Madaku' ang atun 

puloy ' an . 

Expansion Drill . Insert a possessive pronoun in 
the following sentences: 

Madamu' ang ma'is. sy a There is much corn. he 
Madamu' ang iyang ma'is. He/she has much corn. 



Madamu ' 
Madamu ' 
Mad am u ' 
Madamu ' 
Mad am u ' 



ang kamatis 
ang tanum. 
ang pinya. 
ang papel . 
ang mani . 



aku 
kita 
kamu 
ikaw 
si 1 a 



Conversion Drill . Give the opposite description 
for the following sentences: 



Matahum ang b ab ay i . 
Malaw'ay ang babayi 



The girl is beautiful 
The girl is ugly. 



Mapisan ang bata' . 
Mata'as si Pedro. 
Maniwang si Consuelo . 
Maputi' ang manga 

Ame rikano . 
Madamu' ang libro sa 

lame s a . 
M ah in ay ang trak. 
Magamay ang manghud. 

Malip'ut ang bayu'. 
Mabaskug ang radyo . 
Masabad ang manga 
eskwela . 



The child is diligent. 
Peter is tall. 
Consuelo is thin. 
Americans are fair in 

complexion . 
There are many books on 

the table . 
The truck is slow. 
The younger child is 

small . 
The dress is short. 
The radio is loud. 
The pupils are trouble- 

s ome . 



259 



Malayu' ang suba' . The river is far. 

Makusug si Juan. John is strong. 

Matalum ang kuts.ilyo. The knife is sharp. 

Manamit ang pagka'un. The food is delicious 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. / ma- / makes adjectives out of certain roots: 

tahum 'beauty' 

matahum 'beautiful' 

init ' heat ' 

ma'init 'hot, warm' 

daku ' 'big ' 

madaku ' 'big' 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



b ad /ma/la, ' in 

cheap barato 

cold (weather) /ma/lamig 
dark in complexion, 

black /ma/'itum 

delicious /ma/ nam it 
fair in complexion 

white /ma/puti' 

fast /ma/dasig 

fat, stout /ma/tambuk 

house, dwelling puluy ' an 

i f kun 

kind, approachable /ma/ ' abi ' abihun , 

/ma/bu ' ut 

long /ma/laba ' 

lucky /ma/swerte 

noisy /ma/sabad 

resonant, strong /ma/baskug 

river sub a.' 

sharp /ma/talum 

short /ma/lip'ut 

slow /ma/hinay 

small /ma/gamay 

strong /ma/kusug 

t all /ma/t a. ' as 

thick /ma/damul 

ugly /ma/law 'ay 

vain, artistic /ma/'arte 

warm (weather) /ma/gin'ut 

weather tyempo 



260 

F. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Expansion Drill . 

This drill can be cued by using flash cards. The 
permanent cue is bata ' , so this card should be 
displayed throughout the drill. The modifiers 
change as the drill progresses. When all the 
modifiers have been used, perhaps the permanent 
cue word can be changed to another word which 
will also take all the modifiers given to form 
logical and acceptable sentences. 

2. Deletion Drill. 



Only one word is taken away from the 'Cue sen- 
tence each time. 

Conversion Drill. 



The positive attribute is changed to a negative 
one or the negative is changed to a positive one 
depending on the cue sentence. 

Suggested Role-playing Situations. 

(a) Bring to class pictures of objects that con- 
trast in size, shape, color, etc., and let the 
students describe the differences. 

(b) A walking trip around the campus or training 
site may prove interesting and profitable for 
vocabulary increase and meaningful retention of 
new terms . 

Introduce the song, Uyang , U yan^ . 



LESSON FORTY-OWE 

Superlatives 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/ ka - / adjective superlative 

/ka-/ + base + s_a + NP 

kay 
s ang 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: K at ahum sa imu. 
Katamad sa imu. 

M2 : Salamat . 

Wala ' aku s a 
kondisyon subung. 

CI: Katahum sa imu. 
S al amat . 

C2: Katamad sa imu. 

Wala' aku sa kondisyon 
subung . 



How beautiful you are. 
How lazy you are. 

Thank you. 

I am not in the right 
mood today . 



2. 

Ml: Kata'as kay Pedro. How tall Pedro is. 

Katambuk kay Gloria. How fat Gloria is. 

M2 : Hu'u, hasta sa iyang Yes, I come up only to 



abaga lang aku. 
Ind i ' man , a . 

CI: Kata'as kay Pedro 

Hu'u, hasta sa iyanf 
abaga lang aku. 

C2 : Katambuk kay Gloria, 
Indi ' man , a . 



his shoulders . 
Not really . 



Ml: Katahum sang aritus 
mu . 
Katahum sang dagat . 



How nice your earrings 

are . 
How nice the sea is. 



261 



262 



M2: Salamat. Matahum man 
ang imu. 
Hu'u, siguru kanami 
maglanguy subung . 



Thanks. Yours is also 

nice . 
Yes, it may be nice to 

go swimming. 



CI: Katahum sang aritus 
mu . 
Salamat. Matahum man 
ang imu. 

C2: Katahum sang dagat . 
Hu'u, siguru kanami 
maglanguy subung. 

h. 

Ml: Anu kalayu' ang suba'? 
Anu kalapit ang suba'? 



How far is the river? 
How near (not far) is 
the river? 



M2 : Ara ' lang , o . 

Ara ' sa likud sanj 
bungtud . 



It's just there. 
There behind the hill. 



CI: Anu kalayu' ang suba'? 
Ara ' lang , o . 

C2: Anu kalapit ang suba? 
Ara' sa likud sang 
bungtud . 

DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 



Kadasi g s a i 1 a. 
K ah in ay sa imu. 
Kadugay sa inyu. 
Kakapuy sa akun . 
Kagahud sa atun . 
Kadyutay sa amun . 
Ka'ayu kay Pedro. 
Kadaku' kay Juan. 
Katahum kay Teres! 
Kapula kay Gamelo 



How fast they are. 

How slow you are. 

It took you so long. 

How tired I am. 

We are very noisy. 

We are very few. 

How good Pedro is. 

Juan is very big. 

How beautiful Terry is. 

How red Gamelo is. 



Kadaku' sang balay. 
Kadyutay sang tawu. 
Kagin'ut sang tyempo 



The house is very big. 
The people are very few. 
How warm it is. 



263 

Kalamig sang tyempo . How cold it is. 

Kagwapo sang lalaki. How handsome the man is. 

Kabudlay sang leksiyon. The lesson was very hard. 

C o m p letion Drill . Choose between a /ma-/ or a 
/ ka - / formative affix for the following bases: 

berde sang tan urn. 

niwang sang karbaw. 



_ta'as ang kahuy. 

taint) uk ang bat a' . 

gin'ut ang tyempo. 

daku' sang bola. 

_sakit ang tiyan ku . 

_tugnaw ang tubig. 

_dyutay sang manga tawu. 

_damu' ang manga estudyante 

gahud ang manga bata' . 



Completion Drill . Construct your own sentences 
using the markers given, providing your own 
adjectives and the correct affixes to go with 
them. Provide also the noun to be modified. 

Mata'as ang kahuy. 



1. 




ang 










2. 




s ang 




3. 




ang 




h. 




ang 


3n 


D 


r i 




5. 




s ang 




Fixed 


Subs 


t itut i< 


11 


Katah 


urn sang ila 


b 


al 


ay 




kadyu 


tay 












kata ' 


as 












kalaw 


' ay 












kadak 


u' - 












kalab 


a' 













How beautiful their 
house is. 



Anu kalayu ' ang suba? How far is the river? 

kalapit bay bay close beach 

kalaba' dalan long road 

kadasig awto fast car 

kadugay sini long movie 

kasutil bata' naughty child 



26h 



5- Exp ansion Drill . Add the cued adjectives to the 
following sentences: 

Ang balay malapit sa suba' . 

mat ahum 
daku ' 

malapad 

Ang i du ' naglakat sa lagwerta. 

mat ambuk 
mat i nlu ' 

put i ' kag it urn 

Ang b at a ' naga'estar sa balay. 

si Pedro 

lalaki 

pula 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. / ka - / can function as an adjective formative 
affix expressing exclamatory quality, or super- 
lative degree of comparison. 

2. / ka - / also functions as a noun formative affix 
expressing abstractness of a quality. 



3. 
(a) 



Sentence patterns: 



Ad j Comp 

s a Pr on2 kay Per Name sang Pr on2 N_ Pr on3 

(1) Katahum sa imu. 

(2) Katahum kay Clarita. 

(3) Katahum sang b ab ay i . 
( h ) Katahum sang inyu balay. 

(5) Katahum sang balay ninyu. 



265 



(1) 'You are so pretty.' 

(2) 'Clarita is so pretty.' 

(3) 'The lady is so pretty.' 
(h) 'Your house is so pretty. ' 
(5) 'Your house is so pretty. ' 



(b) 



Comment Topi c Comment 

IP ang ka- R sang H_ n_i_ PerHame 

(1) Anu ang kalaba'un sang bayu'? 

(2) Anu ang katason ni Jose? 

(l) 'How long is the dress?' 
( 2 ) 'How tall is Jose? ' 

VOCABULARY LIST 



cl ean , pure 

condition, mood 

difficult, hard 

earrings 

handsome 

long ( ti me ) 

naughty 

noisy 

path, cleared path dalan 

similar daw sa, daw 

stomach, abdomen tiyan 

until hasta 

wide /ma/lapad 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



/ma/tinlu ' 
kondi syon 
/ka/budlay 
aritus 
/ka/gwapo 
/ka/dugay 
/ka/sut i 1 
/ka/gahud 



A: Uy , Maria, kadaku' na gali ' sang b at a ' mu? 

B: Hu ' u , nagalakat na sya. 

A: Pila ka tu'ig na ang iyang edad? 

B: Duha ka tu'ig na sya karung Mayo. 

A: Kag kagwapa gid sa iya. Daw sa manyika' bala. 

B. Abaw, pero kasutil sa iya, mu . Kun anu gani ' 
ang iya gusto, makuha' gid nya. Kahibalo na 
mag ' arte . Palangga' abi sya sang iya amay . 



266 



A: Nagahambal na sya? 

B: Wala' pa. Nagada-da-da palang. Kahibalu ka na 
kun anu ang manga bata' . Ti ' , ari ka nalang 
anay . Mamasyar kami sa plasa kay gusto gid ni 
Marta maghampang sa manga pispis didtu. 

A: Sigi. Makadtu man aku sa tindahan kay 

kinahanglan ku ang isa ka gantang nga bug as 
para sa amun panyapun karun . 



G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Completion Drill . 

Again this can be made into a written' exercise 
for intensive language programs to give the 
instructor a rest from modelling. Cues can be 
"written on flash cards beforehand and flashed 
alternately. Since there are only two different 
terms, only two cards are needed. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) An American describes America and the 
American people to a group of young boys and 
girls . 

(b) Describe the government of the United States. 

(c) A bachelor PCV goes serenading with a group 
of local boys . 



LESSON FORTY-TWO 
The Mostest 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

Mas for comparison of qualities 

/pinaka-/ for superlative 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Matahum si Maria. 

Manggaranun si Maria. 

M2: Mas matahum si Daisy. 
Mas manggaranun si 
Daisy . 

CI: Matahum si Maria. 

Mas matahum si Daisy. 

C2: Manggaranun si Maria. 
Mas manggaranun si 
Daisy. 



2. 
Ml : 



Sin'u ang pinaka- 

mat a ' as ? 
Mata'as si Carlos 

sa tan an? 



Mary is beautiful. 
Mary is rich. 

Daisy is more beautiful, 
Daisy is richer. 



Who is the tallest? 

Is Carlos the tallest 
of all? 



M2: Si Carlos ang 

p in ak am at a ' as . 
Hu ' u , mat a ' as si 
Carlos sa tanan, 



Carlos is the tallest, 

Yes , Carlos is 
tallest . 



CI: Sin'u ang pinaka- 
mat a ' as ? 
Si Carlos ang 
pinakamat a ' as . 

C2: Mata'as si Carlos 
sa tanan? 
Hu'u, mata'as si 
Carlos sa tanan. 



267 



268 



Ml: Mas mahisa' si Ana kay 
Maria . 
Mas daku ' ini kay sa 
dir i . 



Ana is more envious 

than Maria. 
This is bigger than 

this one . 



M2 : Si Carmen ang mas 
mahisa sa tanan. 
Mas daku' atu sa 
t an an . 



Carmen is the most 
envious of all. 

That is biggest of 
all. 



CI: Mas mahisa si Ana 
k ay Maria. 
Si Carmen ang mas 
mahisa sa tanan. 

C2: Mas daku ini kay sa 
diri . 
Mas daku' atu sa tanan 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 



Mat am' is ini. 

Mas matam'is ini kay 

s a ina ' . 
P inakamat am ' i s atu. 



Thi s is sweet . 

This is sweeter than 

that . 

That is sweetest. 



Mapisan si Roberto. 
Mas mapisan si Danilo. 
Mapisan si Senen sa 
tanan . 



Roberto is diligent. 
Danilo is more diligent. 
Senen is the most 
diligent of all. 



Malamig ang Pebrero. 
Mas malamig ang 

Desyembre . 
Mas malamig ang Enero 

sa tanan . 



February is cold. 
December is colder. 

January is coldest of 
all. 



Fixed Substitution Drill 



Mas mahi s a ' si Lourdes 
kay Elma. 
map is an 



mabu ' ut 

maput i ' 
ma ' i turn 



Lourdes is more envious 
than Elma. 

indus- 
trious 
kind 
fair 
dark 



269 



Mas ma nam it a n g a d ub u . 
ma ' aslum 
ma ' alat 
ma ' pait 

Pin a kamabu ' ut s i 
Adelai da . 
map i san 
mahi s a ' 
maputi ' 
ma ' it urn 



Adobo is more delicious, 
sour 
s alty 
bitter 

Adelaida is the 
kindest . 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. Mas expresses comparative degree. It also ex- 
presses the superlative degree if used with the 
phrase s a tan an . It can be omitted provided the 
compared elements are both mentioned in the sen- 
tence . 



Mas mata'as si Pedro 

s a akun . 
Mata'as si Pedro sa 

akun . 
Mas mata'as si Juan 

sa t anan . 
Mata'as si Juan sa 

t anan . 



'Pedro is taller than 

I am . ' 
'Pedro is taller than 

I am . ' 
'John is tallest of 

all. ' 
'John is tallest of 

all . ' 



The superlative degree can be constructed in 
two ways: with mas + sa tan an or with the pre- 
fix /p inaka -/ attached to the base. The prefix 
ma- in pinakamabu ' ut is the adjectival formation, 



Mas mata'as si Pablo 

sa t anan . 
Pinakamat a ' as si Pablo, 



'Pablo is tallest of 

all. ' 
'Pablo is the tallest, 



VOCABULARY LIST 



bitter 

envious 

February 

rich 

s alty 

s our 

sweet 

than 



/ma/pa ' it 

/ma/hi s a 

Febrero 

manggar an ' un 

/ma/'alat, /ma/'asin 

/ma/ ' aslum 

/ma/tam ' is 

kay s a 



270 

F. 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 1 — Sa Pula, Sa Puti 

Al: Uy Gerardo, sa anu nga manuk ka mapusta'? 

Bl : Sa pula aku . Daw sa makusug gid sya. 

A2: Sa puti' aku. 'Texas' siguru ina'. Makilala 
mu na sa iya paglakat. 

B2: Sigi, pila ang imu pusta'? Ari ang akun , singko 
pisos . 

A3: Pustahan ku ikaw. Mada'ug aku sini. 

B3: Tan ' awun natun. Ma'umpisa na ang bulang. 

AU: Ang puti' nakun nga manuk... sigi... tira... 

Bk : Ay , gintira nya ang pula...Ti'... 

A 5 : Maluy a na ang puti'. 

B5: Ginsiling ku na sa imu. Ang pula ang mada'ug, 
eh, indi' ka magpati. 

A6 : Ari ang imu da'ug. Bwas aku man. Maswerte ka 
lang subung. 



G. VOCABULARY LIST 

( to ) believe 
(will) bet 
cockfight 
fight, kick 
may be 
weak 

H. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 2 



/mag /pat i 

/ma/pus t a ' 

bulang 

tira 

s i guru 

/ma/luya 



A: Abaw, katugnaw didtu sa akun opisina! 

B: Nga'a? May 'air conditioner' kamu? 

A: Hu ' u , kag wala' aku magdala' sang 'sweater' 
ka ' ina . 

B: Mas matugnaw siguru sa amun . Si Mr. Smith abi 
gusto nya nga matugnaw gid kunu para daw sa 



271 

Amerika na. Baw! Kami nga manga Pilipino sa 
opisina naga ' swe at er ' nalang. 

A: Sin 'u ini nga si Mr. Smith. Sya bala ang inyung 
bag'ung direktor? 

B: Hu'u bag'u lang sya nga nag ' abut halin sa New 
York. Sya ang matudlu' sang bag'ung manga 
pagbuhat sang abunu. Daw sa 'scientific ad- 
viser' b al a . 

A: A. Gali ' . Sin'u ang mas ma'ayu sa ila, si Mr. 
Smith o ang da ' an ninyu nga direktor? 

B: Ambut lang kay wala' pa magdugay diri si Mr. 

Smith. Pero daw sa mas mabu'ut sya kay sa kay 
Mr. Williams. Tan'awun pa namun. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1. To illustrate the concept of comparison, bring 
three samples of an object in different sizes, 
or lengths, or colors. It can be flowers to 
illustrate beauty, or leaves to illustrate 
length or size. 

2. Make use of narrations about activities around 
the training grounds to make students use the 
language more extensively at this point. 

3 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A science teacher introduces the concept of 
the roundness of the earth. 

(b) A first grade teacher introduces the rain- 
bow scientifically. 

(c) A P CV gets his first tub a ' drinking experi- 
ence in a corner ty anggi ' . 



UNIT IX 
The Aptative 



LESSON U3: Talents 
LESSON kk: Abilities 



UNIT IX 

The Aptative 

The aptative is roughly equivalent to the English usage 
of 'can' or 'able to', i.e., the possibility that events 
have occurred or will occur. The aptative also express- 
es the ability of people to perform certain actions. 

The aptative in Hiligaynon is signalled by affixes 
attached to the verbs. The aptative forms vary accord- 
ing to focus and time. Only two focus forms are present- 
ed in this unit: the aptative actor and the aptative 
goal . 

Aptative verbal affixes are: 

Actor, completed: /naka-/ 
Actor, proposed: /maka-: 



Goal, completed: /na-/ 
Goal, proposed: /ma-/ 



LESSON FORTY-THREE 
Talents 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
/maka-/ + NP 
/naka-/ 
MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Makalutu' ka? 
Makakanta ka? 

M2 : Hu'u, makalutu' aku . 
Indi ' , indi ' aku 
makakant a . 



Can you cook? 
Can you sing? 

Yes, I c an cook . 
No, I cannot sinj 



CI: Makalutu' ka? 

Hu'u, makalutu' aku. 



C2: 



Makakanta ka? 

Indi', indi' aku makakanta. 



2. 

Ml: 



Nakaka'un ka na? 
Nakatudlu' ka? 



M2 : Nakaka'un aku. 

Indi' aku nakatudlu' 



Have you eaten already? 
Were you able to teach? 

I have eaten already. 

I was not able to teach. 



CI: Nakaka'un ka na? 
Nakaka'un na aku. 

C2: Nakatudlu' ka? 

Indi' aku nakatudlu' 



DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Makalutu' ka bwas ? 
Makasa'ut ka karun? 
Makabasa ka subung? 
Makalumpat ka sa 
hagdan ? 



Can you cook tomorrow? 
Can you dance later? 
Can you read now? 
Can you jump from the 
s t ai r s ? 



27U 



275 



Makakanta ka sa 

programa? 
Makatukar ka sang 

pyano ? 
Makatahi' ka sa 

makina? 
Makasulat ka sa 

ma ' estr a? 
Makatan'aw ka sang 



Can you sing in the 

program? 
Can you play the piano? 

Can you sew on the 

machine? 
Can you write to the 

teacher? 
Can you see the movie? 



Makasa'ut ka sang 

tinikling? 
Makalutu ' ka sang 

pany apun ? 
Makabasa ka sang 

pery odiko ? 



Can you dance the 

tinikling? 
Can you cook dinner? 

Can you read the news- 
paper? 



Makatahi' ka sang bayu'? Can you sew a dress' 



Makaka'un ka sang 

litsun? 
Makalanguy ka sang 

m a 1 aw i g ? 
Makalumpat ka sang 

mat a ' as ? 
Makalaba' ka sang 

p ant alon? 



Can you eat letson? 

Can you swim for a 

long distance? 
Can you jump high? 

Can you wash pants? 



Substitution Drill 

Makatan'aw ka sang sini bwas' 

s a ' ut 



karun 



_programa_ 



didtu 



telebisyon 

ni la 



Makatahi' sya sang bayu' ku? 
pant alon 



_b 1 us a 
f alda" 



Expansion Drill 
Makatukar ka? 



sa pyano 

nga ' St einway ' 
sa balay 



276 

Makatahi' si Nilda? 

sang b ayu ' 

nga 'muu-muu' 
nga may bulak 
para bwas 

Makasa'ut ka? 

sang tinikling 

para sa pro gram a 
sa Dominggo 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. / maka- / is a verbal affix which denotes ability 
or potentiality to perform an action. It is 
sometimes equatable to English anxiliaries 'can' 
or ' may ' . 

2. / maka- / expresses infinitive and proposed action, 
while / naka - / expresses completed action. 

3. / maka- / often occurs in a short form /ka-/. 

k. Sentence patterns follow actor focus construc- 
tion patterns. 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



(can) jump /mak a- /lumpat 

long (distance) /ma/lawid 

machine makina. 

roasted pig litsun 

stairs hagdan 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE — Hiring a Maid 

Al: Aku si Maria. Gusto ku tani' magtrabaho diri 
sa imung balay . 

Bl : Anu ang imu mabuhat? Makalutu' ka? 

A2: Abaw, hu ' u . Mayad gid aku maglutu' . Kusinera 
anay aku sa isa nga restaurant sa Iloilo . 

B2 : Makalutu' ka sang relyeno? Paborito ku ina' , 
mu . 



277 

A3: Kahapus lang sina' , Sir. Kun gusto mu eh, 
lutu ' an ku ikaw bwas. 

B3: Sus Inday, indi' ka magdali'. Makalaba ka? 

AU: Hu'u, malimpyo gid ang akun linabhan. 

B^: Ti' , pamangkutun ku ang akun asawa kun anu ang 
siling ny a . 



CI: A, sya si Maria? 

A5: Hu'u, aku si Maria, Ma'am. 

C2: Maria, kahibalu ka kunu maglutu' kag maglaba? 
Ma'ayu ina'. Kinahanglan gid namun ang 
labandera kag kusinera subung. Ang trabaho 
mu halin sa alas syete sang aga hasta sa alas 
otso sang gab'i. Kun hapun, ti', wala'man 
sang madamu' nga olubrahun. Makapahuway ka 
s ang dyut ay . 

B5: Salamat. Ang akun sweldo kay Mr. Santos, beynte 
pisos isa ka bulan. 

A6 : Ti ' , beynte pisos man ang imu sweldo diri . 

Ta'asan namun kun makita namun nga ma'ayu ang 
imu trabaho. Diri ka mag'estar. May duha ka 
mutsatsa na kami para magbantay sa manga bata'. 
Ang imu obra ang maglutu' kag maglaba. 

B6: Salamat, Mr. Reyes. Mahalin aku diri bwas. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



(washed) clothes 

e asy 

favorite 

know 

( wi 1 1 ) move to , 

transfer 
( can ) rest 
s alary 

stuffed chicken or fish 
work 



linabhan 
/ka/hapus 
p ab o r 1 1 o 
/ka/hibalu 

/ma/hali n 

/ m ak a / p ah uw ay 

sweldo 

r elyeno 

obra, olubrahun 



278 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 
1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV hires a maid to clean the house, cook 
and do the laundry for her. 

(b) A PCV hires a small "boy to cook for him, and 
in exchange, offers to pay the boy's school 
expens es . 



2. Introduce the poem, Ang Manga Landun g. 

3. Assign Written Exercise 10 from the supplementary 
materials . 



LESSON FORTY-FOUR 
Abilities 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
/ma-/ VR 

/na-/ 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: 



M2: 



Makuha' mu ang 

mans anas ? 
Maka'un mu ang 

mans anas ? 

Hu'u, makuha' ku. 
Indi' , busug na aku, 



CI: Makuha' mu ang 
mans anas ? 
Hu'u, makuha' ku . 

C2: Maka'un mu ang 
mans anas ? 
Indi' , busug na aku, 



Can you get the apples? 
Can you eat the apples? 



Yes , I can get it. 
No, I am already full. 



Ml: Nakuha' mu ang 
eks amin? 
Nalutu' mu ang 
kan ' un ? 



Were you able to take 

the exams? 

Were you able to cook 

the rice? 



M2: Hu'u, nakuha' ku 
ang eks amin . 
Wala ' pa. 

CI: Nakuha' mu ang 
eks amen? 
Hu'u, nakuha' ku 
ang eksamen. 

C2: Nalutu' mu ang kan'un? 
Wala' pa. 



Yes, I was able to 

take the exams. 
Not y et . 



279 



280 



DRILLS 




1. 


Repetition 


Drill 




Makuha' in 


ang pahu? 




Mabaligy a ' 


sang tawu 




ang i s da ' 


9 




Madala nin 


yu ang manga 




maleta? 






Matanum na 


tun ang 




s ampaguit 


a? 




Mapangayu ' 


namun ang 




bulak? 






M a' in urn ni 


la ang gatas ? 




Matawag sang ma'estra 




ang estudyante? 




Madala ni 


Maria ang 




mabug ' at 


nga kahun? 




Matapus ni 


Patri cia 




ang iyang 


tr ab aho ? 




Nakuha iu 


ang pahu? 



Nabaligya' sang tawu 

ang i s da ' ? 
Nadala ninyu ang manga 

maleta? 
Na'inum nila ang gatas? 

Natawag sang ma'estra 

ang estudyante? 
Nadala ni Maria ang 

mabug' at nga kahun? 
Natapus ni Patricia 

ang iyang trabaho? 



Can you get t 
Can the man s 

fish? 
Can you manag 

the b ag s? 
Can we plant 

s ampaguit a? 
Can we ask fo 

flower? 
Can they drin 
Can the teach 

the student ? 
Can Maria car 

heavy box? 
C an Patr ic i a 

her work? 
Were you able 

mango ? 
Was the man 

sell the fis 
Were you able 

the b ags ? 
Were they abl 

the milk? 
Was the teach 

call the stu 
Was Maria abl 

the heavy bo 
Was Patri cia 

finish her w 



he mango? 
ell the 

e to bring 

the 

r the 

k the milk? 
er call 

ry the 

finish 

to get the 

able to 
h? 
to bring 

e to drink 

er able to 

dent? 

e to carry 

x? 

able to 

ork? 



Conversion Drill . 

(a) Change / maka- / to / ma -/ and nominal pronouns 
to source pronouns in the following sentences: 



Makakuha' ikaw sang 
manga prut as . 



Makuha' mu ang manga 
prut as . 



Makaprito sya sang 

manuk . 
Makala'ga si Ofelia 

s ang karne . 
Maka' ih aw ang kusinera 

s ang sud ' an . 



281 

Makasakay si Ciellto 

sa barutu. 
Makah.amhal ang pikuy 

s ang ' iiello ' . 
Makalupad ang pispis 

s ang mat a ' as . 
Makasaka' kamu sang 

kahuy . 
Makadalagan kami sa 

baybay . 

( b ) Change the / maka— /to / naka - / and / ma - / to 
/ na -/ affixes of th_e verbs in the above drill: 

Integration Drill . Make only one sentence out of 
the two given : 

Natulug sya sa baybay. Naglanguy sya sa dagat 

kahapun . 
Natulug sya kag naglanguy sa baybay 
kahapun . 

Matawag nya ang iyang Matawag sya sa 
iluy. telepono. 



Nakita' ni Rosita ang Nadula' ang singsing 
singsing. sa banyo. 



Ma'ihaw ku ang babuy . Ma'ihaw ku sa dapug . 



Malutu' sang kusinera Malutu ' man sya sang 
ang kan'un. manga isda'. 



Makakadtu kami sa Indi' ma'upud si Vicky 

Manila''. kay makatu sya sa Baguio. 



GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. / maka- / and / naka- / belong to actor focus affixes; 
/ ma- / , / na— / are goal focus affixes. 

2. Sentence patterns: 



282 



(a) 

(i! 

(2) 
(a) 



Vb * Act * 0"h,1 Dir 

/ maka - / / naka - / 

Makatawag sya niuu. 

Nakatawag si Cecile sa Hilo . 

Cl ) 'He will be able to call you. ' 

(2) 'Cecile was able to call (by phonel Hilo. 

*Act 

Pronl PerName 



kami 
kamu 



Houn 
si PerName ang N 



(a) 



si Victor 
si Manuel 



*Obj 

Pron3 PerName 



ang babayi 
ang tiyo 



' we ' 

' you ' 

' Vi ctor ' 

' Manuel ' 

'the 1 a dy ' 

' the uncle 



kay PerName s ang N_ 



nakun 
ni la 



kay Mila 
kay Elsa 



sang prutas 
sang lapis 



' me ' 

' t hem ' 

' (to) Mila' 

' (to) Elsa' 

' some fruit ' 

'a pencil' 



(b) 



'Act 



*0t>; 



Vb 

/ma-/ /na-/ 

(1) Matawag ku sya. 

(2) Natawag ni Carlos 

(1) 'I can call her. ' 

(2) 'Carlos did call Maria.' 



Dir 



s i Maria , 



283 



(b) *Act 

Pron3 Per Name N_ 

ni Per Name s ang 



N 



niya 'he/she ' 

ni Jaime ' Jaime ' 

sang prinsipal 'principal' 




ikaw 'you' 

s i Juan ' Juan ' 

ang estudyante 'the student' 



VOCABULARY LIST 

( c an ) boil 

( c an ) broil 

canoe, row boat 

examination 

( can ) fry 

heavy 

(was ) lost 

luggage, piece of 

baggage 
native jasmin 
p arrot 
satisfied (food) 



/maka/la. ' ga ' 
/maka/ lhaw 
barutu 
eks amin 
/maka/pr ito 
/ma/bug ' at 
/na/dul a ' 

malet a 

s ampaguit a 

pikuy 

busug 



F. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1. The reading exercise given in this lesson is to 
be assigned as homework. Have the students read 
it and formulate their own comprehension ques- 
tions about the short essay. Collect the 
questions the next day and for a review, make 
the class answer orally the questions they have 
made . 



281+ 



Suggested Role-playing Situations ■ 

Ca} A PCV tells of his educational experiences, 
why he is in the Peace Corps, and what his plans 
are after his service with the Peace Corps is 
t erminat ed. 

(b ) A foreigner compares his host country and his 
home country in terms of government, educational 
opportunities, and economics. 

(c) A missionary tells about the concept of 
heaven and hell. 



(d) A food production volunteer talks to barrio 
folks about some advantages of using fertilizer 
o n their crops . 



UNIT X 
Imperatives and Causatives 



LESSON 1+5: Let Her Do It 

LESSON 1+6: Give It To Him 

LESSON 1+7: Do's and Don't's 

LESSON 1+8: In the Direction of 

LESSON 1+9: Have Him Do It 

LESSON 50: Getting Things Done 



UNIT X 
Imperatives and Caus at ives 
Unit X includes: 

(a) imperatives 

1. actor focus: verb root 

/pag-/ VR 

2. goal focus: /-a/ or /-ha/ 

/-i/ 

(b) negative commands with /pag-/ . . . / i-/ or /-a/ 

or /-a/ 

(c) causative verbal affixes 

(d) /pa-/ as direction affix 

The imperative affixes of the referent focus will be 
included in the unit dealing with that focus. 

Negative commands are produced by affixing / pag - / . . . 
I -%_l or /-.a/ to a root. The negative word indi ' is 
included in the negative request construction. 

Pa_g_ka'un sang mansanas. 'Eat an apple.' 
Indi' pafi ka ' una ang 'Do not eat the apple. ' 
mans anas . 

The causative mode is indicated by the affix / pa -/ and 
signifies that someone permits or causes an action to 
take place , 



This / pa - / can be combined with all other 



affixes to express causation in the different focuses 
and aspe ct s . 



Hagpab uhat sya sang 

bayu ' . 
Ginpabuhat niya ang 

bayu ' . 



'She had someone sew 
a dress for her. ' 

'She had someone sew 
the dress for her. ' 



Another function of the / pa - / is to show direction or 
destination when affixed to place words. 



Howard McKaughan and Batua Macaraya, A Maranao 
Di ct ionary , Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
1967 , p . xiii . 

286 



287 



MapaM anila ' sya. 



'He/she will go to 
Man il a . ' 



Nagpa Chic ago si 
Lour des . 



'Lourdes left for 
Chi cago . ' 



LESSON FORTY-FIVE 
Let Her Do It 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/pa-/ VR /-a/ 
/-ha/ 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Pahulama aku palihug 
sang kwarta. 

M2 : Abaw, hu'u, ikaw na 
gid: 

C: Pahulama aku palihug 
sang kwarta. 
Abaw hu'u, ikaw na 
gid! 



May I please borrow some 
money? 



Of course! 
for you . ) 



(Anything 



Ml: Anhun ku ang bata'? 



M2 : Patuluga sya sa 
kwar to . 
Patuluga ang bata' . 
Patuluga . 

CI: Anhun ku ang bata'? 
Patuluga sya sa 
kwarto . 

C2 : Anhun ku ang bata'? 
Patuluga sya. 

C3: Anhun ku ang bata'? 
Patuluga . 



What do I do with the 
child? 

Let her/him sleep in 

the room. 
Let her/him sleep. 
Let (her/him) sleep. 



Ml: Anhun ku ang regalo? 



M2: Dal'a ang regalo kay 
Imelda . 



What do I do with the 
gift? 

Bring the gift to 
Imelda . 



288 



289 



Kuha 'a s a iy a . 



Get it from her, 



CI: Anhun ku ang regalo? 
Dal'a ang regalo kay 
Imelda . 

C2: Anhun ku ang regalo? 
Kuha 'a s a iy a . 

DRILLS 



Repetition Drill 

Pahulama sya sang libro. 
Hulama ang libro. 
Pahimu'a sila sang 

manga baskit . 
Himu'a ang manga 

baskit . 
Palutu'a ang mutsatsa 

s ang ut an . 
Lutu'a ang utan. 
Pabasaha ang b at a ' 

s ang 1 ibr o . 
Basaha ang libro. 



Let her borrow a book. 
Borrow the book. 
Let them make 

basket s . 
Make the baskets. 

Let the maid cook 

vegetables . 
Cook the vegetables. 
Let the child read 

a book . 
Make the book. 



Substitution Drill 

Papangayu'a si Angela sang dulsi para sa iyang 

Nanay . 
Pahataga let give 

Pakuha'a let get 

Padal'a let bring 

Kantaha ang 'Tiny Bubbles ' . 

sa'uta 'hula' dance hula 

pangayu'a bulak ask for flower 

husaya problema solve problem 

isipa manga kabata'an count children 

imna bulung drink medicine 



Pili'a ang bayu nga 

se da . 
bakla 
t ahi ' a 
himus a 
ayu ' a 
pangita ' a 
plants aha 



Choos e the 

cloth . 
buy 
s ew 

put away 
bargain 
look for 
i ron 



silk 



290 



3. Transformation Drill . Change the causative / pa -/ 
+ /-a/ to the imperative /-a/: 

Pa'isipa sila sang Isipa ang manga 
manga papel. papel. 

Patudlu'a si Federico 

s ang 'Science' . 
Pabuhata ang manga tavu 

s ang tayt ay . 
Patanuma ang manga 

mangunguma sang humay . 
Pasakya kami sa eroplano . 
Patilawa sila sang 

ginamus . 
Papamahawa ang mag'asawa 

s ang it lug . 
Pagamita si Cornelio sang 

makinily a . 
Patun'a si Corazon sang 

Hiligaynon . 

h . Question and Answer Drill . Formulate questions 
patterned after the model given, changing the 
objects as cued. Then construct responses using 
the verbs given: 

Anhun ku ang kwaderno? dal ' a Dal'a ang kwaderno. 

pagka ' un kan ' a 

ilimnun imna 

peryodiko basaha 

b as kit hakwata 

karne pritoha 

ut an la ' ga ' a 

kafe timplaha 

basura silhiga 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



The / pa - / usually denotes causation of action by 
the actor. It can mean, 'let' or 'allow'. It 
occurs by itself for first person actor construc- 
tions, but / pa- / is accompanied by / -a_/ in all 
other environments. 

Patulug. 'Let me sleep.' 

Patuluga. 'Let [him/her] sleep.' 



291 

Verb roots which can take the / -a/ suffix for 
imperative constructions are limited in number, 
/-a/ has an alternant form, /-ha/. Sometimes 
phonological changes occur together with affixa- 
tion of /-a/. 



Sentence patterns: 

Vb 

/pa-/ + /-a/ 
( 1 ) Patuluga 
( 2 ) Pahulama 



*0b jl 



fca ' un 
bas a 
inum 
s akay 
ayu' 



* Objl 

ang bata' 
s ila 



pakan ' a 
basaha 
imna 
pasakya 
ayu ' a 



* 0bj2 



sang libro. 



(1) 'Let the child sleep.' 

(2) 'Let them borrow books. ' 



Pronl PerName 



si PerName 



(1) 


aku 




(2) 


s ila 




(3) 




si Vi ctor ia 


(10 




si Josefina 


(5) 






(6) 








(1) 


'I, me' 




(2) 


'they' 




(3) 


'Victoria' 




(h) 


' Jos ef ina ' 




(5) 


'the secretary' 




(6) 


' the nurs e ' 



ang sekretarya 
ang nars 



292 

*0bj2 





Pron2 


PerName 


N 






sa Pron 


kay PerName 


s ang 


B_ 


(1) 


s a imu 








(2) 


sa inyu 








(3) 




k ay M e 1 d a 






U) 




kay Lucile 






(5) 






sang 


pery odiko 


(6) 






s ang 


lap i s 



(1) 'to you. (singular)' 

(2) 'to you (plural ) ' 

(3) 'to Imelda' 
lh) 'to Lucille' 

(5) 'with a newspaper' 

( 6 ) 'a pencil' 

h . / pa -/ covers a complex of meanings (depending 
on the context): 

(a) the actor does the action to himself or has 
it done to him; 

(b) the actor has (lets, makes) someone do the 
action 5 . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



(let) eat breakfast /pa/pamahaw/a / 

carry, lift hakwat/a/ 

children /ka/bat a. ' /an/ 

choose /pili '/a/ 

count isip/a/ 

fish sauce ginamus 

married couple mag'asawa 

mix timpla/ha./ 

si Ik se da 

CUMULATIVE EXERCISE . Translate this ad into 

Hil igay non . 

Take on the world. Take off on Pan Am. You'll get 
a stewardess who's from Paris, or Punta del Este, or 



John U. Wolff, Beginning Cebuano Part I , New Haven: 
Yale University Press. 1966 , p. 1+96- 



293 

Papeete. You'll get a pilot who ' s "been around the 
world the way most people have "been around the "block. 
And you'll get a feeling for flying you just didn't 
have before. Just call a Pan Am agent or call Pan 
American World Airways:. Then take off for anywhere 
in the world on the world's most experienced airline. 
PAN AM MAKES THE GOING GREAT. 

G. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Describe your present or most recent job or 
activity in detail. 

(b) Give a description of your home town and 
your family. 

(c) Describe the weather of yesterday and today. 
Make a comparison if you can. 

2. Go over the supplementary material on anecdotes. 

3. Do a guessing game with the class. One person 
says, ' May ginahuna ' huna ' aku , 'I am thinking 
of something' . The rest of the group probe for 
hints by asking questions about the size, the 
color, the location, the kind, etc. , about the 
object in question. The group can set a limit 
to what objects they can guess at. 



LESSON FORTY-SIX 
Give it to Kim 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
l\-l imperative affix 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUE 

Ml: Anhun ku ang What will I do with the 

regalo? gift? 

M2 : Ihatag (mu) ang Give the gift to Mrs. 

regalo kay Mrs. Tu. Tu. 
Ihatag kay Mrs. Tu. Give it to Mrs. Tu . 

CI: Anhun ku ang regalo? 
Ihatag (mu] ang 
regalo kay Mrs. Tu. 

C2 : Anhun ku ang regalo? 
Ihatag kay Mrs. Tu. 

C. DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Ihatag ang bulak kay Give the flowers to 

Vida. Vida. 

Itudlu' ang kanta kay Teach the song to 

Carlos. Carlos. 

Ibutang ang florera Put the flower vase 

sa lamesa. on the table. 

Isuksuk ang kalu' kay Put the hat on Juan. 

Juan . 

Ikandus ang 1 uw ag sa Scoop the rice with the 

kan ' un . ladle . 

Iduhul ang sulat sa Hand the letter to me. 

akun . 

1 1 a n um ang rosas Plant the roses in the 

sa hardin. garden. 

Ibakal ang kwarta Buy the money with 

sang prutas. fruits. 

29h 



295 

Ilatag ang manga bayu Bleach, the dresses in 

sa initan. the sun. 

I ' abunu ang abunu sa Fertilize the plants 

manga tanum. with the fertilizer. 

2 . Fixed Substitution Drill 

Itmtang ang libro sa lamesa. 
t asa 
plato 
plat ito 

Ibakal ang kwarta sang bugas . 

ut an 
b ayu ' 
pagka ' un 

Ibutang ang manga s apatus sa gwa. 
medyas 

kalu 
t anum 

3. Completion Drill . Provide the /i_-/ form of the 
verb roots for the sentences: 

latag ang bayu 1 . Ilatag ang bayu' 

in it ang tubig sa kaserola. 

sulat ang 'address' sa kwaderno . 

tungtung ang prutas sa lamesa. 

hulug ang sulat sa busun. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. I %_~ I is the request verbal affix which varies 
with the /-a/ for goal focus utterances. This 
prefix is also used for the beneficiary and 
instrumental focuses. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



(please) bleach /i/ la tag 

(please) drop /i/htilug 

flower vase florera 

(please) give 

personally /i/duhul 

(please) put on top / i /tungtung 



296 



(please) scoop out /i/kandus 

sunshine init/an/ 

wear suksuk 

CUMULATIVE EXERCISE . 

Here is a recipe for 'Chicken Durand Saute' taken 
from the June 10, 1968 issue of Hat ion , a popular 
magazine published in the Philippines: 

Isa ka manuk nga nakihad sang gagmay. 

Tatlu ka sibuyas ginkihad nga singsing 

Duha ka kamatis 

Apat ka onsa nga hamun nga manipis 

Har ina 

As in kag pimyenta 

Wisiki ang manuk sang asin kag pimyenta pagka- 
tapus ipaligid sa harina. Inita ang lana kag 
ipritu ang manuk sang hinayhinay hasta malutu. 
Ibutang ang kinihad nga hamun sa idalum sang 
bandehado. Husaya ang lutu' nga manuk sa 
ibabaw sang hamon. Ibutang sa ibabaw sang 
manuk kag hamun ang manga singsing nga sibuyas 
sa kinihad nga kamatis. Iserbe nga ma ' init . 

VOCABULARY LIST 



cooking oil lana 

ham hamun 

hot /ma/ ' init 

ounce onsa 

(let) roll /ipa/ligid 

serve / i / s erbe 

(was) sliced /na/kihad 

sprinkle wisik/i/ 

thin /ma/nipis 

white or red pepper pimyenta 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV and a young mother exchange recipes 
of their favorite dishes. The young mother asks 
the PCV to teach her how to make lemon meringue 
pie . 



297 

(_b )_ Two PCV's are heing invited by the "barrio 
captain to a "fiesta" dinner at his house, "but 
the two PCV's have to refuse the invitation 
"because they already have a prior engagement to 
go to Iloilo to attend a conference. 

(c) A foreigner, who by mistake drove into a one- 
way street, tries to apologize to a policeman who 
is about to issue a traffic ticket to him. 



Let the students give you one of their favorite 
recipes in Hiligaynon. This can be assigned as 
homework . 



LESSON FORTY-SEVEN 
Do's and Don ' t ' s 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

indi' + /pag-/ VR /-i/ + NP 

/-a/ 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 

Ml: Indi' pagbuligi si 

Tomas . 
Indi' pagdal'i si 

Carmela sang dulsi 

M2: Sigi. 

CI: Indi' pagbuligi si 
Tomas . 
Sigi. 

C2: Indi' pagdal'i si 

Carmela sang dulsi, 
Sigi. 



Do not help Thomas. 

Do not bring Carmela 
some c andy . 

Okay . 



Ml: Indi' pagdal'a ang 
libro . 
Indi' pagbakla ang 
lapi s . 

M2 : Pero kinahanglan ku . 

CI : Indi ' pagdal ' a ang 
libro . 
Pero kinahanglan ku . 

C2: Indi' pagbakla ang 
lapi s . 
Pero kinahanglan ku. 

DRILLS 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Indi' pagguntingi ang 
papel maskin gamay. 

298 



Do not bring the book. 
Do not buy the pencil. 

But I need i t . 



Do not cut even a small 
piece from the paper. 



299 



Indi ' pagbakli sang 

libro si Antonio. 
Indi' paghambali si 

Miguel sang natabo. 
Indi' pagtudlu'i ang 

manga estudyante 

sang 'grammar' . 
Indi' pagsa'uti ang 

dalaga . 
Indi' paghampangi 

ang bola. 
Indi' paglimpyuhi 

ang balay . 
Indi' pagguntinga ang 

papel maskin gamay. 

Indi' pagbakla ang 

libro para kay 

Antoni o . 
Indi' paghambala si 

Mi guel . 
Indi' pagtudlu'a ang 

'grammar' sa manga 

estudyante . 
Indi' pagsa'uta ang 

' Bugaloo ' . 
Indi' paghampanga ang 

'basketball ' . 



Do not buy a book for 

Antonio . 
Do not tell Miguel 

what happened. 
Do not teach grammar 

to the students. 

Do not dance with 

the lady . 
Do not play with the 

ball. 
Do not clean the 

house . 
Do not cut even a 

small piece .from the 

paper . 
Do not buy the book 

for Antonio . 

Do not talk to 

Miguel . 
Do not teach grammar 

to the students. 

Do not dance the 

' Bugaloo ' . 
Do not play 

b asketball . 



Transformation Drill . Change the affirmative 
commands to negative: 

Sa'uti ang babayi. 

Tamni ang hardin. 



Bakli sang dulsi si 

Noel. 
Tun ' i ang bag'ung 

leksyon . 
Sulati ang direktor. 

Tan'awun mu ang sini 

Basahun mu ang 
peryodiko . 



Indi' pagsa'uti ang 

babayi . 
Indi' pagtamni ang 

hardi n . 
Indi' pagbakli sang 

dulsi si Noel. 
Indi' pagtun'i ang 

bag'ung leksyon. 
Indi' pagsulati ang 

direktor . 
Indi' pagtan'awa ang 

sine. 
Indi' pagbasaha ang 

peryodiko . 



300 



Ham"balun mu si Indi' paghambala si 
Patricia. Patricia. 

Kuha ' un mu ang "bulak Indi' pagkuha'a ang 
sa florera. bulak sa florera. 

Dal'un mu ang manga Indi' pagdal'a ang 
papel. manga papel. 

Movable Substitution Drill 



Indi' pagkuha'a ang manga prutas sa lamesa. 

duls i 



jpagkan ' a 



kaliun 



_pagdal ' a_ 



isda ' 



f rigidaire : 



_prutas 



baskit 



_but ang_ 



h . Expansion Drill 

Indi' pagtanduga. Do not touch. 

ang pagka'un Indi' pagtanduga ang pagka'un. 
manga Indi' pagtanduga ang manga 

pagka ' un . 
nga mainit Indi' pagtanduga ang manga 

pagka'un nga mainit. 
sa kalaha' Indi' pagtanduga ang manga 

pagka'un nga mainit sa kalaha 1 . 
sa sulud Indi' pagtanduga ang manga pag- 

ka'un nga mainit sa sulud sang 

kalah a ' . 
anay Indi' anay pagtanduga ang manga 

pagka'un nga mainit sa sulud 

s ang kalaha ' . 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. I ' -%J has an alternant form /-hi/ 

2. Sentence pattern: 



301 
Mv Vb Obi (_ Dir) 

negative / pag- / + /-a//-i/ 

Indi' pagtanduga ang pagka'un. 

Indi' pagsulati si Noel. 

Indi' pagkuha'a ang bulak sa florera. 

'Do not touch the food. ' 

'Do not write to Noel.' 

'Do not remove the flowers from the vase. ' 

VOCABULARY LIST 



(do not) cut /pag/gunt ing/a./ 

even though maskin 

happened /na/tabu' 

(do not) touch /pag/ tan dug/ a./ 

CUMULATIVE EXERCISE 



Read the following advertisement in Hiligaynon. 
Answer the comprehension questions given at the 
bottom of the page: 

Magtipun sang kwarta! Ini ang tanyag sa magtugnaw 
nga tyempo ! 

Tan'awa ang libr eng Medicol sa sulud sang kada may 
matu'ud nga markang pakete sang UNITED AMERICAN 
TIKITIKI! Makakuha kamu sang anum ka tabletas nga 
Medicol nga may bili nga treynta sentimos, libre 
sa treynta ka cc. nga botelya kag tatlu ka tabletas 
nga may bili nga kinse sentimos, libre sa kinse ka 
cc. nga botelya. 

Bakla ang UNITED AMERICAN TIKITIKI para makakuha 
sang lib reng manga tabletas sang Medicol — ang 
pinakab ag ' ung tabletas away sa sakit kay sip'un 
nga may Bitamina C! 

Pagdali' I Ang tanyag nga ini limitado.' 

Milyon nga manga batang Pilipino ang nagadaku nga 
makusug kada tu'ig tungud sa UNITED AMERICAN TIKI- 
TIKI ! 



302 



Comprehension questions : 

1. Anu nga bulung ang ginapab ant ala sa anunsyo nga 
ini? 

2. Anu ang ginahatag nga libre? 

3. Pila ka tabletas sang Medicol ang libre kun 
magbakal sang botelya nga 30cc? 

h . Pila ang bili sang tatlu ka tabletas nga 
Me di col? 

5. Para sa anu nga sakit ang Medicol? 

6. Para sa manga gulang ang TIKITIKI? 
VOCABULARY LIST 



against, enemy 
(was) announced, 

broadcasted 
announcement 
collect, gather 
every 
limi t ed 
million 
offer 
value 
vitamin 



away 

/ginpa/bantala ' 

anunsyo 

/mag/ 1 ipun 

kada 

limi t ado 

milyon 

t anyag 

bill 

bit amina 



H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 
1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A mother scolds her son and daughter for 
having gone out without telling her where they 
were going. She then sets a curfew for the 

children . 

(b) Try to have the students act as interpreters 
for a new arrival. 



Bring pictures to class of products Like food, 
soft drinks, or bathroom articles. Have the 
students make advertisements for these in 
Hiligaynon. 



303 



3. Utilize the cumulative exercise as a reading 
exercise. Have the students read it for five 
minutes. Th_en let them answer the comprehension 
questions on a piece of paper and have them 
check their own work. 



LESSON FORTY-EIGHT 
In the Direction of 

A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/magpa-/ /pa-/ place word + NP 

/nagpa-/ 

/nagapa-/ 

/mapa-/ /nagapa-/ 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Magpa-Manila ka. 
Nagpa-Manila sya 

kahapun . 
Nagapa-Manila sya 

subung . 
Mapa-Manila aku 

bwas . 



Go t o Manil a . 

He went to Manila 

yesterday . 
He is going to 

Manila now. 
I will go to Manila 

t omor r ow . 



M2 : Indi ' ku gusto. 

Mapa-Iloilo aku. 

A, gali' I 

Sa atung eroplano? 

Upud aku , o . 

CI: Magpa-Manila ka. 
Indi ' k u gusto . 
Mapa-Iloilo aku. 

C2: Nagpa-Manila sya 
kahapun . 
A, gali". 

C3: Nagapa-Manila sya 
subung . 
Sa atung eroplano? 

C^ : Mapa-Manila aku 
bwas . 
Upud aku , o . 



No, I don't want to 
go . I will go to 
Iloilo. 

Oh , really ! 

On that flight? 

I will go with you. 



30U 



305 



DRILLS 



Fixed Substitution Drill 



Pa-Ilokus ka . 
kamu 
kit a 



Go to I locus . 



Magpa-banwa kita. 
sy udad 
uma 
baryu 
prubinsy a 
s imb ahan 
sub a ' 



Let us go to town, 



Hagpa- Hilo sila. 
Honohi na 
Pepeekeo 
Kohala 
Pap aikou 
Honolulu 



They went to Hilo 



lagapa- Capiz sila 
adlawadlaw . 

R o mb Ion 

Mindoro 

Ant ique 

Negros 

Aklan 

Davao 



They go to Capiz 
every day . 



The teacher will 
go to America 
next month. 



Mapa- Amerika ang 
ma'estro sa sunud 
nga b ulan . 

Af rika 

Japan 

Fr ans i a 

Englat er a 

Espany a 

Hongkong 



Question and Answer Drill. Answer the following 



questions using / pa -/ before place names: 



Di'in ka makadtu? 
Ma'anu ka didtu? 
Naga'anu ang imu amigo' 
Nga'a indi ' sya mag- 
upud sa imu? 



Mapa_ 



306 

D. GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

/ pa -/ when affixed to words referring to places, 
gives the meaning of 'direction' or 'toward the 
direction of' some place. 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 



Africa Afrika. 

England Englatera 

France Fransia 

Spain Espanya 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

A: May tren "bala subung? 

B: Sa alas dos pa. Di ' in ka makadtu? 

A: MapaAlbay aku . Ini nga tren sa alas- dos, paAlbay 
ini? 

B: Ambut lang. Ipamangkut natun sa babayi da' hu 
nga nagalingkud sa higad. 

A: Sigi, ikaw lang ang magpamangkut . Gwapa man sya, 
siguru, mabu'ut man sya. Nahuya' ya aku. 

B: Ikaw nalang. Ikaw ya ang mas ma ' ayu maghambal. 

A: Sigi. ..In day, tabi' an ay, di'in makadtu ang 
tren sa alas dos? 

C: Pa - Sorsogon. 

A: Ma'agi bala ina' sa Albay? 

C: Hu'u." Di'in sa Albay ka makadtu? 

A : Sa Legaspi . 

C: A gali ' . MapaLegaspi man aku. 

A: Taga Legaspi ka? 

C: Indi' , mabisita lang aku sa akun amiga didtu. 

A: Anu kalayu ' ang Legaspi? 



307 

B: S iguru manga apat ka oras sa tren. Diri ka na , 
ha. Mabalik pa aku sa opisina. 

A: Sigi salamat, ha. Inday , aku si Carlos... 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER CContact hours: 6) 

1 . Suggested Role~playing Situations . 

(a) A PCV tells his helper in the house that he 
is going away to Manila for two days. He 
leaves instructions on what to do about the 
house while he is gone. 

(b) Two PCV's are invited for dinner at the 
home of the principal after the school year. 
Members of the group inquire about each other's 
plans for vacation. 

(c) A PCV wants his first grade class to tell 
him about their plans for the coming summer 
vacat ion . 



LESSON FORTY-NINE 
Have Him Do It 



A. STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/magpa-/ VR + NP 

/nagapa-/ 

/nagpa-/ 

B. MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Magpa-anu ka? 

Nagapa-anu sya' 

Nagpa-anu ang 
bat a' 1 



What will you have some- 
one do for you? 

What is he having some- 
one do for him? 

What did tte child have 
someone do for him? 



M2 : Magpagunting aku , 



Nagapagunt ing sya, 
Nagapagunt ing ang 
bat a ' . 



I'll have someone cut my 
hair . (I'll get a 
haircut . } 

He's getting a haircut. 

The child is getting a 
haircut . 



CI: Magpa-anu ka? 

Magpagunting aku. 

C2 : Nagapa'anu sya? 

Nagapagunt ing sya. 

C3: Nagpa-anu ang bata'? 

Nagpagunting ang bata' 



C. DRILLS 



Repetition Chain Drill 

Di'in ka makadtu? 

Sa Hilo. 

Nga' a? 

Kay magpagunting aku. 

Di'in na si Pedro? 

Atu sa Kona. 

Nga'a? 

Nagapahimu sang kalu. 



Because I'll have a 
hai r cut . 



He's having a hat made. 



30? 



309 



Di'in ang bat a nag alin? 

Sa esk.velah.an. 
Nga' a? 

Kay magpatudlu ' sang Math.. 



Nag'anu si Berto sa 

Honolulu? 
Nagpatahi sang terno 

para sa kas al . 



He had a wedding suit . 



Ma'anu ka kanday Maria? What are you going to 

do at Maria's place? 
Magpatah.i' aku sang 
bayu kay Maria. 



Naga'anu ka diri? 
Nagapa'obra aku sang 
kahun sa tawu. 



I'll have Maria sew me 
a dress . 

What are you doing here? 
I'm having the man make 
me a box . 



Substitution Drill 



Magpaplantsa aku sang bayu' . 

3. e 1 a r g o 

bakal 



g at as 



b ay lu 



medyas 



ilis 



habul 



Nagapakuha' aku sang bayu' sa mutsatsa. 
si Maria 



_lat ag 



_kay Petra 



lab a 



_ang babayi 



jpangayu 



s a doktor 



_ang nars_ 



hat ag 



sang bulunt 



Expansion Drill 
Magpalutu sya sa akun , 
s ang adobo 



310 



nga madamu' 
para s a ' p arty ' 
bwas 

Nagapat anum si Tatay sang humay. 

sa una 

kanday Tiyo Ambu' (Tiyo Ambo and Company) 

kada t u' ig 

1+ . Deletion Drill 

Nagpahulug si Nanay sang madamu 1 nga sulat sa 
busun kay Pedro ka'ina sang aga ' . 

sang aga 

ka ' ina 

kay Pedro 

sa busun 

sang madamu' nga 

Magpatindug kami sang matahum kag daku' nga 
balay sa Toro Hills sa Hunyo kay Architect 
Marque z . 

kay Architect Marquez 
sa Hunyo 
sa Toro Hills 
matahum kag 
daku ' 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 

1. The affixes / magpa - / , / nagapa -/ , and / nagpa - / 
are causative mode affixes for actor focus 
constructions. The action is not performed by 
the actor, but by another agent. The actor 
initiates the action. 

2 . / mapa- / is the preferred affix in informal 
conversation usage rather than / magpa - / . 

VOCABULARY LIST 

blanket habul 

change baylu 

haircut /pa/gunting 

suit, formal dress terno 
wedding kasal 



311 



F. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



SI: Maria, dali' di anay. 

S2: Hu ' u , ara' na aku, Nay. 

SI: Nagpalutu' ka na sang kan ' un kag uga? 

S2: Indi' pa, Nay. Nagpabakal pa aku sang kalamay 
kag pilit kay , Ana. 

SI: Ti' , magpalutu' ka dayun pag'abut niya. 

S2: Hu'u, Nay. (Pausel Huy , Ana, nagapalutu' si 
Nanay sang kan'un kag uga sa imu. 

SI: Hu'u, apang mapahuway anay aku. Ginakapuy gid 
aku , eh . 

S2: 0, sigi. Ikaw da' kabalu. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



but 

dried fish 

stick rice 



apang 
uga. 
p illt 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (.Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) Describe the purpose and function of the 
Peace Corps or the host country organization you 
are serving with. 

(b) Defend the United States' attitudes toward 
civil r ight s . 

2. One suggested activity is to bring a recorded 
conversation between two native speakers, talking 
about the weather, the elections or any other 
topic. The taped dialogue should be between a 
man and a woman so it will be easy to discern 
the speakers. The dialogue should not be more 
than five minutes long. Play this tape to the 
class. Prepare comprehension questions before- 
hand and after one playing, have the students 
answer the questions. Play the tape again. 



312 



After the third listening, distribute another 
sheet with the same questions. This is a good 
test of how well the students are able to keep 
up with conversation "between native speakers. 



LESSON FIFTY 

Getting Tilings Done 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/ginpa-/ VR 
/ginapa-/ VR 



MICRO-DIALOGUE 

Ml: Ginpa'anu mu ang 
"bayu' ? 
Ginapa'anu ni Jose 
ang sapatus? 
M2: Ginpaplantsa ku ang 
bayu' . 
Ginapa'ayus ni Jose 
ang s apatus . 

CI: Ginpa'anu mu ang 
"bayu ' ? 
Ginpaplantsa ku 
ang bayu' . 

C2: Ginapa'anu ni Jose 
ang sapatus? 
Ginapa'ayus ni Jose 
ang s apatus . 

DRILLS 



What did you have some- 
one do with the dress? 

What is Jose having some- 
one do with the shoes? 

I had the dress pressed. 

Jose is having the shoes 
repaired . 



1 . Repetition Drill 

Ginpa'anu niya ang 

awt o? 
Ginpalupad niya ang 

awt o . 
Ginpa'anu ni Marta 

ang habul? 
Ginpatipig ni Marta 

ang habul . 



What did he have someone 

do with the car? 
He had the car flown. 

What did Marta have some- 
one do with the blanket? 
Marta had someone fold 

it . 



313 



3lfc 



Ginpa'anu nandaf Art What did Art Cand com- 
ang awtu? panyl do to the car? 

Ginpa' dalagan nila. They made it run. 

Ginpa'anu sang t awu What did the man have 
ang bata' sa tubi'? the child do in the 

water! 

Ginpalanguy sang tawu The man made the child 
ang bata' sa tubi' . swim in the water. 

Ginapa'ihaw mu ang Are you having the letson 

litsun? roasted? 

Hu'u ginapa'ihaw ku . Yes, I am having it 

roasted. 

Ginapatagu' mu ang Are you having someone 

kwarta? keep the money? 

Hu'u ginapatagu ku Yes, I am having someone 

ang kwarta. keep the money. 

Ginapaputus ni Nanay Is mother having some- 

ang regalo? one wrap the gift? 

Indi ' , indi ' ni Nanay No, mother is not having 

ginapaputus ang the gift wrapped. 

regalo . 

2. Transformation Drill . Change the / magpa -/ to 

/ ginpa -/ : 

Nagpatahi' aku sang Ginpatahi' ku ang 

terno . t erno . 

Nagpahimu sya sang 

1 cake ' . 
Nagapatan'aw aku sa 

doktor . 
Nagapatindug sila 

sang balay. 
Nagpa'uli' aku sang 

libro sa libreriya. 
Nagapatabas ang manghud 

nakun sang bayu' . 

3 . E xpansion Drill 

Ginpaputus niya ang sapatus. 

sa tindera 
nga se da 
kag malahalun 
ka ' ina 



315 

Ginpahuman sang nobya ang terno nya. 

s a manugt ahi ' 
ma' ay u n g 
s a New York 
para sa kasal 

Ginapahambal sila sang Hiligaynon. 

s a klas e 
adlawadlaw 
s ang ma ' ayu 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. The / pa - . . . - un / affix is the causative mode set 
used for goal focus constructions. 

2. The completed action form is / ginpa - / , the 
durative action form is / ginapa -/ and the pro- 
posed action form is / pa -/ + / - un / . 

VOCABULARY LIST 

bride nobya 

finish human 

fold /ginpa/tipig 

(let) hide, keep /ginapa/t agu ' 

kite bulador 

(can) practice /maka/prakt i s 

seamstress modista 
(let) cut out a dress /nagpa/tabas 

(let) wrap /ginpa/putus 

CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 



Mr. Santos: Ma ' ayung aga, Mr. Castro. 

Mr. Castro: Ma'ayung aga man, Mr. Santos. Hapit 
anay . 

Mr. Santos: Gusto ku t an i ' makita ang balay ninyu. 

Mr. Castro: Ah, gali'. Ti ' dali di sa bag'ung balay 
namun . 

Mr. Santos: Abaw, katahum gid! Kay sin'u nimu 
ginpatindug ini? 



316 



Mr. Castro: G in pat in dug nakun kay Architect Marquez. 

Mr. Santoa: Kan am i ' gid sang iya pinta man! 

Mr. Castro: Ay, hu ' u ginpapinta ku gid ina' sa 
bantug nga pintor. Ining hardin 
ginpahimu ku sa ma'ayung hardinero. 
Indi ' pa gid tapus ini. Ginapa'obra 
ku pa ang 'fountain' diri sa tunga' 
sang hardin. Ang 'swimming pool' diri 
sa likud nakun ibutang. 

Mr. Santos: U.y ! Kagwapo gid.' Gusto ku tani ' 

magpatindug man sang akun balay sa 
imung arkitekto. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



"back likud 

famous, renowned bantug 

if possible (particle) tani' 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 5) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations 

(a) Tell the story of Cinderella or King Arthur 
and the Knights of the Round Table in Hiligaynon. 

(b) Explain the song, I Have Two Hands , to 
first grade children. 

2. During the storytelling activity, the story 
should be told by the whole class, the students 
taking turns in contributing their sentences 
toward the completion of the tale. 



UNIT XI 
Referent Focus 



LESSON 51: For Whom and Where? 
LESSON 52: Benefactors and Locations 



UNIT XI 
Referent Focus 



A referent focus construction focuses on the benefactor 
of an action, or the place where an action occurs. The 
benefactor or the object of the action need not be ex- 
plicitly stated, but the relationships are there. 



Gin lingkuran ku ang 

siya. 
Gin lingkur an ku . 



'I sat on the 

chair . ' 
'I sat on (something; 



The following referent focus affixes are included in 
the next two lessons: 



Completed action: 
Durative action: 
Proposed action: 

Imper at ive : 



/gin-/ . . . /-an/ 
/gina-/ . . . /-an/ 
/ -an / or /-nan/ 

/ -an/ or / -nan/ 



LESSON FIFTY-ONE 
For Whom and Where? 



STRUCTURAL CONTENT 
/gin-/ VR /-an/ 
/gina-/ 
MICRO-DIALOGUES 



Ml: Gin'anuhan ang 
mas aki tun? 
Gina'anuhan ang 
masakitun? 

M2 : Ginpanilagan sang 

doktor ang masakitun. 
Ginapanilagan sang 
doktor ang masakitun. 

CI: Gin'anuhan ang 
mas aki tun? 
Ginpanilagan sang 
doktor and masakitun. 

C2: Gina'anuhan sang 

doktor ang masakitun? 
Ginapanilagan sang 
doktor and masakitun. 



What was done to the 

pati ent ? 
What is being done to 

the p at i ent ? 

The doctor observed the 

pati ent . 
The doctor is observing 

the pat i ent . 



2 . 
Ml: 



Gin'anuhan nila ang 

s imbahan? 
Gina'anuhan nila ang 

s imbahan? 



What did they do to the 

church? 
What are they doing to 

the church? 



M2 : Gin'pintahan nila. 
Ginapintahan nila. 

CI: Gin'anuhan nila ang 
s imb ahan? 
Ginpintahan nila. 

C2: Gina'anuhan nila ang 
s imbahan? 
Ginapintahan nila. 



They painted it. 
They are painting it, 



319 



320 

C. DRILLS 

1 . Repetition Drill 

Ginadekor ahan nila ang They are decorating the 

simbahan. church. 

Gindekorahan nila ang They decorated the 

simbahan. church. 

Ginasudlan ku sang I am putting money in 

kwarta ang puyu. the sack. 

Ginsudlan ku sang I put money in the 

kwarta ang puyu. sack. 

Ginapungku ' an niya ang He is sitting on your 

siya mu . 

Ginpungku'an niya ang He sat on your chair. 

siya mu . chai r . 

Gina'estaran nila ang They are living in the 

balay nga bag'u. new house. 

Gin'estaran nila ang They lived in the new 

balay nga bag'u. house. 

Ginatabangan sila sang The nurse is helping 

nar s . them . 

Gintabangan sila sang The nurse helped them. 

nars . 

Ginatudlu'an sila sang They are being taught 

Ilokano . Ilokano. 

Gintudlu'an sila sang They were taught 

Ilokano. Ilokano. 

Ginasulatan si Carmela Victor is writing to 

ni Victor. Carmela. 

Ginsulatan si Carmela Victor wrote to 

ni Victor. Carmela. 

Ginabisitahan kami sang We are being visited by 

amun manga apu . our grandchildren. 

Ginbisitahan kami sang Our grandchildren 

amun manga apu. visited us. 

2. Fixed Substitution Drill 



Ginatudlu'an sila sang Hili gaynon . 

Tagalog 
Sebuano 
Ilokano 
Kapampangan 
Bikolano 

Ginbisitahan sya sang iya nobyo . 
ang babayi 
si Cecilia 



321 



s i Ameli a 
s i Pre s cy 
ang dalaga 

Gina'anuhan sang ma ' est r o ang estudyante? 
pr ins ipal 
'head teacher ' 

Gina ' anuhan sila sang PCV? 
tudlu' 
bulig 
tuytuy 
t ab ang 

Movable Substitution Drill 



Gintamnan nila sang humay ang uma . 
namun 



hardin 



bulak 



_sagmg_ 



Gin'estaran nila ang balay nga da'an, 

n i Georgin a 

' ~ ~ " otel 



_b ag ' u 

mahal 



Gin ' agihan_ 
Gi npuy ' an 



Gina'uyatan nya ang dyutay nga b at a ' 

daku ' 



libro 



Gi nsulatan 



Transformation Drill . Change the affixes from 

the completed tense to the durative tense. 

Ginsakyan namun ang We rode on the 

dyip. jeep. 
Ginpungku'an ni Ernesto Ernesto sat on the 

ang siya. chair. 

Gintamnan namun sang We planted corn in 

manga ma'is ang uma. the field. 

Ginbuligan nya aku sa He helped me in my 

pagtudlu'. teaching. 

Ginpadal'an ni Marina Marino sent Carmen 

si Carmen sang bulak. some flowers. 



322 



Ginabasahan ku sila 
s ang i story a. 



I am reading a story to 
them . 



Question and Answer Drill . Provide the negative 



or affirmative responses to the following ques- 
tions. The negative particle indi ' and the 
positive particle hu ' u should be used in the 
constructions. Provide complete sentence re- 
spons es : 



Ginatabangan sya sang nars? 
Ginalutu'an kamu sang panyaga? 
Ginatudlu'an sila sang Hiligaynon? 
Gin ' ineksy onan kamu sang nars kahapun? 
Ginbaklan ka sang sorbete ni Jose? 
Ginsulatan ka sang imu ginikanan? 
Ginsweldohan kamu sang Peace Corps? 
Ginhatagan mu sang sigarilyo si Lorna? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



The referent focus directs the action towards a 
person, a place, or thing marked by ang , or s i 
or represented by a nominal set of pronouns. 



2. Referent focus affixes are: /Gin- 



in/ for con 



pleted aspect and / gina- . . . -an / for durative 
aspect . 



Sentence pattern: 

Vb *(Act ) (Ob.j ) 



/gin- . . 
/gina- . 



■an/ 
- an/ 



(1) 
(2) 



Gindekorahan nila 



'Ref 



ang si mbahan 



Gins udlan 



ku sang kwarta ang puyu , 



(1) 'They decorated the church.' 

(2) 'I put money in the sack.' 



*(Act) 

Pron3 Per Name N_ 

ni PerName sang N_ 



323 



nila 



ni Wilma 
ni Carlos 



*(Ref) 

Pronl PerName 





s i 


PerName 


aku 






kami 








s i 


Noel 




s i 


Lito 



VOCABULARY LIST 



sang iluy 
sang tiya 



ang estudyante 
ang syudad 



our 
'their' 
'Wilma' 
' Carlos ' 
'the mother ' 
' the aunt ' 



' for /to me ' 

' for /to us ' 

'for/to Noel' 

'for/to Lito' 

' for/to the 

student ' 

' to the city ' 



(being) decorated 
(being) fetched, 

passed by 
grandchild 
gui de 

(being) held 
( b eing ) helped 
language of the Bicol 

region 
language of Ilokandia 
language of Pampanga 
language of Eastern 

Vis ayas 
language of the Tagalog 

area 
(being) observed 
old ( things ) 
sack, cloth bag 



/gina/dekora/han/ 

/gina/ ' agi/han/ 
apu 

tuytuy 

/gina/uy at /an/ 
/gina/ tab ang/ an/ 

Bikolano 

Iloka.no 

Kapampangan 

Sebua.no 

Tagalog 

/gina/panilag/an/ 
da, ' an 
puyu 



32U 

F. CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE 

Al : Gusto mu tilavan ang tuba? Ginhatagan aku sang 
akun ugangan ka'ina. 

Bl : Hu ' u , eh. Nabati'an ku kun anu ang tuba' pero 

indi ' pa aku nakatilaw. Anu ang paghimu sina'? 

A2 : Wala lang. Kinahanglan putulan ang punta sang 
bag'ung bulak sang lub i . 

B2 : Ang ginasiling mu, ang duga' sang bulak ang 
ginakuha'an sang tuba'? 

A3: Ku ' u , ina lang. Wala' sang madamu ' nga problema. 
Kun gusto mu nga ma'isug, itagu' mu lang sang 
pila ka adlaw. Mas gusto ku subung sina'. 

B3 : Ti ' , tilavan natun, eh. Di'in na ang imu tuba'? 

AU : Atu sa gwa' . Palihug nalang hugasan mu ining 

atun nga manga basu. Dal'un ku diri ang tuba'. 

B^: Palihug, dal ' i nalang aku sang sigarilyo. Ara 
sa sulud sang awto . 

A5: Sigi. 

G. VOCABULARY LIST 

cut off putul/an/ 

fermented coconut juice tuba.' 

juice, sap duga' 

strong (taste) /ma/'isug 

tip, end punta 

H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A group of Americans are invited to speak 
to a group of mothers in an adult education 
class on the status of women in the United 
States. An open forum follows the group dis- 
cus s i on . 



325 

( "b ) A young man visits the house of a Filipina 

girl he likes and gets involved in a discussion 

with her father on the presence of the United 
S t at e s in As i a . 



2. Make students tell the story of Snow White, 
or any familiar story they know. 



LESSON FIFTY-TWO 
Benefactors and Locations 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

/-an/ for proposed action commands 

/-i for commands 

MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Anuhan ku ang papel' 



M2 : Sulatan mu sang 

abakada ang papel 



Sulati sang Abakada 
ang papel. 

CI: Anuhan ku ang papel' 
Sulatan mu sang 
abakada ang papel. 

C2 : Anuhan ku ang papel: 
Sulati sang abakada 
ang papel . 



DRILLS 



What will I do with the 
paper?" 

Write the alphabet on 
it. (You will write 
the alphabet on the 
p ape r . ) 

Write the ABC on the 
paper . 



Repetition Drill 

Hatagan ku sang kwarta I will give money to the 

ang bata. child. 

Hatagi sang kwarta ang Give money to the 

b at a . 
Dal ' an ku sang regalo 

s i Arturo . 
Dal'i sang regalo si 

Arturo . 
Lutu'an kami ni Nanay 

s ang pagka' un . 
Lutu'i sang pagka'un 

sil a. 



child. 
I will bring a gift 

to Arturo . 
Bring a gift for Arturo, 

Mother will cook food 

for us . 
Cook food for them. 



326 



327 

Tudlu'an namun sang We will teach addition 
'addition' ang b at a . to the child. 

Tudlu'i sang 'addition' Teach addition to the 
ang bata. child. 

Movable Substitution Drill 



Baklan ni Maria sang regalo si Alita. 
nakun 



bag'ung sapatus 
ang akun manghud 



Dal ' an 



Lutu'an sang kusinera ang manga b at a sang pamahaw. 
m ut s at s a 

panyapun 

Baklan 

Hatagi sang madamu' nga kwarta ang imu apu . 
b ayu ' 



jnanghud 



mat ahum 



Tahi ' i 



3. Transformation Drill . Change the /-an/ impera- 
time forms to I -%J '■ 

Butangan mu sang abunu ang manga tanum. 

Kuha'an mu sang pagka'un si Tomas . 

Hatagan mu sang plato sya. 

Baklan mu sang maleta si Paterno. 

Padal'an mu sang telegram a sila. 

Sulatan mu sang malaba' nga sulat ang imu tiyo. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



The referent focus takes an /- an / suffix to ex- 
press action proposed. This affix also functions 
to express imperatives. The second person pro- 
noun is obligatory in the construction for 
commands and requests when /- an / is suffixed to 
the root . 

The I ' -%J renders imperative referent focus con- 
structions when affixed to certain roots. 



328 

E. VOCABULARY LIST 

alphabet abakada 

send padal/an/ 

telegram tele grama 

F. CUMULATIVE EXERCISE 



Read the following selection. Be able to answer 
the questions given at the end. 

Ang Dentista Hagbisita sa Eskwelahan 

Si Dr. Andres, isa ka dentista. Nagadu'aw sya sa 
eskwelahan ka'isa kada ka tu'ig. Ini ang iya 
ginsiling sa manga kabata'an: 

1. Sipilyuhan ang ngipun sa aga. 

2. Sipilyuhan ang ngipun sa wala' pa makatulug . 

3. Butangi sing asin ang tubi' nga ginagamit sa 

ngipun . 
h . Ang asin nagapatinlu kag nagapaputi' sang 
ngipun . 

5. Gamitun ang kaugalingun nga sipilyu. 

6. Tinlu'an ang sipilyu. 

7. Pa'initan ang sipilyu adlawadlaw. 

8. Ang gatas nagabulig pabaskug sang ngipun. 

Mag'inum sing gatas adlawadlaw. 

9. Magka'un sang manga bunga sang kahuy kag utan. 
10. Ang dentista amigo. Indi' mahadluk sa iya. 

Hu ' u o Indi ' 



1. May sipilyu ka nga imu kaugalingun? 

2. Ginagamit mu ang imu sipilyu adlawadlaw? 

3. Ginatinlu'an mu ang imu sipilyu? 
h . Naga'inum ka sang gatas? 

5. Amigo nimu ang dentista, indi' bala? 

VOCABULARY LIST 



fruit bunga 

own, oneself ka'ugalingun 

tooth ngipun 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1. The cumulative exercise can be utilized as a 
reading comprehension test. Let the students 



329 

read the exercise for five minutes in class. 
Then have them answer the questions, and correct 
their own papers immediately. 



Assign Written Exercise 11 for homework. Stu- 
dents are to narrate the actions that take place 
on the hand-out. 



UNIT XII 
Noun Formatives 



LESSON 53: Places 
LESSON 5 1 *: Making Nouns 



UNIT XII 



Noun Formative Affixes 



Noun formative affixes generate nouns from roots. Al- 
though these affixes are usually attached to roots, some 
noun roots take these affixes to form abstract nouns. 



This unit includes three noun formative affixes: 
/ manug - / , / pag - / , and /- an / . There are numerous other 
noun formative affixes, but these are beyond the scope 
of this volume. 



LESSON FIFTY-THREE 
Places 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 

VR /-an/ or /-nan/ 

noun base /-an/ or /-nan/ 

MICRO-DIALOGUE 



Ml: Anu ina' nga balay? 

M2: Simbahan ina'. 

Eskwelahan ina'. 

CI: Anu ina' nga balay? 
S imbahan i na ' . 

C2: Anu ina' nga balay? 
Eskwelahan ina'. 

DRILLS 



What is that building? 

That is a church. 
That is a school. 



Transformation Drill . Affix /- an / or /- nan / 
to the following verb roots to nominalize 
them. Attach the same affix to the noun 
bases given : 



s imba 
baligya 

t inda 

list a 
sakay 
hampang 
bakasyun 



' go to church ' 
' sell , goods 

for s ale ' 
'sell, goods 

for sale ' 
' list ' 
'ride' 

'play , game ' 
' vacat ion ' 



simbahan 'church' 
baligya'an 'store' 



t i ndahan 



' store' 



list ahan 'list' 
sakayan 'vehicle' 
hampangan 'toy' 
bakasyunan 'vacation 
place, 
resort ' 



Completion Drill . Give complete answers to the 
questions using the verb roots and noun bases 
given : 



Di ' in sya makadtu? 

parada 'parking, 
parade ' 



Makadtu sya sa eskwelahan . 
'parking area 1 



332 



klas e 
pungku ' 
s ugal 

bulang 
tulug 

p a ' uli 
t agu ' 



clas s ' 
sit 1 

gambling , 
gamble ' 
c ockf ight ' 
sleep ' 

go home ' 
keep , store' 



333 

_' classroom ' 
_' chair ' 
_' gambling 

den ' 
_' cockpit ' 
'bedroom , 

bed' 
' home , hous e ' 
_' storeroom , 

hi ding place ' 



Question and Answer Drill . Answer the following 
questions in complete sentences. Supply the 
correct noun formatives for the roots or bases: 



Ang akun ginahimu 
lis t ahan . 

bas ur a 



h am pang 

jpungku ' 
lutu' 



_h agdan 
_pwerta_ 



Anu ang ginahimu mu? 
Anu ang ginabuhat mu? 
Anu ang dala mu? 
Di'in sya nagatindug? 
Di'in ang ma'estra? 



Di in mu si Maria 
naki t a ' ? 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



1. /- an / or / - nan / is a noun formative affix that 
indicates a place for a certain action, or a 
thing which receives an action. 

VOCABULARY LIST 



k 1 as e 

eskwela 



s mi 

t anum 



gambling, gamble 

list 

parking, parade 

prisoner 



s ugal 
lis t a 
par ada 
pr is o 



CUMULATIVE DIALOGUE — Date to a Movie 



Al: Maria, dali ' ka matan'aw kita sang sini 



331+ 



Bl : Di'in nga sinihan ang may ma'ayu nga sini? 

Daw sa wala' gid subung. 

A2 : Ara' sa ' Oriente' ginapakita' ang 'The Fox', 
Dal i ' na. 



B2 : 0, sigi, pero ma' agi anay kita sa tindahan. 

May ginapabakal sa akun si Nanay nga hampangan 
para kay Mario. Diyas ny a bwas kag wala pa 
kami kabakal sang regalo. 

A3: Ti ' , sigi. Matawag nalang aku sang salakyan 
kay kabudlay mangita' sang paradahan para sa 
awtu didtu sa 'Oriente'. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 6) 

1 . Completion Drill . 

The teacher gives the cue sentence first. Then 
he gives only the cue words. The students 
formulate their own sentences using the cue 
words. Responses are noun formatives. 

2 . Suggested Role-playing Situations . 

(a) A young PCV asks a local barrio girl to 
go to a dance with him. 

(b) A young Filipino asks a female volunteer to 
go to a dance with him. 

(c) Two PCV's invite their co-workers to a 
movi e date . 



A. 



LESSON FIFTY-FOUR 
Making Nouns 

STRUCTURAL CONTENT 



/pag-/ VR 

/manug-/ VR or noun base 

MICRO-DIALOGUES 



1. 
Ml: 



M2 



2 . 
Ml : 



M2 : 



He likes the food. 



Gust o niya ang 

p agka ' un . 
Gusto niya ang paglakat He likes the way the 



s ang b ab ay i . 

Ma'ayu, mahapus lang 
ang paglutu' sina'. 

Hu ' u , anu? Daw s i 
Marilyn Monroe an ay. 



CI: Gusto niya ang pagka'un 
Ma'ayu, mahapus lang 
ang paglutu' sina' . 

C2: Gusto niya ang paglakat 
s ang b ab ay i . 
Hu ' u , anu? Daw s i 
Marilyn Monroe anay . 



Anu ang trabaho sang 
imu iluy? 

Manugtahi sya. 
Manugbulung sya. 



CI: Anu ang trabaho sang 
imu iluy? 
Manugtahi' sya. 

C2: Anu ang trabaho sang 
imu iluy? 
Manugbulung sya. 



girl walks . 

Good, it is easy to 

cook t hat . 
Oh yes, just like 

Marilyn Monroe. 



What does your mother 
do? 

She is a dressmaker. 
She is a doctor . 



335 



336 

C. DRILLS 

1 . Fixed Substitution Drill 

Anu si Camilo? Si Camilo manugsul at . Camilo is e 

writer . 
Solomon kanta singer 

Carlo lutu ' cook 

Razela tudlu' teacher 

Rolando bantay watchman 

Sin'u ang Si Pablo ang Pablo is the 

manughambal? manughambal. speaker, 

dalagan Ricardo runner 

hampang Jose player 

basa Rex reader 

tudlu' Pepito teacher 

wali Padre Salvador preacher 

Anu pagda'ug How can the cock 

sang manuk? win? 

manugdalagan sprinter 

kandidato candidate 

reyna queen 

Kun mapatay niya ang If he can kill the 

kontra. opponent. 

Kun ma' abut niya ang If he can reach the 

linya. finish line. 

Kun pinakamadamu ' ang If he gets the most 

iya manga butu . votes. 

Kun sya ang pinaka- If she is the most 

gwapa. beautiful of all. 

2. Transformation Drill . (a) Change the regular 
nouns to noun formatives using / manug - / plus a 
verb r.oot of a skill related to the type of work 
done in the profession: 

Sekretarya si Marcia. Si Marcia manugmakinily a. 

Labandera si Manang 

Feling . 
Nars si Ofelia. 
Tindera ang akun amiga. 
Kusinera sya sang isa 

ka restaurant. 
Pari' si Padre D ami en. 



337 

Ma'estro si Mr. Santos. 
Pintor ang lalaki . 
Pyanista ang akun 
magulang nga babayi. 

(b) Change the following command statements to 
declarative sentences using the same verb roots, 
but changing their formatives into nouns, adding 
adjectives or adverbs to complete the sentences: 



Paglutu' sang panyaga, 



Mahapus ang paglutu 
sang panyaga. 



Paghambal sang Hiligaynon. 
Paghampang sang 'basket- 
ball ' . 
Pagkanta sang Ilongo. 
Paghimu sang bayu. 

GRAMMATICAL EXPLANATION 



/ pag - / can be used before roots, not only to 
form commands or imperatives, but also to 
nominalize the roots. The nominal form is 
easily distinguished because it is preceded by 

ang . 

/man_ug_-/ is a noun formative prefix. 
Kun is the uncertain particle, 'if'. 



VOCABULARY LIST 

( can ) kill 

line 

opponent 

preach, sermon 

pr i est 

vote 

CUMULATIVE EXERCISE 



/ma/pat ay 

liny a 

kontr a 

wali 

par i ' , padre 

butu 



Basaha ang sunud nga istorya, 
manga pamangkut. 



Pagkatapos, sabta ang 



Ang Pagtubo Sang Kapayas 
Sang una nga panahon, may isa ka tumawu nga naghatag 



33! 



sa dyutay nga batang lalaki sing isa ka tingala'an 
nga lisu. Sya nagsiling, 'Ini liso sing kapayas. 
Itanum mu ini kag amligan kay sa ulihi magahatag ini 
sing bunga nga mapuslan sa "bilug nga kalibutan.' 

Gintanum sing dyutay nga bata ang lisu sa iya ta- 
lamnan. Pagligad sang pila ka ad law, may nagtubu' 
nga isa ka sanga nga may duha ka dyutay nga dahun . 
Naghumlad atung dahun kag nagsuyup sang matugnaw nga 
hangin sa iya palibut . Ginbayaw sang t anum ang iya 
manga dahun kag nagsiling, 'Adlaw, adlaw, taga'i kami 
sing pagka'un.' 

Nagsidlak ang adlaw sa dahun kag ginhatagan sila sing 
ka'init nga sarang nila masuyup. Sa sidlak sang 
init nakakuha ang kapayas sing pagka'un nga kina- 
hanglan nya sa pagtubu' . 

Nagdaku' ang kapayas. Nagsiling sya sa manga gamut, 
'Manga gamut, manga gamut, gina'uhaw aku. ' Ang 
manga gamut nagpangayu' sang tubi sa ulan. Nag'ulan. 
Ang manga gamut sang kapayas nag'inum sang tubi' 
kutub sa ila ginhawa. Bug'us ang kalipay sang t anum . 
Nagsiling ang tanum, 'Salamat dahun nga nagkuha sang 
sidlak sang adlaw. Salamat manga gamut sa pagka'un 
kag tubi' . Pagkatapus nagbunga ang kapayas. 

Sa isa ka adlaw, ang manugtatap sang talamnan, 
nagpamu'pu' sang manga bunga sang kapayas. Sang 
pagkuha' na niya sang kapayas, nakita niya ang isa 
ka bulawan nga singsing. Iya nga premyo sa tumawu. 

VOCABULARY LIST 

absorbed, sucked in /nag/suyup 

branch sanga. 

breath ginhawa 

caretaker /manug/tatap 

dwarf, elf tumawu 

full, whole-hearted bug'us 

garden, field talamnan 

gold b u 1 aw a n 

opened spread /nag/humlad 

picked (fruit) /nagpa/mu ' pu ' 
possible, can manage sarang 

prize premyo 

raised up /gin /bay aw 

rays of the sun sidlak 

root gamut 



339 



seed 
strange 
surroundings 
take care of 
unt i 1 

"weather, times 
whole , entire 

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 



lisu 

/maka/ti/li/ngala 

palibut 

amli gan 

kutub 

panahun 

bilug 



Anu ang ginatanum para sa pagtubu' sang kapayas? 
Di'in nagkuha' ang kapayas sang pagka'un? 
Anung parte sang tanum ang manugkuha sang tubi ' 

s a dut a ' ? 
Anung parte sang tanum ang manugkuha sang sidlak 

sa adlaw? 
Sin'u ang naghatag sa bata sang lisu? 
Nga'a ginhatagan sya sang bulawan nga tagipusu'un? 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEACHER (Contact hours: 3) 
1. Substitution Drill 



Divide the class into two groups, one to ask 
the questions and the other to provide the re- 
sponses. The teacher gives cues for both the 
questions and the answers. Roles should be 
switched. This drill should be conducted both 
individually and chorally. 

Transformation Drill 

(a) The students are to change regular nouns to 
noun formatives using / manug- / plus a root to 
describe a skill related to the type of work 
done in some profession. 

(b) The students are to change command statements 
to declarative sentences using the same roots, 
but changing the function of the roots from verbs 
to nouns, and adding a modifier to construct a 
complete sentence. 

The cumulative exercise may be given as a read- 
ing comprehension test. 



ab akada 


ab aga 


ab aw 


abi 


ab i abi 


abokado 


abogado 


Abril 


abunu 


abut 


akig 


aku 



akun 

ad law 

adl aw a 3.1 aw 

adob o 

Afrika 

aga 
agi 



GLOSSARY 
Hili gay non-English 

A 

(hesitating particle or filler) 
oh ... , well . . . 

alphabet , ABC . 

shoulder . 

oh, wow, gee, my. 

hey, excuse please, would you 
please, take it easy, let me see. 

ma' abiabihun kind, friendly. 

avo c ado . 

lawyer, att orney-at-law ; atogada 
female lawyer. 

April . 

fertilizer; to fertilize. 

to arrive, to appear, to reach, 
to come to; pag ' abut arrival. 

to be angry, to be mad. 

I, me (first person singular nom- 
inal pronoun) . 

my, mine (first person singular 
source pre-position pronoun). 

day, birthday, anniversary. 

every day. 

Filipino meat dish of either 
chicken or pork, cooked in 
vinegar and soy sauce. 

Af ri ca. 

morning . 

handwriting; to pass by, to go by, 
to fetch on the way. 



31*1 



31+2 



Agosto 
al a 
alam 
alas 

al at 
alkans e 

amay 
ambut 
Am erika 
amerikana 
Ame rika.no 

ami go 
amlig 



anay 

anhun 

ani 

anu 

anum 
anunsyo 

anyo 

anyos 

ang 

apang 

aparador 

apat 



August . 

time marker used only with una . 

ma ' alam bright, smart, brilliant. 

time marker to indicate until, 
before . 

malal at salty. 

at a loss, less than cost price; 
to fail to gain . 

father. 

I don ' t know . 

Amer ic a . 

coat, formal suit for men. 

American; Amerikana female American 
cit iz en . 

friend, buddy . 

to handle with care, to take care of, 
to water plants. 

our, ours (first person plural 
source pre-position pronoun). 

please, wait a minute. 

pro-verb meaning what will... do. 

harvest, produce; to harvest, to 
reap . 

what . 

s ix . 

announcement; to announce, to 
b roadcas t . 

year . 

year (plural ) . 

noun marker. 

but , however . 

cabinet, closet. 

four . 



3^3 



apu 
ar a ' 

ar a ' dira' 

ari 

ar i diri 

ar i t us 

art e 

as awa 

as in 

aslum 

asukar 

as ul 

asy ender o 

atu 

atub angan 
atu didtu 

atun 

atup 
away 

aw to 
ay 
ayu 
ayu' 



grandchild . 

there . 

there, may be near the listener 
but far from the speaker, or far 
from both. 

here (near the speaker). 

here (near the speaker). 

ear ri ng . 

ma ' art e creative, artistic, vain. 

wife; to take a wife. 

s alt . 

ma ' aslum sour. 

s ugar . 

blue . 

big landowner more or less equiva- 
lent of a feudal lord; asy endera 
female counterpart. 

there yonder (very far from both 
the speaker and the hearer). 

in front of. 

there yonder (very far from both 
the speaker and the hearer). 

our, ours (first person plural 
inclusive source pre-position 
pronoun ) . 

roof. 

fight, combat; to fight, to go to 
b at tie . 

car, automobile. 

oh , ouch , my . 

goo d , well . 

bargain, discount; to bargain, 
to ask for a discount. 



3i+U 



B 



ba'ba' 

b ab ay i 
babuy 
baka 
baka.1 
bakasy on 

bag ' u 
bahala. ' 

bala. 

b a lay 
balik 
ball gy a ' 
b ana 

band.iha.do 
b ani g 

b ant ala ' 
b a n t ay 

bantug 
banwa 

bany o 
bapor 
bar ato 
b arutu 

baryu 



mouth . 

female, woman. 

pig, pork. 

cow , beef. 

to b uy . 

vacation, trip; to travel on a 
vacation, to take a vacation. 



to be responsible for, to take care 
of the matter . 

tag question particle which ex- 
presses doubt or uncertainty. 

house, dwelling, building. 

to come back, to return. 

to s ell . 

husban d . 

plat te r . 

native mat made of woven palm 
leaves . 

to announce, to broadcast. 

guard, watchman; to watch, to 
ob serve . 

famous, renowned. 

town, community bigger than a 
village . 

b athr oom . 

boat , ship . 

cheap, inexpensive. 

native canoe made out of carved 
trunks of trees. 

native political division headed 
by a captain with an area smaller 
than a t own . 



3U5 



b as a 
b aski t 
b askug 
basi ' 
bas o 
b as ur a 
b at a ' 
b ay ad 
b ay aw 
b ayb ay 
baylu 
b ayu ' 
berde 
byent e 
Bikola.no 

bill 
bilid 

bi lug 

bi lug 

bint an a ' 

bis ikle t a 

bisi presidente 

b i s it a 

bit ami na 

bio s a 

bola 

bo telya 

boto 

budlay 



to r ead . 

b asket . 

mabaskug loud in volume, strong. 

may, maybe, might. 

drinking glass. 

garbage, trash. 

child , b aby . 

payment; to pay. 

to raise up, to lift over the head. 

beach, coast. 

to change, to exchange. 

dr es s , clothes . 

green . 

twenty . 

language spoken in the Bicol region 
of the Philippines. 

cost, amount, price. 

to handle with the hands so as to 
inspect closely, as of a piece 
of cloth. 

one piece. 

whole, circle, round. 

window . 

bicycle. 

vice-president . 

visitor; to visit, to call on. 

v i t am in, nutrient. 

blous e , t op . 

ball. 

bottle . 

vot e ; to vot e . 

mabudlay difficult, hard. 



31*6 



bugas 
bug ' at 
bugkus 

bug ' us 

buhat 

buhi ' 

buhuk 

bulak 

bulan 

bulanbulan 

bulang 

bulawan 

bulig 

bulung 
bunga 

bungtud 
bus 
bus ug 
busun 
but ang 

buthu' 

bu'ut 
bwas 
byahe 
By ernes 



ka 
ka 



polished rice grains. 

mabug ' at heavy, burdensome. 

bundle, string; to bundle together, 
to bind, to pack with a string. 

entire, complete, whole-hearted. 

to do, to make. 

alive . 

hai r . 

flower, cotton fiber. 

month , moon . 

monthly . 

cockfight; bulangan cockpit. 

gold. 

help, assistance; to help, to 
assist. 

medicine, drug. 

fruit, consequence; to bear fruit, 
to r esult i n . 

hill , s lope . 

bus . 

satiated, stuffed with food. 

mailbox . 

thing, device; to put down, to 
place . 

to study, to go to school; 
buluthu ' an school house. 

mabu ' ut kind, approachable. 

tomorrow . 

tr ip . 

Friday. 

K 

you (short form of ikaw ) . 
quantity or value marker. 



3^7 



ka ' aganhun 
kab at a ' an 
kada 
kadlaw 
kadtu 
kaf e 
kag 

kagab ' i 
kah apun 
kahun 
kahuy 
ka' ina 
kalab as a 
kalah a ' 
kal amay 
kalibut an 
kalu' 
kalu' uy 
kaly e 
kamat i s 
kami 

kami s adentr o 
kamis et a 
kamu 

kamus t a 
kamut 
kamut i 
k an day 

kanday sin'u 
kandidato 



dawn, early morning. 

children . 

every , each . 

to laugh . 

to go . 

coffee . 

an d . 

last ni ght . 

yesterday . 

box . 

tree, wood, timber. 

earlier, a while ago. 

yellow squash. 

frying pan . 

refined sugar. 

earth, world, universe. 

h at , c ap . 

mercy, pity. 

street, avenue, road. 

tomato . 

we (first person plural exclusive 
nominal pronoun). 

men ' s shirt . 

men's undershirt. 

you (second person plural nominal 
pronoun ) . 

how are you. 

hand . 

sweet pot at o . 

plural personal name marker. 

whose (plural). 

c andidat e . 



3U8 



kanding 
kandus 
kant a 
kan ' un 
Kapampangan 

kapayas 
kapitoly o 
kapuy 

karbaw 
karga 

karne 
karnero 
kars ada 
kart on 
karun 
kas al 

kaserola 

kas llyas 

kata.ru 

kat 6rs e 

katre 

ka' ugallngun 

ka ' un 

kay 

kay s a 
kay s in ' u 
kihad 



goat . 

to scoop out, to dip. 

s ong ; to sing. 

cooked rice. 

language spoken in Pampanga province 
of the Philippines. 

papaya . 

capitol building. 

tiredness; to be tired, to be 
exh aus t e d . 

carabao, water buffalo. 

cargo, load; to load cargo, to 
carry . 

meat . 

s heep . 

road , street. 

box , c art on . 

later, after a while. 

wedding, marriage; to marry, to 
wed. 

cooking pot . 

toilet, comfort room. 

cold, running nose; to have a cold. 

fourteen . 

bed. 

oneself, one's own. 

to eat . 

because, for; singular personal 
name pre-position marker. 

t han , over . 

whose (singular). 

slice, one piece; to slice. 



3U9 



kilala 

kf lid 

kilo 

kinahanglan 

kinanglan 

kins e 

kis ame 

kit a. 

kita' 

kla.se 

kolehiy o 

kolor 

kondisy on 

ku 

kuh a ' 

kulun 

kun 

kun kis ' a 

kundiman 

kunu 

kurt at a 
kuring 
kus ina 
kus inero 
kusug 
kut s ar a 
kut s ar i t a 



acquaintance; to introduce, to 

acquai nt . 

beside, on the side. 

ki logr am . 

to have need of, to be needed. 

variant of kinahanglan . 

fifteen . 

ceiling . 

we (first person plural inclusive 
nominal pronoun). 

to meet, to look for, to try to 
find. 

class, kind. 

college . 

color . 

condition, mood. 

my (short form of nakun ) . 

to t ake , to get . 

clay cooking pot . 

if. 

sometimes, occasionally. 

Filipino song written in the local 
languages to express love or 
mi s ery . 

quoting particle meaning 'according 
to' . 

neckt i e . 

cat . 

kit chen . 

cook; kus iner a female cook. 

makusug strong, energetic. 

tablespoon . 

t e aspoon . 



350 



kut s i lyo 

kutub 

kwaderno 

kwar enta 

kw arta 

kwarto 

kwatro 



knife . 

unt i 1 . 

notebook . 

forty . 

money . 

room, quarter. 

four . 



da' 

da, ' an 

daku ' 

dakup 

dagat 

dagum 

dahun 

dala. 

dalag 

dalaga 

dalagan 

dalan 

dali' 

dali ' 

damu ' 

damul 

dapug 

das ig 

da ' ug 

daw s a 
dayun 



short form of dir a . 

old , over used. 

big, bulky. 

to catch, to trap. 

sea, oc ean . 

nee die . 

leaf. 

to bring, to carry. 

yellow . 

young unmarried girl. 

to run, to scamper. 

road, path, street. 

come on, come here. 

fast, quick, hurried; to hurry. 

madamu ' many, plenty. 

madamul thick, dense. 

stove, fireplace. 

hurry; madas ig fast, quick. 

gain, winnings; to win, to 
overcome . 

seem like, like something. 

to enter, to come in, to continue 



351 



dekolor 
deko ra 
de largo 
dent i s t a 

Desyembre 

di 

didtu 

di ' in 

di'in s adtu 

di ' in s in a ' 

di ' in sini 

dingding 

di r a' 

direkt or 

diri 

di skur so 

diyas 

doktor 

Dominggo 

dormit oryo 

dos 

dose 

dos ena 

duga ' 

dugay 

duh a. 

duhul 

dula' 

duls i 

dut a ' 

dyes 



colored, multi-colored. 

to decorate. 

long p ants . 

dentist . 

De cemb e r . 

short form of dir i . 

there (very far from "both the 
speaker and the hearer). 

where . 

which of those yonder there. 

whi ch of those. 

whi ch of these. 

wall . 

there . 

director. 

here . 

speech; to give a speech. 

bi rthday . 

doctor . 

Sunday . 

dormitory . 

two . 

twelve . 

doz en . 

s ap , juice. 

of t ime , long . 

two . 

to hand personally, to pass on 

to lose, to mislay. 

candy , pastry . 

soil, land; earth. 

ten . 



352 



dyip 
Dyus 
dyutay 



jeepney . 

God. 

tiny, small, little 



eks amin 
eh 

eleksyon 
Enero 
enheny ero 
Englat er a 
eropla.no 
eskwela 

Espanya 
Espanyol 

Estados Unidos 
est ante 
estar 
est asyon 
es tudyant e 



test, examination. 

hesitating particle or filler. 

election; to hold an election. 

January . 

engineer . 

England. 

airplane . 

pupil, student; eskvelahan 
s chool hous e . 

Spai n . 

Spanish, Spaniard; Espanyola 
female Spanish citizen. 

Unit e d States . 

shelf. 

to stay, to live, to reside. 

s t at ion . 

student . 



falda 
family a 
Febr ero 
f lor era 
Fransya 



skirt . 
family . 
Feb ruary . 
flower vase. 
France . 



gabi 
gab ' i 



t ar o . 

night, evening, 



353 



gahud 
gall ' 
gam ay 
gamit 
gamut 
gani ' 

gantang 

gans a 
gas to 

gat as 
gat us 
gawgaw 
ger a 
gid 

gin am us 
gin ' anu 
ginh aw a 
ginikanan 
gin ' ut 

go"b ernador 

grupu 

gunting 

gusto 
gutum 
gwa' 
gwapo 



noise; magahud noisy, "bothersome. 

really, is that so, indeed. 

small , little . 

to use, to devise. 

root . 

as a matter of fact, in fact, so 
t hat . 

ganta, unit of measure with a 
volume content of approximately 
three liters. 

goos e . 

to spend, to pay out; gas t os 
expens es . 

milk . 

hundred . 

starch. 

war . 

intensifier particle. 

marinated fish sauce. 

pro-verb meaning what did. . .do. 

breath, respiration; to breathe. 

parent . 

magi n ' ut warm, hot, for climate 
or weather. 

gove rnor . 

group . 

scissor; to cut with scissors, to 
give a hair cut . 

to care for, to like, to want. 

hunger, craving; to be hungry. 

out side. 

handsome; gwapa pretty, beautiful. 



35^ 



ha 

habul 

habun 

habuy 

hakwat 

hadluk 

ha.gd.an 

halin 

halin 

halug 

hamb al 

hampang 

hamun 

hangin 

Hapun 

hapun 

hapus 

harana 

hard! n 

harina 

hast a 

hatag 

hefe 

hib alu 

hibi ' 

hi gad 

hi.la.nat 

hilaw 

himu 



H 

filler functioning like 'huh'. 

blanket . 

s oap . 

to throw, to fling. 

to carry, to lift. 

fear; to be afraid. 

stair. 

to transfer, to move to another 
house, to move to another place, 

to leave, to depart, to go away. 

loose. 

talk, speech; to talk, to speak. 

play, game; to play. 

ham . 

wind, breeze. 

Japan, Japanese; Hapunes a female 
Japanese citizen. 

aft ernoon . 

mahapus easy, manageable. 

s erenade . 

garden . 

flour. 

unt il . 

to gi ve . 

chief. 

to know, to be aware of. 

cry; to cry, to weep. 

along side. 

fever; to have fever. 

fresh, uncooked, unripe. 

to make, to do, to perform. 



355 



himus 

himut ad 

hinablus 

hinay 

his a ' 

hulam 

hulat 

hulug 

Hulyo 

human 

humay 
huml ad 
huna ' huna ' 
Hunyo 
hus ay 

hus to 
hu ' u 
hu'ut 
Hwebes 



ib ab aw 
ib an 
ikaw 

i dalum 
idu ' 
lhaw 
lla 

ilimnun 



to put away, to arrange. 

to observe closely, to scrutinize. 

niece , nephew . 

s low , gentle . 

envy; mahis a ' envious, jealous. 

to borrow. 

to wait, to expect. 

to drop, to throw down, to fall. 

July . 

finished, completed; to terminate, 
to finish, to complete. 

rice plant . 

to spread out, to open up. 

thoughts; to think, to consider. 

June . 

comb; to solve, to put in order, 
to arrange . 

right, enough, adequate, correct. 

yes . 

tight . 

Thur s day . 

I 

t op , surface . 

other, some other. 

you (second person singular 
nominal pronoun). 

underneath, beneath, below. 

dog . 

to roast, to broil. 

their, theirs (third person plural 
pre-position source pronoun). 

drink, beverage liquor. 



356 



Ilokano 

ilung 
iluy 

impunt o 
fmu 

ina ' 
Inday 
indi ' 
ineksy on 
ini 
init 
ini tan 
Int s Ik 
inum 
lnyu 

is a. 
i s da ' 
i s ip 
is t 6ry a 

1 su 

isug 

ltlug 

itum 

lya 



language spoken in the Ilocos region 
of the Philippines. 

nos e . 

mother . 

sharp for time, on the dot. 

your, yours (second person singular 
pre-position source pronoun). 

that . 

endearment term for younger girls. 

no . 

injection . 

this (near the speaker). 

hotness, rage, passion; to heat. 

sunshine . 

Chines e . 

to drink . 

your, yours (second person plural 
pre-position source pronouns). 

one . 

fish. 

t o count . 

story, conversation; to tell a 
story, to converse. 

chalk . 

ma ' i sug bold, brave, courageous. 

egg. 

black; ma ' i turn black in color, 
dark in complexion. 

his, her, hers, its (third person 
singular pre-position source 
pronoun ) . 



lab a 



to wash clothes ; 1 ab ander a 
laundrywoman . 



357 



lab a ' 
lab aw 
1 akat 
1 a ' g a ' 
lagwert a 
la ' in 
1 alaki 
lames a 
lami g 
1 ana 
lang 

languy 
lapad 

lap is 

lap! t 

lata 

latag 

lavas 

law ' ay 

law id 

1 ay a ' 

leksy on 

libr e 

librer iy a 

libro 

liku' 

likud 

ligad 



malab a ' long, lengthy. 

over, extra, excess. 

to go, to walk over. 

to boil in water. 

yard , or chard . 

mala ' in bad, evil, immoral. 

man, male person, boy. 

t able . 

of weather, cold. 

oil, cooking oil. 

(limiting particle) only, also, 
just . 

t o swim . 

malapad wide, broad, extensive 
in ar ea . 

pencil. 

malapit near. 

tin can, empty can. 

to bleach under the sun. 

bo dy . 

malaw ' ay ugly, unpleasant. 

malawid of distance, long. 

to wither, to fade. 

less on . 

f r ee , gratis . 

library . 

book . 

to turn the corner. 

back . 

to overpass, to pass by, to be 
past . 



ligid 



to roll over, to turn over. 



358 



ligu' 

11 gus 

Ilia 

lima. 

limitado 

linabhan 

lingkud 

lipat 

If pay 

lip'ut 
list a 

lisu 

lit sun 

li ' ug 

liwat 

lolo 

lubi 

lugar 

lumpat 

Lunes 

lupad 

lutu' 

luwag 

luya 

luyag 
luyu 



ma anu 
ma ' ayu 



to "b athe . 

variant of ligu ' . 

violet, lavender. 

five . 

limit ed . 

washed clothes. 

to sit down . 

to forget, to lose memory of. 

kali pay happiness, joy; to "be 
happy, to have joy. 

malip ' ut "brief, short. 

list; to list down, to enter a 
name . 

seed. 

pig roasted over a coal pit. 

neck . 

to do again, to repeat. 

grandfather; lola grandmother. 

coconut; kalutihan coconut land. 

place . 

to jump, to leap. 

Monday . 

to fly, to soar in the air. 

to cook, to ripen as of fruits. 

"big spoon used for cooking, ladle, 

maluy a weak, decrepit; to weaken, 
to t ir e . 

to want, to like, to desire. 

"beside, side, near. 

M 

pro-verb meaning, what will. . .do. 
f ine , good . 



359 



makina. 
makinily a 
ma ' estro 

mag ' as aw a 

magul ang 

mahal 

mahimo 

ma ' is 

malet a 

man 

manang 

mani 

man in ay 

mans anas 

mant el 

manuk 

manung 

manga. 

mangga 

manghud 

mangingi sda ' 

mangunguma 

Mars o 

Mart e s 

maskin 

masy ado 

mat a 

mat ade ro 

may 

may ad 



machine . 

typewriter . 

instructor, teacher; ma ' es tr a 
female teacher. 

married couple. 

older brother or sister. 

expensive, dear, darling. 

to be possible, to be feasible 

corn . 

luggage, piece of luggage. 

(filler particle) also, too. 

respect term for older women. 

pe anut . 

godmother . 

apple . 

tablecloth . 

chi cken . 

respect term for older men. 

plural marker. 

mango . 

younger brother or sister. 

fisherman . 

farmer . 

March . 

T u e s d ay . 

even though, even if. 

too much, excessive. 

eye . 

butcher . 

to have, to be existent. 

good, fine, well. 



360 



Mayo 


mayor 


medy a 


medy as 


metro 


mil 


mut sat so 


My erkoles 


milyon 


minus 


mingaw 


miyad 


mii 


mu 



munis lpyo 
muskobado 



May . 

Mayor of a city or town. 

half. 

sock, stocking . 

meter . 

thous and . 

male servant, hired help; 
mut s at s a maid. 

Wednes day . 

million . 

to "be less, to subtract, to be 
minus . 

to be lonely, to be homesick. 

variant of may ad . 

short form of nimu . 

particle used to express affirma- 
tion of the statement in which it 
is the last word. 

municipal hall, town hall. 

unrefined sugar. 



N 



na 
na ' 
nakun 

nag ' anu 
nalang 

namit 
namun 

nanay 



already, still, yet. 

short form of i na ' . 

my (first person singular post- 
position source pronoun). 

pro-verb meaning, what did. . . do . 

limiting particle meaning, only, 
just . 

manami t delicious, savory. 

our (first person plural exclusive 
post-position source pronoun). 

mother, respect form for older 
female relatives. 



361 



n a n d ay 

nanu 
napulu ' 
nars 
natun 

Nene ' 

nerbyos 

ni 

ni 

nil a 



nmy u 

nipis 
niwang 

niya 

Nobye mb r e 
nobyo 

Nonong 

Nonoy 



nu 
nwebe 



plural personal name post-position 
marker . 

variant of aim . 

t en . 

nurs e . 

our (first person plural inclusive 
post -posit ion source pronoun). 

endearment term for younger girls, 
especially the eldest in the 
family . 

nervousness, anxiety; to tie nervous, 
to be edgy. 

short form of ini. 



singular personal name post- 
position marker. 

their (third person plural post- 
position source pronoun). 

your (second person singular post- 
position source pronoun). 

your (second person plural post- 
position source pronoun). 

manipi s thin, thin like paper. 

maniwang lean, thin of animate 
beings . 

her, his, its (third person singular 
post-position source pronoun). 

N o v e mb e r . 

groom, boyfriend, sweetheart; 
nobya girlfriend, bride, sweet- 
he art . 

endearment term for young boys, 
especially the second oldest in 
the family. 

endearment term for young boys, 
especially the youngest in the 
family . 

variant of anu for tag questions. 

nine . 



362 



nga 
nga. ' a 
ngalan 
ngipun 



o 
obra 

6ns e 
opisi n a 
oras 
ospit a.1 
otel 
ots enta 
6 1 so 



NG 

attribute connector. 
why. 
name . 
tooth . 



or ; oh , okay . 

work, job; to work, to do a job; 
olubrahun work, task. 

eleven . 

office . 

time . 

hospi t al . 

hotel . 

eighty . 

e i ght . 



pa 
pa' a 

pabo 

p ab o r 1 1 o 

paka' is a. 

pake t e 

padala. 

pagka. ' un 
pa.hu ' 
p ah uw ay 
pa' it 
palangga ' 



still, y et . 

leg, thigh. 

turkey . 

favorite . 

first degree cousin. 

pack , package . 

package sent through someone or 
the mail; to send, to mail. 

food. 

mango . 

rest; to rest. 

bitterness; mapa ' it bitter. 

person who is the pet of the family, 
darling, sweetheart. 



363 



pal ay 
palihug 
pa.lt a 
p am ah aw 
pamangkut 

pamat i ' 

panahiin 

panaptun 

panilag 

p ant alon 

panugyan 

panyaga 

panyapun 

panyu ' 

pangabuh i ' 

p angayu ' 

pangi t a' 

papel 

para 

para kay sin'u 

para ka.nd.ay sin'u 

par ada 

pareho 
pary ente 
p as ahe 
pasy ar 
p at at as 
pat i 



rice plant . 

please. 

to "be abs ent . 

"breakfast; to eat "breakfast. 

question, query; to ask a 
quest ion . 

to listen. 

climate, weather, time. 

cloth . 

to watch, to scout, to observe. 

pair of pant s . 

sugges t ion . 

lunch; to eat lunch. 

supper, dinner; to eat dinner. 

handkerchief. 

life, way of life. 

request, demand; to ask for, 
to r eques t . 

earnings, wage; to earn a living, 
to s e ar ch for . 

paper . 

for . 

for whom (singular). 

for whom (plural). 

parade, parking; to park a 
vehi cle . 

s ame , s imilar . 

r elat i ve . 

passage, trip; pas ahero passenger, 

to take a walk, to stroll. 

po t at o . 

to obey, to believe. 



361+ 



pa ' uli ' 

payung 

per as 

pero 

pery odiko 

pesetas 

pets a 

pikit 

pikuy 

pila 

pili ' 

Pilipinas 

Pilipino 

pilit 

pi my en t a 
pinta 
pint or 
piny a 
pinggan 
pis an 
pis ar a 
pisos 
pispis 
pi taka 
pitu 
plaka 
plant sa 
plas a 
plat ito 
plat o 



to go home, to return home. 

umbrella. 

pear . 

but . 

news pap e r . 

twenty-c ent avo coin. 

date . 

(of clothes) tight. 

parrot . 

how much, how many. 

to choose, to select. 

Phil ippines . 

Filipino citizen; Pilipina female 
citizen of the Philippines. 

mapilit sticky, clammy; to stick, 
to adhere . 

red or white pepper. 

paint; to paint. 

painter . 

pineapple . 

plate, dish. 

mapi s an diligent, industrious. 

blackboard . 

peso. 

bird. 

purse, handbag, wallet. 

s even . 

phonograph record. 

dry iron; to iron. 

plaza, par k . 

s auce r . 

dinner plate . 



365 



pomada 

pr emyo 

pr es i dent e 

presyo 

primo 

prinsipal 

pr i to 

probinsya 

problema 

programa 

pr ope so r 

prut as 

pug ad 

pula 

pulbus 

pulus 

punt a 
pungku ' 
pu ' pu ' 

pus t a ' 
put 1 ' 

putul 
put us 
puyu 
puyu ' 

pwert a 
pya.no 



mens' hair dressing, pomade. 

prize. 

president . 

price . 

cousin; prima female cousin. 

school principal. 

fried; to fry, to cook in oil. 

provinc e . 

problem . 

program . 

professor; propes or a lady professor, 

fruit . 

nest. 

red, crimson; to "blush. 

powder, face powder. 

may pulus to be useful, to "be 
profitable, to be of an advantage. 

tip, very end. 

to sit down . 

to harvest from a tree, to pick 
fruits or flowers. 

stake, bet; to bet. 

white; maput i ' white, fair in 
complexion . 

to cut off, to sever. 

wrapper; to wrap, to pack. 

cloth bag with a draw string. 

to live, to reside; puluy ' an 
house, dwelling. 

door . 

p i ano . 

unit of measure, foot. 



366 



rady o 
regalo 

relo 
relyeno 
rent a 
repolyo 
retrato 
reyna 
r osa 
rosas 



radio . 

gift, present, to give a present. 

wat ch , clock . 

stuffed chicken or fish. 

r ent ; to rent . 

c abb age . 

p i cture . 

queen . 

pink . 

rose. 



s a 

sabad 
Sabado 
s aka ' 

sakay 
sakit 

s adtu 

saging 

salamat 

salap i ' 

salug 

s ampaguit a 

s an ' u 

sang 

sanga. 

sapatus 



"by , at , on , in . 

mas ah ad noisy, troublesome. 

Saturday . 

to come in, come up; to climb, to 
ascend. 

to ride, to board. 

illness, pain; mas aki t painful, 
hurting; mas akitun sick person. 

those (long time ago, there far 
away ) . 

b anana . 

thank you . 

f i f ty-cent avo coin. 

floor . 

nat i ve j asmi n . 

when . 

non-topic noun marker. 

branch, twig, bough. 

shoe . 



36? 



s arang 

s arsyado 
s a ' ut 
Sebua.no 

s ekret aryo 

s eda 

s emana 

Septye mb r e 

s erbes a 

s erbi ly e t a 

s erb i 

s en tabo ( s ) 

sentimos 

s et en ta 

seys 

s l 

s ib it 

s ibuy as 

s i garilyo 

sigi 

s i giro 

sila 

si lak 

s 1 lhi g 
s iling 
s imba 

sing 
s l na ' 



to be able, to be capable of, to 
be able to afford. 

meat dish with gravy. 

dance; to dance. 

language spoken in the Eastern 
Visayan region of the Philippines. 

secretary; sekretarya lady 
secret ary . 

silk. 

week . 

S e p t e mb e r . 

beer. 

napkin, table napkin. 

to s erve . 

cent avo ( s ) . 

cent s . 

s eventy . 

six. 

personal name topic marker. 

pin . 

onion . 

c i garet t e . 

okay; to go on, to continue. 

maybe, perhaps. 

they (third person plural nominal 
pronoun ) . 

rays of the sun, sunshine; to shine 

broom; to sweep with a broom. 

to talk about, to say. 

to worship, to go to church; 
s imb ah an church. 

variant of s ang . 

t hat . 



368 



smi 
si ni 

sin'u 

s ingko 

singkwenta 

s ings ing 

s ipily o 

sip ' un 

siya 

s iy am 

sobre 

soltero 

sorbete 

sub a' 

subung 

suki ' 

suksuk 

sud' an 

s uga' 

sugal 

sugilanun 

s ulat 

sulud 

sunud 

superb is or 

sus 

sut 11 

suyup 

sweldo 



thi s . 

movie, movie theatre; s i nihan 
movie theatre. 

who . 

five . 

fifty. 

ring. 

toothbrush; to brush the teeth. 

running nose; to have running nose. 

chai r . 

nine . 

envelope . 

young bachelor man. 

ice cream . 

rive r . 

now, like, similar. 

favorite customer. 

to wear, to don. 

viand, meat dish. 

light, electric or gas light. 

gamble, risk; to gamble, to take 
the risk. 

story, conversation; to tell a 
story, to converse. 

letter; to write. 

inside; to enter, to put inside. 

next, following. 

super vi sor . 

my, gee, goodness gracious. 

naughty, mischievous. 

to absorb, to breath in, to suck in. 

salary, compensation; to receive a 
s alary . 



369 



swer te 
sya. 

sy en 

syete 

syudad 



luck, fate; maswert e lucky. 

he, she, it (third person singular 
nominal pronoun). 

hundred; sy ent os hundred. 

s even . 

city . 



t a. ' as 

tabang 
t abas 
t abl et as 
tabu' 

tag 

taga 

t aga di 'in 

Tagalog 

t agbalay 

t agpi la 
t agu ' 
tahi ' 
t ahum 
t al amnan 
t alum 

t alung 
t am ad 
t ambuk 
t am ' i s 
t anan 
t an ' aw 



mat a ' as tall. 

help, aid; to help, to assist. 

to sew a dress, to cut clothes. 

t ablet , pill . 

nat ab u ' to come to pass, to happen; 
event, happening. 

value marker. 

from, place of origin. 

from where . 

language spoken in the Central 
Luzon area of the Philippines. 

owner of the house; hello! (anybody 
home ? ) . 

how much . 

to hide, to keep. 

sewing, stitching; to sew. 

mat ahum pretty, beautiful. 

field, garden. 

mat alum of tools and instruments, 
sharp . 

eggplant . 

1 azy , i die . 

mat ambuk stout, fat. 

mat am ' i s sweet . 

all, altogether. 

to see, to watch, to look at. 



370 



t andug 
t ani ' 
tanum 
tanyag 
t apus 
t as a 
t at ap 
tat ay 

t atlu 

t awag 

t awu 

t ay t ay 

tela 

telebisyon 

telegrama 

telepono 

terno 

ti' 
ti' ll 
t ilaw 
t impla 
t i n a. p ay 
t indero 

t indug 
t inedor 
t inikling 
tinlu' 
t 1 ngala 

tipig 



to t ouch . 

if at all possible. 

plant ; to plant . 

offer; to offer. 

finished, completed; to finish. 

cup . 

to look after, to take care of. 

father, respect term for older 
male relatives. 

three . 

to call, to call on the telephone. 

person, people; n a t aw u to "be born. 

bridge . 

cloth. 

t ele vi s ion . 

telegram . 

telephone . 

mens' formal coat, matching suit 
and pants, ladies' long formal 
attire with butterfly sleeves. 

well..., so. ..now then. 

foot . 

to try, to taste. 

to mix together. 

bread . 

salesman; t i nder a saleslady, 
female vendor. 

to st an d . 

fork. 

Filipino bamboo dance. 

mat inlu ' clean, pure. 

surprise, wonder amazement; to be 
surprised, to wonder. 

to fold, to put away. 



371 



t ipun 
tira 

tiya 
t iy an 
tiyo 

Toto' 

trataho 

t rak 

tres 

trese 

treynta 

t s a. 

t s inelas 

t sokolat e 

tu 

t u' alya 

tuba' 

tubi ' 

t ub i g 

tubu' 

tukar 

tudlu' 

tugnaw 

tu'ig 
tulug 
tulun ' an 
tumawu 
t umpuk 
tung a. ' 



to store, to gather together. 

to fight, to box, to kick, to 
batter . 

aunt . 

ab domen . 

uncle, respect term for older male 
relatives . 

endearment term for the eldest or 
youngest boy in the family. 

work, job; to work, to do a task. 

truck . 

three . 

thirteen . 

thi rty . 

tea. 

s li pper . 

chocolate . 

short form of atu . 

t owel . 

fermented coconut juice drink. 

wat er . 

variant of tubi ' . 

to grow. 

to play an instrument. 

finger; to teach, to point at. 

matugnaw cold, cool of weather; to 
feel cold . 

y ear . 

sleep; to sleep. 

book . 

dwarf, elf. 

pile , group . 

middle, center, between; to 
divide, to halve. 



372 



tungtung 

tungud 

tu'u 

tu ' un 

tuytuy 

tuyu 

tyanggi ' 

ty empo 
tyenda 

ub as 

ubu 

udtu 

uga 

ugangan 

ugis 

ugtu 

uhaw 

ul an 

uli ' 

ulihi 

ulu 

uma. 

umpi s a 

un a 
uno 
upud 

us ar 
ut an 
ut ud 



to put on top, to rest on. 

concerning, about, because. 

r ight . 

to study, to learn. 

to support, to guide. 

to feel sleepy, to be drowsy. 

small corner store which carries 
a little of everything. 

time, weather, climate. 

store, market . 

U 

grape . 

cough; to have a cough. 

noon . 

dry; dried fish. 

father or mother-in-law. 

faded, over used. 

variant of udt u . 

thirst; to be thirsty. 

r ain . 

to return, to give back. 

late, delayed. 

head. 

farm . 

start, beginning; to start, to 
commence . 

first , one . 

variant of una . 

companion, buddy; to go along, to 
keep c ompany . 

to use. 

vegetable . 

brother, sister. 



373 



uy at 



wala 

wala ' 

Wala.' sang anu man, 

walu 

w i s lk 



y 

yarda 
Yuropa 



oh , hey . 

to hold, to grasp. 

W 

left . 

none , no . 

You are welcome, don't mention it. 

ei ght . 

to sprinkle, to spray. 

Y 

of t ime , and . 

unit of measure, yard. 

Europe . 



SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS 



These materials are supplementary to the 
teaching text. They can be utilized to 
supplement the teaching materials during 
training sessions, or can be used by the 
Peace Corps Volunteers for self-study 
after training is over. 



The following contains classified vocabu- 
lary lists, phonology drills, written and 
reading exercises, and a miscellaneous 
collection of poems, songs, dialogues, 
anecdotes, and riddles. 



USEFUL EXPRESSIONS IN HILIGAYNON 



a . 


Di'in ka makadtu? 


b. 


S a. . . 


a . 


Di'in ka naghalin? 


b . 


S a. . . 


a . 


Nakaka'un ka na? 


b . 


Hu'u. 



A. Greetings 

Where are you going? 
To . . . 

Where did you come from? 
From . . . 

Have you eaten? 

Yes . 

Wala ' pa. Not yet . 

Ka'ina pa. Earlier. 

a. 0, kumusta ka? How are you? 

b. Ari buhi' pa. Still alive, at least. 
Gaginhawa pa. Still breathing. 

B . Leavetaking 

a. Malakat na aku . I'm going. 

Diri ka nalang, ha. Goodbye. (I'll leave 

you her e ) . 

Ma'una na aku. I will go ahead. 

b . , sigi . Okay . 

a. Pa'uli' na aku. I will go home now. 

b. Balik ka, ha. Come back, please. 
Balik liwat. Come again. 

Makit ' anay nalang kita I'll see you again. 

liwat . 

C . Invitations 



a. Pamasyar man kamu sa Come and see us. 

amun . 

b. 0, sigi. San'u? Okay. When? 

a. Bamus mamasyar kita. Let's take a walk. 
Updi ku anay. Please accompany me. 
Buligi ku an ay. Please help me. 

b. Hu'u basta ikaw. Yes, anything you say, 
Indi ' lang anay subung. Not right now. 

Wala' aku tyempo. I don't have time. 

a. Dali ' na, mahampang Come on, let's play. 
Dali' na, makadtu kita Come on, let's go to 

sa tyanggi ' . the store. 

b. Sigi, dali'. Okay, let's go. 
Indi' ku gusto. I don't want to. 

376 



377 



a. Maka'un na kita. 

b. Indi' pa aku gusto. 
Wala' pa aku gana. 

Karun lang. 
Busug pa aku . 

a . Pagka ' un na. 

Ka'un nalang di . 
b. Wala' aku sang gana. 

c . Aku man . 



Let ' s eat . 

I don't want to eat yet. 

I don't have the appetite 

yet . 
Lat e r . 
I am still full. 

Have some food now. 
Eat with us here . 
I don't have any appe- 
tite. 
Me , too. 



Physical Discomforts 

a. Kala'in sang pamatyag 

ku. 
Masakit ang ulu ku . 
Daw sa malipung aku. 
Galingin ang ulu ku. 

Ginasip'un aku. 
Ginakataru aku. 
Ginahilanat aku. 
Mabug ' at ang akun lawas 
Natamaran aku. 
Ginakapuy aku. 

b. Tu'ud? 



I feel bad. 

My head aches . 

I feel dizzy. 

My head seems to be 

spinning . 
I have a running nose 
I have a cold. 
I have a fever. 
I'm not in the mood. 
I feel lazy. 
I am tired. 
Really? 



Expressions for Frustrations and Disappointments 



S usmary osep ! 

Kanugun '. 

Ulihi na. 

Ik aw gi d abi , 

Aruy ! 

K a s ub u ' .' 

Kamingaw ! 

Kala ' in ! 

K ab a s t u s ! 



eh. 



My gosh ! Oh no ! 

What a waste! Pity! 

Too late. 

It's your fault. 

Ouch ! 

How sad! 

How lonely! 

How bad! 

How rude ! 



Words of Banter and Fun 



1. 


sus : 


2 . 


Ab aw ! 


3. 


Dyus ku! 


It. 


Tu'ud? 


5. 


Gali ' ? 


6. 


Baw? 


7. 


Aba ! 


8. 


Sy empr e ! 



Oh my ! 

Wow , well . 

My Lor d ! 

Really? 

Is that so' 

Really? 

Oh. 

Of cours e ! 



37! 



9- 


Naturalmen 


te! 






Naturally ! 


10 . 


Uy! 








Hey! oh. 


11. 


Huy! 








Hey! 


12 . 


Bugalun ! 








Braggart ! 


13. 


Tikalun! 








Liar ! 


lit. 


But igun ! 








Liar ! 


15 . 


Tamad! 








Lazybone ! 


16. 


Loko! 








Stupid! 


17. 


Bu ' ang ! 








Crazy ! 


18. 


Torpe I 








Nuts ! 


19. 


S i mb e r gw e n z a ! 






Shameles s ! 


20. 


Walay huya 


! I 






No manners ! 


21 . 


Wala' ka sang 


la 


but . 


It's none of your 












business . 


22 . 


Bola lang 


ina ' 


. 




That's just flattery 


23. 


Barat ! 








Cheapskat e ! 


2 It. 


B a s t a i k aw 








Anything you say. 


25. 


Siga ' si g a ' 


sya 


"b 


aw? 


You think you're 
someb ody ? 



G . Miscellaneous 

1. Anu siling mu? 

2 . Ti ' , kita' mu na? 

3. Ti ' anu na? 

h . Sigi na. 

5 . Bahala ' na . 

6 . Bahal a ' ka. 

7. Ambut sa imu . 

8. Pasensya ka lang. 

9. Pasensyaha lang aku . 

10. Indi ' ku gintuyu'. 

11. Wala' ku ginhungud. 

12. Sa kalu'uy sang Dyus . 

13. Siling ku na, eh. 

ll*. Ti , siling ku gid. 

15 . Pa' agya ku . 

16 . Tab i ' an ay . 

17 . Wal a ' kas o . 

1 8 . An ay ka . 

19. Dali ' lang. 

20 . Kun kis ' a. 

21. Malaka'. 

22. Wala' ka sang mahimo 

2 3. Hulat an ay . 

2U . Kuntani ' . 



What did you say? 

You see? 

What now? 

Please do go ahead. 

Come what may . 

It's up to you. 

You are responsible. 

Be pati ent . 

Pardon me . 

It was not intentional. 

I did not mean to do it. 

God wil ling . 

I already said so. I 

told you. 
Just as I predicted. 
Let me pass, please. 
Excuse me, may I pass. 
It ' s nothi ng . 
Just a minut e . 
One moment please. 
Sometimes . 
Rarely . 
There's nothing you can 

do about i t . 
Wait . 
If possible. 



379 



25 


. Tani ' . 


I was hoping . . . 


26 


. Tapus ka na? 


Are you through? 


27 


. Para! 


Stop ! 


28 


. Dyutay pa. 


A little more . 


29 


. S igi pa. 


A little more. Go on. 


Useful Expressions in Market 


ins 


a . 


Kamahal man! 


It's very expensive.' 




Masyado kamahal. 


It's too expensive. 




Pwede ka ' ay u ' ? 


Can I ask for a discount? 




Wala' na gid sang ayu ' ? 


No more discount? 




Pa'ayu'a man aku . 


Please let me bargain. 




Suki ' gid lang nimu 


But I'm your regular 




aku , pro. 


customer . 




Sigi na, ihatag mu na. 


Come on, give> it now. 




Dugangi man maskin 


Add a little more 




dyutay lang. 


( for free ) . 




Ari ang bayad. 


Here's the payment. 


b . 


Baratu na gani ' na' . 


That's already cheap. 




Pila ang ayu' mu . 


How much is your bargain? 




Alkans e aku . 


I'm at a loss . 




Wala' pa sa kapital. 


It's not even equal to 
the cost pr i ce . 




Indi' mahimo. 


I can ' t give it. 




, sigi nalang . 


Oh , okay . 




Sigi, bwena mano. 


Okay, only because you 
are the first customer. 




Bas t a s uki ' . 


As long as you are a 
regular customer. 




Ari ang sinsilyo mu . 


Here's your change. 




Ari ang kambyu. 


Here's your change. 



380 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 1 



Classroom and Office Articles 



"bench 

"blackboard 

"book 

cabinet, closet 

chai r 

chalk 

crayon 

er as er 

fountain pen 

light 

notebook 

paper 

pencil 



bangku ' 

pis ar a 

libro 

aparador 

siya 

tisa', isu, tsok 

kr ay ola 

borador, ereyser 

pluma 

suga' 

kwaderno 

pap el 

lapis 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 2 



Parts of a Room 



b alcony , 

ceiling 

corner 

door 

floor 

post 

steps 

wall 

window 



porch 



balkon 

ki s ame 

s uluk 

pwerta 

s alug 

hali gi , pos t e 

lintang, halintang 

dingding 

b intana ' 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 3 



Main Parts of the House 

awning 

b athroom 

dining room 

garage 

kit chen 

li vingroom 

porch 

roof 

room 

stair 

step 



palayas, medya agwa 

banyo 

komi dor 

gar ahi 

kus ina 

s alas 

b alkon 

atup 

kwarto 

hagdan, hagdanan 

lintang, halintang 



381 



s t or eroom 

toilet 

under the house, 

b as ement 
wall 
window 
window sill 



bo dega 
kas ily as 

silung, idalum 
dingding 
b int ana ' 
pas amano 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST k 



Roots of Common Verbs 

agree 

answer 

ask 

ask ( quest ion) 

take a bath 

bring 

buy 

borrow 

(eat) breakfast 

call 

cat ch 

change 

change, exchange 

c onver se 

cook 

count 

dance 

( e at ) dinner 

do 

drink 

e at 

follow 

forgive 

get 

go 

go ( home ) 

go (with someone) 

gues s 

help 

like 

list en 

loss 

( e at ) lunch 

make 

ne c e s s ary 



s ugut 

s ab at 

pangay u ' 

pangut ana 

pali gu ' 

dala 

b akal 

hulam 

pamahaw 

t awag 

dakup 

ilis 

b ay lu 

i s t orya 

lutu' 

i s ip 

s a ' ut 

panyapun 

buhat , himu 

i num 

ka ' un 

s unud 

pas ensy a 

kuh a ' 

kadtu 

p a ' uli ' 

upud 

pakut 

bulig, tabanj 

gusto, luyag 

pamati ' 

dula' 

pani ' udt u 

himu, buhat 

kinahanglan 



382 



observe 










himutad 


pay 










b ay ad 


pass "by 










agi 


play 










hampang 


pi ant 










t anum 


put 










but ang 


read 










bas a 


receive 










b atun 


remembe r 










panumdum 


ride 










s akay 


sell 










b al igy a ' 


see , look 










t an ' aw 


see , meet 










kita' 


sing 










kant a 


s it 










pungku ' 


s leep 










t ulug 


s olve 










hus ay 


smoke ( ci 


g 


are 


tt 


e) 


pani gar ilyo 


swim 










languy 


talk 










hamb al 


t e ach 










tudlu' 


think 










huna ' huna ' 


throw 










habuy 


try 










t ilaw 


us e 










garni t 


wait 










hulat 


walk 










lakat 


wash ( clo 


thes 


) 




1 ab a 


wash ( dis 


h 


es , 


h 


ands ) 


hugas 


wash ( face 


) 






hilam ' us 


watch 










b ant ay 


work 










t r abaho , obr a 


worship , 


g 


o t 


o 


church 


s imba 


write 










s ulat 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 5 



Helpers in the Government 

pre s i dent 
vice-president 
s enat or 

represent at ive 
gove rnor 
vice -governor 
mayor 
vice-mayor 



pr esi dent e 
bisi-presidente 
s enado r 
represent ante 
gob er nador 
bisi-gobernador 
mayor, alkalde 
bisi-mayor 



383 



councilor 
s e cr et ary 
t r e asur er 
barrio captain 
poli ceman 
chief of police 
fireman 
judge 



kons ehal 

s ekr etary o 

tesorero 

kapitan del baryo 

polis 

hef e 

bombero 

huwes 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 6 



Occupat ions 

actor , actress 

b arbe r 

big land owner 

bill collector 

bootblack 

car pent er 

chauffer, driver 

chief of police 

clerk 

cook 

councilor 

dent i s t 

doctor, physician 

dr es smaker 

employee 

engineer 

farmer 

f i Sherman 

foreman 

g amb 1 e r 

garb ageman 

gardener 

health inspector 

j anitor 

judge 

1 ab o r e r 

laundryman, woman 

1 awy e r 

machini s t 

mailman 

mas on 

mes s enger 

mi dwi f e 



art i s t a 

b arber o 

asy endero / a 

kobrador 

limpyabut a 

panday , karpentero 

t super, draybir 

hef e 

eskriby ente 

kus inero / a 

kons ehal 

dent is t a 

dokt or 

modi s t a 

empley ado / a 

enheny ero / a 

mangunguma 

mangingi s da ' 

kabo 

sugarul 

basurero 

har dinero 

s ani t aryo 

dyanitor 

huwes 

hor nal 

labandero/a 

abogado/a 

mi kaniko 

kart ero 

kant ero 

mensahero 

palt era 

nar s 



38lt 



painter 

pharmaci s t 

photographer 

piani s t 

plowman 

plumber 

pri est 

quack doctor 

rig driver 

salesman, woman 

s culptor 

seasonal worker 

s ecr etary 

servant 

shoemaker 

ste vedor 

surveyor 

t ailor 

teacher 

treasurer 

writer 



pi nt or 

parmasyotiko/a 

retratista 

pyanis t a 

ar ador 

tuber o 

pari ' 

arbolaryo 

kut s ero 

t i ndero / a 

eskult or /a 

sakada, sakadero 

s ekret ary o/ a 

mut s at s o / a 

s apat ero 

kar gador 

agr imensor 

sas t r e 

ma'estro/a 

t esurero 

manunulat 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 7 



Numb er s 


Hili 


gaynon 


1 


is a 




2 


duha 




3 


t atlu 




1+ 


apat 




5 


lima 




6 


anum 




7 


pitu 




8 


walu 




9 


s iy am 




10 


napulu ' 




n 


napulug 


is a 


12 


napulug 


duha 


13 


napulug 


t atlu 


lit 


napulug 


apat 


15 


napulug 


lima 


16 


napulug 


anum 


20 


duha ka 


napulu ' 


21 


duha ka 


napulug is a 


30 


tatlu ka napulu' 


31 


tatlu ka napulug isa 



( Hili gaynon-) Spanish 

uno 

dos 

t res 

kwat ro 

s ingko 

s ey s 

sy ete 

ot s o 

nwebe 

dyes 

ons e 

dos e 

t r es e 

kator s e 

kins e 

dyes y seys 

b ey nte 
beynte y uno 

t reynt a 
treynta y uno 



385 



1*0 

ill 


50 

51 


60 
6l 


70 
71 


8o 
81 


90 
91 


100 
200 
300 
1*00 

500 


1000 
2000 



apat ka napulu' 
apat ka napulug isa 

kalim ' an 
kallm'an kag isa 

anum ka napulu' 
anum ka napulug is a 

pitu ka napulu' 
pitu ka napulug isa 

walu ka pulu' 
walu ka pulug isa 

siyam ka pulu' 

siyam ka napulug isa 

isa ka gat us 
duha ka gatus 
tatlu ka gatus 
apat ka gatus 
lima ka gatus 

isa ka libu 
duha ka libu 



kwarent a 
kwarenta y uno 

s ingkwent a 

s ingkwent a y uno 

s ey s ent a 
seysenta y uno 

s et enta 
setenta y uno 

ots ent a 
otsenta y uno 

nobent a 
nobenta y uno 

sy en 

dos syentos 

tres syentos 

kvatro syentos 
kiny entos 

mil 

dos mil 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 



Main Part s of 



Flower , Plant and Tree 



b ark 

branch 

bud ( flower ] 

bud ( leaves ] 

flower 

fruit 



leaf , 

petal 

root 

seed 

trunk 

wood , 



s epal 



tree 



panit sang kahuy 

s anga 

bukul 

ugbus 

bulak 

bunga 

dahun 

pet alo 

gamut 

lis u , busul 

punu ' 

kahuy 



386 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 9 

Days of the week and Months of the year 

Monday Lunes 

Tuesday Martes 

Wednesday Myerkoles 

Thursday Hwebes 

Friday Byernes 

Saturday Sabado 

Sunday Dominggo 

January Enero 

February Pebrero 

March Marso 

April Abril 

May Mayo 

June Hunyo 

July Hulyo 

August Agosto 

September Septyembr e 

October Oktobre 

November Nobyembre 

December Disyembre 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 10 

Family Relationships 

aunt, respect form for 

older women tiya 

brother utud nga lalaki 

brother-in-law bay aw 

(older) brother magulang nga lalaki 

(younger) brother manghud nga lalaki 

child bata' , anak 

daughter-in-law umagad 

father amay , tatay 

father-in-law ugangan 

first cousin paka'isa 

godfather maninuy 

godmother maninay 

grandchild apu 

grandfather lolo 

grandmother lola 

husband bana 
husband's sister or 

brother hipag 



387 



in-law 
mother- 
nephew , niece 
parent 
relative 
relation between godchild 

and the children of 

godparent 
second cous in 
sister 

sister-in-law 
( ol der) sister 
(younger) sister 
s on-in-law 
uncle, respect term for 

older men 
wife 
wife's sister or brother 



bi las 

i luy , nanay 

hinablus 

ginikanan 

paryente, primo 



lgsu un 

pakaduha 

utud nga babayi 

b ay aw 

magulang nga babayi 

manghud nga babayi 

umagad 

tiyo 
as aw a 
hipag 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 11 



Vegetables 



bamboo shoot 

banana heart 

bean sprouts 

bitter melon 

cabbage 

eggplant 

g arli c 

lettuce 

1 ima b e ans 

mongo bean 

must ar d 

pot at oes 

pumpkin 

r addish 

spinach 

spoon cabbage 

string b e an 

sweet potato 

tomatoes 

turnip 

watercress (similar) 

whi t e spinach 



t ambu ' 

pus u ' 

t awgi 

amargo so 

r epolyo 

t alung 

ah os 

li t sugas 

pat ani ' 

mongo, balatung 

must as a ' 

pat at as 

kalabasa 

r abanos 

alugb at i 

pet s ay 

b alatung 

kamut i 

kamat i s 

s ingkamas 

t angkung 

kalub ay 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 12 



Condiment s 



butte r 
cheese 
garli c 
mi Ik 
onion 
pepper 
s alt 

seasoning 
shortening 
soy sauce 
s ugar 
vinegar 



mantikily a 

keso 

ah os 

gat as 

s i buy as 

kat umbal 

as in 

r ikado 

mant i ka ' , lana 

tuyu' 

kalamay , asukar 

suk a ' , langgaw 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 13 



Women's Clothes and Toilet Articles 



blouse 

chemi s e 

comb 

dress 

handkerchief 

lipstick 

powder 

pants 

panty 

ribbon 

shoes 

skirt 

s lipper 

s oap 

stockings, socks 

toothbrush 

toothpas t e 

towel 

wash cloth 



bios a 
kamis un 
hus ay 
b ayu ' 
panyu ' 
lips t ik 
pulbus 

' j eans ' 

panti s 

1 as u 

s apatus 

f alda , s aya 

t s i nelas 

habon 

medyas 

s ipilyo 

'kolget ' 
t u ' alya 
s ib in 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST lk 



Men's Clothing and Toilet Articles 

blade 'gilet' 

comb hus ay 



handker ch ief 

hat 

ne ckt i e 

pomade, hair dressing 

pants 

razor 

shirt 

shoes 

s lipper s 

so cks 

toothbrush 

t oothpas t e 

t owel 

undershirt 

wash cloth 



panyu 

kalu' 

kurb at a 

pomada 

de largo, pantalon 

lab aha 

kamis adent ro 

s apatus 

t s inelas 

medy as 

sipily o 

'kolget ' 

t u ' aly a 

kami seta 

s ib in 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 15 

Common /gin-/ Verbs 
Root fol- with /gin-/ 



lowed by 

translation 

arado ginaradu 



plow a fie 


Id 


bay ad 


ginbay ad 


pay 




b at un 


ginb atun 


r ecei ve 




but ang 


ginb ut ang 


put 




"baylu 


ginb ay lu 


change 




buhat 


ginbuhat 


make, do 




baligya 


ginbaligya 


sell 




b as a 


ginb as a 


read 




b akal 


ginb akal 


buy 




ka ' un 


ginka ' un 


eat 




kant a 


ginkanta 


sing 




kuha ' 


ginkuha ' 



with /gina- / with /-un / 



gina 1 ar adu 
gi nab ay ad 
ginabat un 
ginabut ang 
ginab aylu 
ginabuhat 
ginabaligy a 
g i n ab a s a 
ginab akal 
ginaka ' un 
ginakant a 
ginakuha ' 



ar aduhun 

batunun 

bayluhun 
buhatun 
b aligya ' un 
basahun 
baklun 
kan ' un 
kant ahun 
kuha ' un 



get 



390 



dakup 

cat ch 
dala 

bring 
dula 

los e 
gam it 

us e 
gutum 

feel hungry 
hus ay 

solve 
habuy 

throw 
himu 

make 
hul at 



wait 
hamb al 

talk 
hulam 



gindakup 

gindala 

gindula 

gingamit 

gingutum 

ginhusay 

ginhabuy 

ginhimu 

ginhulat 

gi nhamb al 

gi nhulam 



borrow 
huna' huna' ginhuna ' huna' 

think 
hampang ginhampang 

play 
init gin'init 

heat something 
inum gin'inum 

drink 
is tory a ginistorya 

converse, tell a story 
isip 

count 
lutu' 



cook 
languy 

swim 
lakat 

walk, go 
pangayu ' 

ask 
pangutana 

ask 
pas ensy a 

forgive 
pani ' udtu 

eat lunch 



gin 1 s lp 
ginlut u ' 
ginlanguy 
ginlakat 
gi npangayu ' 
ginpangutana 
ginpas ensy a 
ginp ani ' udtu 



gi nadakup 

ginadala 

gi nadula 

ginagamit 

ginagutum 

gi nahus ay 

ginahabuy 

ginahimu 

ginahulat 

ginahamb al 

ginahulam 

ginahuna'huna' 

ginahampang 

gina'init 

gina' inum 

gina ' i story a 

gi na 'isip 

gi nalutu ' 

ginalanguy 

ginal akat 

ginap angayu ' 

ginapangutana 

ginapasensya 

ginapani 'udtu 



dakpun 
dal ' un 
dul a ' un 
garni tun 
gut umun 
hus ayun 
habyun 
himu ' un 
hulatun 
hamb alun 
hulamun 
huna ' huna ' un 
hampangun 
init un 
imnun 

i s tory ahun 
i s ipun 
lutu ' un 
languyun 
1 akt un 
pangayu ' un 
pangutan ' un 
pas ensy ahun 
pani ' udtuhun 



391 



panyapun 

eat dinner 
pakut 

gues s 
panumdum 

rememle r 
s ah at 

answer 
sunud 

follow 
s ulat 

write 
s a ' ut 

dance 
t an ' aw 



see , wat ch 
t anum 

pi ant 
tudlu' 



t each 
tugn aw 

feel cold 
tawag 

call 
tuyu 

fell sleepy 
uhaw gin'uhaw 



gmp any apun 
ginpakut 
ginpanumdum 
gins a"bat 
ginsunud 
ginsulat 
gins a ' ut 
gint an ' aw 
gint anum 
gintudl u ' 
gintugnaw 
gint awag 
gintuyu 



gmapanyapun 
ginapakut 
ginapanumdum 
ginas a"b at 
ginasunud 
gi nasulat 
ginas a ' ut 
ginat an ' aw 
ginatanum 
ginat udlu ' 
ginatugnaw 
gi nat awag 
gi nat uyu 
gina ' uhaw 



pany apunun 
paktun 
panumdumun 
s ah tun 
sundun 
sulatun 
s a ' utun 
tan ' awun 
t amnun 
tudlu ' un 
tugnawun 
t awgun 
t uyuhun 
uhawun 



feel thirsty 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 16 



Flowers and Trees 

hougainvi lie 

chain of love 

chrys ant he mum 

dh ali a 

f rangipani 

gar deni a 

ginger lily 

hibiscus 

j asmin 

orange j asmin 

pikake (jasmin) 

rose 

z inni a 



"bugamh ily a 

kadena de amor 

mans ani ly a , kusmus 

daly a 

kalat sut si 

r osal 

kamy a 

katulanga, gumamela 

hasmi n 

kamuning 

s ampaguit a 

r osas 

margarita, sinya 



392 



acacia, rain tree 

apple 

avo cado 

banana 

chrimoya 

curacao apple 

coffee 

chocolat e 

guava 

jack fruit 

ly chees 

mango 

needle pine 

tamarind, sampaloc 

papaya 

pear 



akasy a 

mansanas 

abokado 

saging 

at i s 

markopa 

kaf e 

c ac ao 

b ay abas 

langka ' 

lits iyas 

pahu ' , mangga 

aguhu ' 

s ambag 

kapay as 

per as 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST IT 



Places 



barrio 

capital 

capitol 

church 

city 

cockpit 

country, nation 

corner 

field , farm 

gambling den 

hotel 

hospital 

market 

platform 

park 

province 

road 

s chool 

town 

town hall 

village 



baryu 

kapit al 

kapit oly o 

s imbahan 

s yudad 

bulangan 

pu ' ud , nasy on 

kanto 

uma 

s ugalan 

o tel 

ospit al 

ty enda 

entablado, plataforma 

plas a , p arke 

pr obi nsy a 

karsada, dalan 

eskwelahan, buluthu'an 

b anwa 

muni si py o 

s ityo 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 18 



393 



Fruit s 



apple 

b anana 

cher imoy a 

grape 

gr ap e fruit 

j ackf ruit 

lichees 

mango 

orange 

p apay a 

pear 

pineapple 

tangerine 



mansanas 

saging 

at i s 

ub as 

k ab u g aw , s uh a 

langka ' 

lit s iy as 

pahu', mangga 

kahil, naranghita 

k apay as 

per as 

piny a 

nar anghi t a 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 19 



Time expressions 

day after next 

day after yesterday 

every day 

each day 

in a little while 

last n i ght 

last Sunday 

later 

now 

next Sunday 

on Sunday 

some day 

some time ago, a while ago 

this morning, noon, etc. 

today 

t oni ght 

t omor row 

tomorrow morning, evening, 

et c . 
y es t e rday 



sa madasun nga adl aw 

sang isa ka adl aw 

adlawadlaw 

kada adlaw 

karun dug ay dug ay 

kagab ' i 

sang Dominggo 

karun 

subung 

sa sunud nga Dominggo 

sa Dominggo 

sa pila ka adlaw 

kag'ina, ka'ina 

karun nga aga, udtu, etc, 

karun nga adlaw 

karung gab'i 

bwas 

bwas sa aga, gab'i 

et c . 
kahapun 



39^ 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 20 



Means of Transportation 

airplane 

bicycle 

boat , ship 

bus 

cale s a , rig 

canoe , b angca 

car 

ferry boat 

jeepney 

raft 

tri cycle 

truck 



eroplano 

bis iklet a 

bapor 

bus 

kales a 

b arutu 

awt u , kot s e 

lantsa, sakayan 

dyip 

balsa 

t rays i ko 1 

tr ak 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 21 



Parts of the Body 

arm 

armpit 

back 

blood 

body 

bone 

breast 

butto cks 

cheek 

chest 

chin 

ear 

elbow 

eye 

eyebrow 

eyelash 

face 

feet 

finger 

forehead 

gum 

hair 

hand 

head 

heart 

heel 



butkun 

iluk 

likud 

dugu ' 

1 awas 

tul ' an 

dughan , susu 

buli ' 

pisngi 

dughan 

s ag ' ang 

dulunggan 

s iku 

mat a 

k ilay 

amimiluk 

nawung , guy a 

ti ' il 

tudlu' 

agtang 

ngi s lu ' 

buhuk 

kamut 

ulu 

pusu' , kasingkasing 

bu' ul 



395 



hip 

knee 

leg 

lip 

lung 

mouth 

nail 

nape 

navel 

neck 

nose 

palm 

shin 

shoulder 

skin 

s ole 

stomach 

thigh 

t ooth 

tongue 

wai s t 



balikawang 

t uhud 

pa'a, b at i ' is 

bib ig 

baga ' 

ba'ba' 

kuku 

t angkugu ' 

pusud 

li ' ug 

i lung 

palad 

b at i 'is 

abaga 

pani t 

dap adapa 

t iy an 

hita ' 

ngipun 

dila' 

hawak 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 22 



For Math Teachers Only 



add 

addit ion 

ac count 

amount 

answer 

area 

b alance 

c ash 

center 

column 

common 

count 

deduct 

digit 

difference 

di s t ance 

divide 

double 

each 

foot 

hei ght 



s uma 

p a g s um a 

kwent a 

kant i dad 

s ab at 

kab ilugan 

nabilin 

kwar ta 

s entro , tunga ' 

pila 

kumon 

i s ip 

buh inan 

numero 

d if erensy a 

dis t ansy a 

tunga ' a 

doble 

kada isa, ang bilug 

pye 

ta ' as 



396 



inch 


interest 


left 


less 


length 


long 


mathemat i cs 


me asure 


met er 


method 


mi nimum 


minus 


multiply 


numb er 


over 


opposite 


per 


per c ent 


pound 


price 


problem 


pro cess 


product 


profit 


prove 


regul ar 


remainder 


res ult 


s ame 


side 


sign 


solve 


straight line 


subst itut e 


s urn 


surface 


t ime 


total 


triangle 


unit cost 


value 


volume 


wei ght 


wide 


wrong 


yard 



pulgada 

int er es , t ubu ' 

n ab i 1 i n 

buhinan, minusan 

lab a ' 

kal ab a ' 

matemat ika 

t akus 

metro 

p a ' agi 

kaminus an 

mi nus 

padamu ' un 

numero 

sobr a 

kab at uk 

kada 

porsyento 

libra 

pr esy o 

pr oblema 

pa ' agi 

produkt o 

ganansy a 

probah i 

regular 

nabi 1 i n 

re suit a 

pareho 

hi gad 

s iny al , marka 

solb ar 

tadlung nga linya 

i li s i , b ay luhi 

total , s uma 

ibab aw 

or as 

total 

t r ayangulo 

bili 

bi 1 i , kanti dad 

to mo , b ah in 

bug ' at 

mas angkad 

s ala ' 

yarda 



397 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 23 



Dining Room Utensils 

bowl 

coffee pot 

cup 

fork 

glas s 

knife 

napkin 

plate 

platter 

s aucer 

sugar container 

t ablecloth 

tablespoon 

teaspoon 



yahung, malukung 

kaf et era 

t asa 

t inedor 

baso 

kut s ilyo 

s erb ily eta 

pinggan, plato 

bandehado 

plat ito 

asukar er a 

mant i 1 

kut s ar a 

kut s ar i t a 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 2U 



Kitchen Articles 

basin 

broom 

clay pot 

faucet 

frying pan 

i ron 

ladle 

oven 

pot 

spatula 

s t ove 

turner 



lab r ador 
s i lhig 
kulun 
gripu 
kalaha ' 
plants a 
luwag 
pugun 
kas erola 
s patula 
dapug 
palit a 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 25 



Topographical Terms 



b e ach 
cave 
falls 
flat 



bay bay 
kweba 
bus ay 
/ma/t apan 



398 



forest 
hill 
i sland 
mountain 
river 
s andy 
sea 

s loping 
spring 
stony 
volcano 
wave 

wave-like contour of 
land, slope 



t alun 

"bungtud 

isla , pulu ' 

buki d 

su"b a ' 

b alasun 

dagat 

padulhug 

tuburan 

b at uhun 

bolkan 

balud 

b akulud 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 26 



Natural Elements 



comet 

dew 

dr i z zle 

earth 

earthquake 

fire 

flood 

1 ight ning 

moon 

planet 

rain 

rainbow 

smoke 

star 

storm 

sun 

thunder 

wind 



komet a 

tun ' ug 

talithi ' 

dut a ' 

linug 

kalayu 

b aha ' 

lint i' 

bul an 

planet a 

ul an 

lalangaw 

asu 

b it u ' un 

bagyu 

adl aw 

dalugdug 

hangin 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 27 



Ways of Selling Items 

a piece, each 
fifty pieces 
one bottle 
one bundle 



isa ka bilug, ang bilug 

kalim ' an 

isa ka botelya 

isa ka bugkus 



399 



one can 

one chupa 

one dozen 

gant a 

hundred pieces 

kilogram 

liter 

one part 

pile 



isa ka lata 

isa ka atsaba 

isa ka dosena 

gantang 

gatus 

kilo 

li t r o 

isa ka atado 

tumpuk 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 28 



For Science Teachers Only 

ab domen 
abs orb 
air 

antennae 
balanced diet 
b e as t , animal 
blood 
boil 
b ub b 1 e s 

bulb, seedling 
caterpillar 
cause and effect 
clay 
color 
dew- 
dry 

electric ity 
evapo rat e 
exper iment 
f e athery 
fertilizer 
fowl 
full 
fungus 
gas 

gelat i n 

germinate, grow 
gold 
heart 

he at 

intestine 

iron 



t iy an 

s alupsup 

hangin 

s ungu 

kompletong pagka'un 

s apat 

dugu ' 

pabukala 

tula' 

s imilya , s aha ' 

at at aru 

bangdanan kag resulta 

daga ' 

kolo r , du ' ag 

tun ' ug 

mala 

elekt ri s i dad 

p agmala 

exper imento 

mab alahibu 

abunu 

pisp is 

punu ' 

ubung 

gas 

k ant aw 

tubu' 

bul aw an 

korason, pusu' , 

kas ingkas ing 
init 
t ina ' i 
sals alun 



Uoo 



k idney 
light 
lungs 
magnet 
moi sture 
moon 
mud 

obs erve 
process 
rain 

respi ration 
root 
s and 
science 
silver 
size 
skin 
sky- 
soil 
star 
stem 

stone, rock, pebble 
sun 

temperature 
thro at 
water 
wet 
wilt 



b at u 

suga' 

b aga' 

b at ub alani ' 

pagkabum ' ug 

bulan 

lapuk 

himut ad 

pa ' agi 

ulan 

p agginhawa 

gamut 

b alas 

kina ' adman 

pilak 

k adaku ' 

pani t 

1 angit 

lapuk , dut a ' 

bi tu ' un 

s anga 

b atu 

adlaw 

k a' in i tun 

tutunlan 

tubig 

b as a ' 

lay a ' , la 1 ay 



watch carefully. 



Tan ' awa sang ma'ayu. 
Bantayi sang ma'ayu. 



Describe what you have 
seen . 



Istoryaha kun anu ang 
imu nakit a ' . 



And what is the result? 
What happened? 



Kag anu ang resulta' 
Anu ang natabu'? 



What do you think 
happened? 



Anu sa huna'huna' mu 
ang natabu 1 ? 



1+01 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 29 



For English Teachers Only 



abi li ty 

abs ent 

aim 

area 

ass ignment 

c alendar 

capac ity 

chairman 

citizen 

concept , idea 

conclusion 

cons cience 

convey 

correct answer 

di c t ionary 

effective 

event 

experience 

fiction 

import ant 

interest 

int ro duct ion 

less on plan 

oral 

original 

plain, clear 

principle 

recitation 

review 

test 

written 



ab i 1 i d a d 

wala ' , palt a 

h andum 

kalapad 

hilimu ' un 

kalen daryo 

k at akus 

punu ' 

b anwahanun 

i diy a 

katapusan, resulta 

huna ' huna ' 

ipa ' ali ntun 

hustung sabat 

diksyonaryo 

1 ab ing ma ' ayu 

h i t ab u ' 

pinanilagan 

i ndi ' mat u ' ud 

impo rt ant e 

interes, kawilihan 

p akilala 

piano 

ihamb al , oral 

kina' ugalingun 

ma ' athag 

pr ins ipyo 

pagpulungpulung , balaybay 

pagliwat 

iks amin 

s inul at 



Read aloud. 
Listen carefully. 
Listen and repeat. 
Give me an example, 



Basaha sang mabaskug. 
Pamati' sang ma'ayu. 
Pamati' kag magsunud. 
Hatagi aku sang halimbawa' 



Write down what I dictate. Isulat ang akun ginadikta. 
Read silently. Basaha sang mahipus . 

Faster. Dasig. 



1+02 



Spell the word. . . 

Change the title. 
Write on the board. 



Batubatuha ang pulung 
nga. . . 

Ilisis ang titulo. 

I s ul at sa pisara. 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 3 



Animals and Pets 

animal , beast 

bird 

cat 

chi cken 

cow 

crab 

dog 

dove 

duck 

fish 

go at 

goos e 

hen 

hors e 

kitten 

Pig 

piglet 
r abb it 
rooster 
sheep 
shrimp 
spider 
turkey- 
turtle 
whale 



s apat , hay up 

p isp is 

kur ing 

manuk 

b aka 

alimangu 

idu' 

pating 

bibi 

i s da ' 

kanding 

gans a 

munga ' 

kab ayu ' 

kut ing 

b ab uy 

idik 

koneho 

s ulug 

karnero 

sugpu, pasayan 

damang 

pabo 

b a ' u 

b aly ena 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 31 



Colors 



black 

blue 

brown 

gray 

green 

pink 

red 

violet 

white 

yellow 



it ui 

asul 

kaki 

abu ' abuhun 

berde 

r os a 

pula 

lila 

put i ' 

dulaw, amarilyo , dalag 



1+03 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY LIST 32 

Hiligaynon Base Adjectives and Format ives 

For Foo d : 

delicious manamit 

sweet mat am' is 

bitter mapa ' it 

tasty man an am 

hot makahang 

bland malas ' ay 

sour ma ' as lum 

salty ma'alat, ma'asin 

astringent ma'aplud 

oily masum'ud 

For Objects and Conditions: 

fragrant mahamut 

easy mahapus 

old da ' an 

narrow makitid 

dry mala 

cold bugnaw 

hard mat ig ' a 

beautiful matahum 

bright, shiny masanag, mahayag 

ali ve b uh i ' 

sharp matalum 

round tipulun 

long malaba' 

many, plenty madamu' 

big daku ' 

deep madalum 

light mamag ' an 

straight tadlung 

smooth mapinu 

fast madasig 

tall, high mata'as 

loose halug 

clean limpyo 

full punu 

durable mahunit 

expensive mahal 

bad odor mabahu' 

difficult malisud 

new bag ' u 

wide masangkad 

wet bas a ' 



kok 



hot 

soft 

ugly 

dark 

dead 

dull 

square 

short 

few, little 

small 

shallow 

heavy 

crooke d 

rough 

slow 

short 

tight 

dirty 

empty 

fragile 

cheap 



maini t 
mahumuk 
malaw ' ay 
madulum 
pat ay 
mahabul 
kwadr ado 
malip ' ut 
dyutay 
gam ay 
manabaw 
mabug ' at 
tiku' 
mas apnut 
mahinay 
manub u ' 
pikit , hu ' ut 
mah igku ' 
wal a ' y unud 
mat apuk 
b arato 



strong 
fresh 
qui et 
happy 

weak , so ft 

rotten 

noisy 

sad, lonely 

For People : 
good 
tall 
s tout 
kind 

pretty, handsome 
pat ient 
diligent 
friendly 
h u mb 1 e 
rich 
strong 
quiet 

bright , smart 
proud, egotistical 



mab askug 
lab'as, presko 
malinung 
malipayun 

maluya, mahinay 
lub 'uk 
mas ab ad 
mamingaw, masubu' 



ma ayu 

mata ' as 

mat ambuk 

mabu ' ut 

matahum, gwapo/a 

pas ensyo s o / a 

mapi s an 

ma' abi ' abihun 

mapa ' inubusun 

maggaran, mangaranun 

makus ug 

mahipus 

ma ' alam 

t ikalun 



1+05 



b ad 

short 

thi n , lean 

c ruel 

ugly 

shor t-t empered 

lazy 

naughty 

proud 

poor 

weak 

talkative 

i gnor ant 

crazy 

li ar 

drunk 



mala ' i n 
lanubu' 
maniwang 
mapint as 
ma law ' ay 
alabutun 
mat amad 
s ut i 1 
bugalun 
pobre, imul 
maluy a 
p alahambal 
i gnor ant e 
b u ' an g 
but i gun 
hubug 



PHONOLOGY MATERIALS 

A Brief Description of Hiligaynon Sounds 

The following sounds are present in Hiligaynon: a, 
b, k, d_, e_, f_, g_, h, i_, 1_, m, n, ng_, o_, p_, r_, s_, ^, u, 
w_, y_, '. Most of the consonants carry similar phonetic 
value as in English. However the voiceless stops, p_ 
and k_ are not aspirated (there is an absence of a puff 
of air after the sound); r_ is flapped; and t_, d_, n_, and 
s_ have a frontal dental quality. The symbol /J_/ re- 
presents the glottal stop, and ng is the velar nasal 
sound as in English s ing . F_ is included in the list, 
not because it is phonemic (a sound which makes a dif- 
ference in meaning), but because some Hiligaynon speakers 
use the sound in their dialect. Normally f_ is replaced 
by a p_. 

Hiligaynon vowels are not to be equated with English 
vowels. Basically, Hiligaynon has only three vowels 
native to the language: _a, i_, and u. Two other vowels, 
the e_ and the o_, have been adopted from Spanish and 
English. These borrowed vowel sounds are not phonemic, 
but occur as allophones (variant sounds of a phoneme) 
of i_ and u_. I_ is like the vowel sound in 'see, three, 
or seat'. It varies in pronunciation between this sound 
and the vowel in 'met' or even the vowel in 'mate' . A_ 
is enunciated as in American English 'ah, father, and 
cot'. The u_ is like the sound in 'boot, food, or suit'. 
It varies in quality range from oo in 'boot' , to the 
ou in ' bought ' . 

Stress is important in Hiligaynon in that it makes 
for a difference in meaning in some instances. Words 
containing more than one vowel comprise a two syllable 
word (or three syllables depending on the number of 
vowels). One syllable is pronounced louder than the 
other or others. This prominence is called stress. 
Example: punu ' mea.ns 'tree trunk, leader, etc.' while 
p unu ' means 'full to capacity'. 



1+06 



1+07 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 1 
/p/ vs. /b/ 



Init 


ial 


Med 


ial 


F: 


Lnal 


p ala 


b ala 


apu 


abu 


s alup 


s alub 


p as a 


b as a 


supa ' 


sub a ' 


sup sup 


sub sub 


pas i ' 


b asi ' 


s ipit 


sibit 


kupkup 


kubkub 


put i ' 


buti ' 


hapit 




s akup 


sakub 


para 


b ar a 


hipi ' 


hibi ' 


t aklap 


t aklub 


Phras es 













1. ang bara sang pari' 

2. ang sibat sa sapa' 

3. taklap sang b at a ' 

Sentences 



1. Ang bala nagsalup sa papa'. 

2. Ang patu nagtindug sa batu. 

3. Pila ka baso ang nabasag? 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 1A 

Words with initial / p / sound 



p a a 
p ahu ' 
p anyu ' 
pikit 
pili ' 
pisos 
pugad 
pispis 
para 
per as 



p a ' it 

p ala 

para 

pila 

pinya 

pit u 

pul a 

pinggan 

putus 

payung 



pagka ' un 
palihug 
panaptun 
pas ensy a 
panugyan 
pany apun 
Pilipinas 
pangit a ' 
pamahaw 
pa ' uli ' 



paka ' i s a 
pahuway 
pamangkut 
panilag 
pat atas 
panyaga 
pani ' udt u 
pangayu ' 
palay as 
padala 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 2 
/t/ vs. /d/ 

Initial 



takup dakup 
*taku daku' 



Medi al 



utuk 
put uk 



*uduk 
*puduk 



Final 



abut 
sukut 



*abud 
sukud 



•nonsense word 



1+08 



t alu 
*tali ' 
t alum 
tulug 
tabug 



dalu 
dali ' 
dalum 
dulug 
dapug 



pi t ik 
1 at i k 
pat i k 
hutik 



*pi dik 
idik 
ladik 

*hudik 



s arut 
kitkit 
kutkut 
sutsut 
*pat pat 



s alud 
kidkid 
kudkud 
s udsud 
padpad 



Phras e s 

1. Tanum sa dalum. . 

2. Takup sang taruj 

3. Dali' nga tahi'. 

Sent ences 



1. Dulug sa bata kag magtulug. 

2. Tanum kamu bulak sa dalum sang balkun 

3. Pahuway tapus kudkud sang lubi. 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 2A 

Words with initial /t/ sound 



t a ' as 

t ab aku ' 
t abang 
taga 
talung 
Tatay 
ti 'il 
tinlu' 
tubi ' 
t u g n aw 
tumpuk 
ty enda 



t amad 
t agu ' 
t am ' i s 
tahi ' 
tan' aw 
t awag 
t i law 
tiya 
tubu' 
tubu 
t unga ' 
ty empo 



t indug 
t ambuk 
t anum 
t an an 
t at lu 
t awu 
t in ap ay 
tiy an 
tiyu 
tu'ig 
tungud 
tuytuy 



tag ' iya 
t andug 
t agpila 
t as a 

t agb alay 
tyanggi 
t inedor 
t i nguha ' 
tudlu ' 
tulug 
tuyu 
t uy u ' 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 3 



/k/ 



Ul 



Initial 



Medi al 



Final 



kamut 
kuha' 
kahuy 
kapuy 
kahun 



gamut 

gub a ' 

*gahuy 

*gapuy 

b atung 



s aku 
s akit 
t akun 
b akul 
suka ' 



s agu 
dagi t 
tugun 
b agul 
s uga ' 



bul ak 
lupuk 
haluk 
habuk 
hampak 



bulag 
lupug 
halug 
habug 
hambuf 



Phrases 

1. Gamut sang kahuy, 

2. Guba 1 nga kahun. 
3 . Gapus nga kamut . 

Sentences 



1. Makuha' kami kahuy para gatung. 

2. Masaku' ang pagbutang sang sagu. 

3. Ipahabug ang guba' nga kahun. 



1+09 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 3A 

Review Exercise for /k/ 

baga 'live coal ' 
tuga 'gown, create' 
baga' ' lung ' 
gali ng 'grind' 
duga' 'juice' 



bug al 
dugu ' 



'pride ' 
'blood' 



baka 


' cow ' 


tuka' 


' turn ' 


b aka ' 


'bow-legge d ' 


kaling 


' plow handle ' 


duka ' 


'nod from 




drows ines s ' 


bukal 


'bubble, boil' 


duku ' 


'stoop , bow ' 



Listen to -the teacher and repeat the correct answer 
orally : 



1. Indi' aku makaplantsa kay. 

2. Tawag anay sang doktor. 

3. Wala' aku naluyad sa iya. 
h. Kanamit sang pinya, nu? 



dyutay ang baga 
dyutay ang baka 

Ang ulu sang bata' 

nagadugu ' . 
Ang ulu sang bata' 

nagaduku ' . 

Tama' ang iya bugal. 
Tama' ang iya bukal. 

Hu'u, kay kaduga' . 
Hu'u, kay kaduka' . 



PHONOLOGY DRILL h 
The Glottal Stop 



b at a 
wala 
baga 



' ni ght gown ' 
'left ' 
' emb er ' 



bata' 

wala' 
baga ' 



' child ' 

1 none , nothing ' 



' lung ' 



UlO 



pila 


' how much ' 


pila ' 


'spit ' 


lagu 


' earthworm' 


lagu ' 


'soiled 

clothes 


tut>u 


'tube, pipe ' 


tubu' 


' grow ' 


lutu 


' mourn ' 


lutu' 


' cook ' 


lisu 


' seed ' 


lisu' 


' turn ' 


Phras es 









1. pila ka bat u 

2. wala' sang sala' 

3. nagtubu' ang tubu 

Sentences 



1. Pila ka "batu nga bata may ara' ang bata'? 

2. Naglutu ' sila sang babuy sa baga. 

3. Ginlisu' sang bata' ang lisu sa sulud sang lata. 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 5 

Test for Glottal Stop Recognition 

Write a check mark if you hear a glottal stop and a 
cross if you don't: 

1. Nagbayu sya. She pounded rice. 
Nagbayu' sya. She wore a dress. 

2. Kalayu ' sa dapug. Far from the stove. 
Kalayu sa dapug. Fire in the stove. 

3. Ang hilu'. The poison. 
Ang hilu. The thread. 

h . Nagalutu and babayi. The woman is mourning. 

Nagalutu' ang babayi. The woman is cooking. 

5. Kadamu' sang lagu. There are many earthworms 

Kadamu' sang. lagu'. There are many soiled 

clothes . 



PHONOLOGY DRILL 6 

Test for Glottal Stop Recognition 

Write an a_ if the first word is the correct word to 
complete the sentence or a b_ if the second word pro- 
vides the correct answer: 



1*11 



1. (Nagbasa, nagbasa') ang bata' sa libreriya. 

2. Na'inum sang b at a ' ang (hilu, hilu ' ) . 
3- (Ginsala 1 , ginsala) ku ang tubig. 

k. Kuha'a ang (lagu, lagu ' ) kag labhi. 

5. (Bats' , b at a ) si Maria. 

6. Si Juan ang (nagbatu 1 , nagbatu) sang balay. 

7. Masakit ang (wala, wala') nga kamut sang babayi. 

8. Ka'init sang (baga 1 , baga) sa dapug . 

9. Mabakal aku sang isa ka (batu, batu' ) nga lapis 
10. Mabakal sya sang (bata, bata') sa Ala Moana. 



PH0H0L0GY DRILL 7 
The /ng/ 

1 . N gipon 

2 . Nga 

3 . Ngislo 



I nit i al 



h . Ngi-si 

5. Ngut-ngut 

6 . Nga-a 



1. Ang ngipun ni Maria maputi . 

2. Ang ngipun ni Maria nagangut-ngut , 

3. Kag ngis i si Maria. 

h . Ang ngipun ga'angut sa ngislu ' . 

5. Mgipun nga gabuk. 

6. Nga ' a nagasakit ang ngipun mu? 



1 . 1 ang aw 

2 . b angkay 
3 . 1 an gka 



Me di al 



k . langsa 

5 . sungka 

6 . dungka 



1. Naglupad ang langav . 

2. Ginlubung ang b angkay . 

3. Ka langs a sang isda. 
h. Kanamit sang langka . 

5. Mahampang aku sang sungka ■ 

6. Ma dungka ang bapor. 



Final 

1. nawung k. pakang 

2. ma'ayung 5. tispinj 

3. payung 6. kandinj 

1. Kat ahum sang iya nawung . 

2. Ma ' ayung gab ' i , Juan! 

3. Nagbakal si Maria sang payung . 



1+12 

It. Gin pakang ni Maria ang iya "b ayu ' 

5. H a t i s p i n g ang iya ngipun. 

6. Gin pakang ni Maria ang iya bayu' 



PHOfiOLOGY DRILL 



Change of Accents 



lab a. 


' to laun der ' 


lab a' 


■length' 


punu ' 


' full' 


punu ' 


'tree t runk 


bul ag 


'blind' 


bulag 


'separate, 
divorce ' 


pi lak 


' throw ' 


pi lak 


' money ' 


Hapun 


' Japanese ' 


hapun 


' afternoon , 
alight ' 


ki t a 


' us , we ' 


kita' 


'see, meet ' 


ut ud 


' cut , break ' 


ut ud 


' sibling ' 


sulud 


' ent e r , ins ide ' 


sulud 


'fine comb ' 


Sentences 









1. IJaglaba ang babayi sang iya bayu' , 
Kalaba' sang bayu' sang babayi. 

2. Kadaku' sang punu'. 
Kapunii' sang kahun. 

3. Nagbiilag ang mag'asawa. 

Nabulag sya tungud sang aksidente 

k. Ang utud nya lalaki. 

Na'utud ang sanga sang kahuy. 



1*13 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 1 



Write two dialogues of four to six lines using simple 
greeting situations. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 2 



Write two dialogues of six to eight lines using greet- 
ings and introductions. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 3 



Rearrange the words to make grammatically acceptable 
sentences. Use numbers to indicate your choice in 
the blanks provided. 



3 12 



_aga man ma ayunj 
12 3 



1. 
2 . 



It. 

5. 

6. 

7 . 

8. 

9. 

10. 



_sang anu man wala 1 
1 2 3 i* 

_David si magulang ang 
12 3 1; 

sang prinsipal eskwelahan sin'u 

1 2 3 ^ 

ang 
5 

_m an si aku Marta Amerikana aku 
1 2 3 it 5 6 

_Ramon 5 Carmela sanday kag Manuel 
1 2 3 it 

s i la 
5 

_bala si Carmelo ikaw indi' 
1 2 3 it 5 

_y na kwarenta alas seys singko 
12 3 it 5 6 

dose minus para syete alas 

1 2 3 it 5 

_sya sang Abril 22, 19^3 natawu 
12 3 it 

natawu si san'u Manolito 

12 3 it 



UlU 



WRITTEN EXERCISE h 



Write something about yourself, your age, your nation- 
ality, educational "background, and job experiences. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 5 

Provide correct markers and particles in the following 
slots : 



jprins ipal 

_Miss Gulick_ 
_Romeo , 



_Mr . Kawamoto, 
'host teacher 1 



W aikiki 



_S i m o n , 



_Ted nagkadtu 



Arizona 



_n a g a g 1 nga semana, 



_una na subung 
t r es 



Mi s s Brown . 

_media masakay kami 



awt u . 



Mar t a 



_A n g e 1 a 



_Enero 5, l Ql +5. 
Boston, Massachusetts 



J. Natawu 

8. Natawu 

9. libro atu lamesa. 

10. Ginka'un bata' saging. 

bat a' s aging . 



11. Nagaka'un 

12. Mabakal si Jose 

13. Ginabakal Jose 

ill. Gusto sya magkadtu 

manga b ay u' . 
15. Ina' nga libro nakun 



_bag'ung sapatus. 

bag'ung sapatus. 

s y u d a d m a m a k a 1 



dal ' un ku 



buluthu ' an 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 6 

Draw a comic strip similar to those you find in your 
daily newspaper. Fill in what the people say in 
Hiligaynon with appropriate dialogue. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 7 



Write a narrative dialogue of from 15 to 20 lines , basing 
it on some village scene of your choice. Draw a picture 
that gives clues for the dialogue and depicts roughly 
the scene. 



1*15 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 8 

Make short dialogues for the following situations: 

(a) ordering a simple meal 

(b) negotiating a car ride at a just price 

(c) describe your job to a barrio old man 

(d) give a description of the geography of the 

U. S. to a child. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 9 

Pick out the word inside the parenthesis which cannot 
be used with the rest of the sentence to construct a 
grammatically acceptable utterance: 

1. (ini, sini ari ) ang bata' nga nagdala sang sulat. 

2. Nakakita' ka (sinang, inang, arang) kahuy nga wala' 

s i ng bunga? 

3. Ambut kun di'in (ini, sini, ari) nga dala pakadtu 

sa banwa? 
h. (Sin 1 , ina' ara') ang ginabaligya' nga b al ay . 

5. Sin 'u ang (ara 1 , ina' sina') sa balay? 

6. (Atu, didtu, sadtu) ang baryo San Luis. 

7. Di'in (sini, ari, ini) ang kwaderno ni Noel? 

8. Nga'a nagadala ikaw sang manga siya (atu, sadtu, 

didtu) ? 

9. Ginkuha'an nila (sining, ining, aring) kwarto sang 

manga sya. 
10. Matan'aw kami sang sini (ini, sini, diri ) sa banwa. 



WRITTEN EXERCISE 10 



1. Describe your family in detail, your father and 
mother, your brothers and sisters. 

2. Describe your home town. 

3. If you were asked about the United States and the 
American people, what would you say? 



Ui6 

WRITTEN EXERCISE 11 



Use any of the following connectors to Integrate the 
sentences: nga , kag , agud , kundi ' , kun , bis an , s amt ang , 
kuntani ' , ug alin g , gani ' , kay : 



1 . Indi ' aku ma 

2. Nagalanguy s 

man didtu. 

3 . Wal a ' aku ka 

h . Kahib alu ka 
aku s a imu . 

5 . Tun ' i ma ' ayu 
Binisaya' p 

6. Manglaba kun 
butkun . Bw 

7 . Indi' kating 
Madamu ' ang 
s ang bag ' un 

8. Nadumduman n 
babayi nga 
sang relihi 

9 . Indi' lamang 
man nga gin 
10. Si GNG. Bla 
Ang pamuluy 
Nagsugut si 
Indi ' lang 



kakanta karun, Masakit ang akun tutunlan 
i Rosita sa s ub a ' . Si Carmen nagalanguy 

Indi' sila makahibalo maglanguy. 
kita sa imu. Kilala ku ikaw sa tingug. 
magkanta? Kantaha gani' ini. Mamati' 



ang Bi 
ag 'a ut 
t ani ' a 
as nala 
alahan 

nagbul 
g admin 
aman ny 
iya tan 
yun kay 

ma ' abi 
a ' angku 
nco ind 
u ' daw 
la nga 
sila ma 



ni s ay a . 

mu sa Pi 
ku karun . 
ng. Sigu 
nga nagda 
ig sa iya 
ist rasyon 
a ang nan 
i ' nap ang 

Clar i t a . 
abihun si 
n s a pagk 
i ' pagpam 
nabihag s 
kutkut an 

ubusan s 



Makahambal ka sang 
lipinas . 

Nagsakit ang akun 
ru ma ' ayu na ini bwas . 
' ug si Nixon sa eleksyon. 
Gusto na manga tawu 

dumana ni Clarita, ang 

as aw as. Indi' sya pareho 

Cecil. May ikasarang 
akadlaw . 

ati'an sang iya b an a . 
ang gobernador. 
ang mina sang bulawan. 
ing pagka ' un . 



READING EXERCISE 1 



Ang Megros Occidental 

Ang isla sang Negros ginatunga 1 sa duha ka probinsya, 
ang Negros Oriental kag ang Negros Occidental. 

Ang Negros Occidental, amu ang probinsya sang manga 
Hiligaynon nga ma'abiabihun kag mabu ' ut sang manga 
batasan. Ang manga soltera matahum nga nagayuhumyuhum 
maskin sa manga tawu nga indi' Hiligaynon. 

Madamu' nga katubuhan kag kakahuyan didtu sa Negros 
Occidental. Ang manga tag'iya sa manga katubuhan kag 
almasin sang kalamay manga manggaranun gid. Maskin 
manggaranun sila, indi' sila bugalun . 

Ang Bacolod ang kapital sang Negros Occidental kag ang 
Pulupandan, amu ang nagapanguna sa manga dungka ' an sang 
manga bapor. Matahum kag binag'u ang syudad sang 



1+17 

Bacolo d . 

Isa ka ma'ayung byahe ang pagkadtu sa manga daku ' nga 
asyenda kag katubuhan sa Negros Occidental. 

Comprehension Questions : 

1. Pila ka probinsya ang ara' sa isla sang Negros? 

2. Anu ang kapital sang Negros Occidental? 

3. Anu ang makita' sa Negros? 

k. Anung klase ang manga tawu sa Negros? 

5. Matahum ang Bacolod, indi' bala? 

6. Nga'a madamu' nga manggaranun sa Negros? 

READING EXERCISE 2 



Ang Panay 

Subung, may ara' nga apat ka probinsya sa isla sang 
Panay: Iloilo, Capiz, Antique kag Aklan . 

Ang Iloilo, bantug sa pagpatubu ' sang humay kag sa 
pagbuhat sang pinu nga panaptun nga gintawag nga 
'husi ' . Ang husi ginabuhat gikan sa manga lanut 
sang dahun sang pinya. Ang syudad sang Iloilo, isa 
sa manga da'an nga banwa sa Pilipinas. Ara' da' ang 
Fort San Pablo nga malapit sa baybay. Ara' da' man 
ang Villa Beach Resort nga ginapiknikan sang madamu' 
nga manga tawu. Ara' da' ang Unibersidad sang San 
Agustin nga ginadumala sang manga Agustinos nga manga 
pari' . Halin sa Iloilo, pakadtu sa Bacolod, makasakay 
sa 'ferry boat' kag naga ' agi sa 'Roca Engkantada' nga 
amu ang manga magagmay nga manga isla. Makita' man 
ang dakung balay ni Vi si -Pr es i dent e Fernando Lopez sa 
isla sang Guimaras . 

Ang hambal sa Iloilo, ginatawag sang manga taga didtu 
nga Ilonggo. Nagapareho ini sa Hiligaynon. 

Kun mahalin ang isa ka tawu sa Iloilo pakadtu sa Capiz, 
makasakay sya sa tren halin sa syudad sang Iloilo hasta 
sa syudad sang Roxas nga amu ang kapital sang Capiz. 
Ang probinsya sang Capiz, bantug sa kopras , abaka, baka 
kag isda'. Ang hambal sang manga tawu ginatawag nga 
Capiznon pero pareho lang ini sa Hiligaynon o sa Ilonggo, 
Dyutay lang ang diferensya. 

Ang ikatatlu nga probinsya amu ang Antique nga di'in 
ginahimu ang asin halin sa ma'alat nga tubig sang dagat . 
Ang manga talamnan sang humay ang madamu' sa kabukiran 
sang Antique. Madamu' man nga punung sang isda' sa 



in 8 

Antique. Ang San Jose Buenvista ang kapital sang 
Antique. Ang hambal sa Antique amu ang Kinaray'a nga 
la'in sa Ilonggo. 

Ang pinakabag'u nga probinsya sa isla sang Panay, amu 
ang Aklan . Ang kapital sang Aklan, Kalibo, ginabantug 
sa husi kag sa manga tsinelas nga abaka. Sarisari an{ 
klase, kag kolor sang manga tsinelas nga abaka kag 
manga matahum gid ang manga borda sang husi nga 
nagahalin didtu. Ang husi ginabuhat nga manga barong. 
Ang hambal sang manga Aklanun la'in iya sa Hiligaynon. 
Ginatawag nila nga Aklanun. 

Comprehension Questions : 

1. Pila ka probinsya ang ara' sa isla sang Panay? 

2. Anu ang manga probinsya? 

3. Pila ka lengwahe ang ara' sa Negros kag sa Panay? 
h. Anu ang manga matahum nga lugar sa Iloilo? 

5. Di'in ginabuhat ang asin? 

6. Anung manga probinsya ang nagabuhat sang husi? 

7. Para sa anu ang husi? 

8. Nga'a bantug ang Panay sa isda'? 



READING EXERCISE 3 

Si Dr. Jose Rizal 

Si Dr. Jose Rizal natawu sang Hunyo 19 , l86l. Ma'alam 
gid sya. Sang tatlu ka tu'ig pa lang ang iya edad. 
Kahibalu na sya sang alpabeto. 

Nagtu'un sya sa manga bantug nga manga eskwelahan sa 
Europa kag natun'an nya ang manga la'inla'in nga 
lengwahe. Mapisan sya sa pagsulat sang manga binalaybay 
kag manga istorya tungud sa manga Katsila' . Amu ini 
ang kabangdanan sang iya paghalin sa Pilipinas kag 
pagbiya' sang iya manga ginahigugma didtu labi na si 
Leonor Rivera nga iyang nobya. 

Duha ka bantug nga nobela, ang 'Noli Me Tangere' kag 
'El Filibus t er i sma ' , ginsulat nya sa Espanyol. 

Wala' magdugay, gindakup si Rizal sang manga Katsila' 
kag ginpriso. Ginsiling sang manga Espanyol nga si 
Rizal kunu ang nanguna sa manga manririmuk nga manga 
Filipino. Hasta sa prisohan, nagsulat si Rizal bahin 
sa pagpintas sang manga Katsila' sa manga Pilipino. 
Ang isa ka bantug nga sulat nya, amu ang 'Mi Ultimo 
Adios' nga ginsulat nya sa Espanyol sang gab'i bagu 
sya ginpatay. Ini nga balaybay, gintagu' ni Rizal sa 



1*19 

idalum sang iyang kangki para indi' samarun sang manga 
Kat s ila ' . 

Ginluthang sya sa Bagumbayan Cang ginatawag nga Luneta 
subung] sang Disyembre 30, 1896. 

Si Dr. Jose Rizal ang ginatahud sang manga Pilipino nga 
pinakama'ayu sa ilang manga "b anganihan . 

Comprehension Questions : 

1. Nga'a ginasiling nga ma'alam si Rizal? 

2. Nga'a gindakup sya sang manga Katsila? 

3. Anu ang duha ka libro nga iyang ginsulat tungud sa 

kapintasan sang Katsila' sa manga Pilipino? 
k. Anu ang bantug nga balaybay nya nga ginsulat nya sa 
p ri s oh an ? 

5. Di'in ginluthang si Rizal? 

6. Pila ang edad ni Rizal sang pagkamatay nya? 



READING EXERCISE h 



Si Juan Tamad Nagpangluy ag 

Sang makita' ni Juan Tamad ang matahun nga si Mariang 
Mapisan gintubu'an sya gilayun sang gugma. Adlawadlaw, 
nagakadtu si Juan sa balay ni Maria para lang magtuluk 
k ay Maria kun naga'obra nga wala' sang untat. 

Napanilagan sang iluy ni Maria ini nga ginabuhat ni 
Juan. 'Amu gali ' ina'', nagsiling sya kay Juan. 
'Adlawadlaw nagakadtu ka diri sa amun kag ginatuluk mu 
pirme ang b at a ' ku . Nagka'un ka pa diri, gina' inum 
mu ang amun tuba' . Pero wala' ka gani ' maskin naga'utud 
sang kahuy o nagakuha' sang tubig. Katamad sa imu ! 
Indi' ku gusto nga magbalik ka pa diri. Halin di .' 
Hal in subung gusto kung indi' ka na magtapak sa amung 
dutal ' 

Naglakat si Juan sang mahipus . 

Sunud nga adlaw , nagbalik sya nga may dala nga manga 
dahun sang saging. Amatamat ginbutang nya sa duta' 
ining manga dahun. Ginpasunud nya ini hasta sa 
atubangan sang balay nanday Maria. Kag nagtungtung 
sya sa katapusan nga dahun. Nakita' ini sang iluy ni 
Maria kag nagpamangkut sya, 'Anu ang ginabuhat mu diri? 
Indi' bala ginhambalan ku na ikaw nga indi' ku gusto 
nga maglapak ka sa amun duta'?' 

Ab aw I ' siling ni Juan, 'wala' na aku nagatindug sa 
inyung duta' . Nakita' mu bala nga sa akun dahun sang 



1+20 

saging aku nagalapak?' 

Comprehension Questions : 

1. Nga'a naluyag si Juan Tamad kay Mariang Mapisan? 

2. Nga'a gin'akigan si Juan Tamad sang iluy ni Maria? 

3. Nga'a gusto ni Juan magkadtu sa balay nanday Maria 

adlawadlaw ? 
h. Anu ang ginbuhat ni Juan para makabalik sya sa ila 
nanday Maria? 

READING EXERCISE 5 

Ang Ma'alam nga Ba'u kag ang Tuntu nga Amu' 

Isa ka adlaw ang amu ' kag ang "ba'u nakakita' sang punu ' 
sang saging, nga nagalut awlut aw sa suba' . Nagki ghamb al 
ang dun a nga tunga'un nila ang punu' sang saging. 
Ginpili' sang amu' ang tunga' nga may manga matahun nga 
dahun . Ang nabilin sa "ba'u, amu ang tunga' nga may 
manga gamut. Gintanum nila ang ilang parti. 

Nagligad ang pila ka bulan kag nagkita'ay liwat ang 
amu' kag ang ba'u. 'Ma'ayung aga,' siling sang ba'u. 
'Kamusta ang saging nimu? ' 

' Sus , ' sabat sang amu', 'madugay na nga napatay.' Kag 
ang imu? ' 

'A, mayad , mayad gid. Nagbunga na gani ' . Pero may 
problema aku,' siling sang ba'u. 

'Anu ang problema mu ? ' pamangkut man sang amu'. 

'Indi' aku makasaka' sa punu' sang saging kay kata'as 
gid! ' 

'Ah, mahapus ina'. Buligan ku ikaw. Makasaka' aku 
bisan anu kata'as.' 

'0, sigi ma ' ayu ina' ,' siling sang ba'u. 

Ginsaka' sang amu; ang saging. Apang pag'abut nya sa 
ibabaw, ginka'un nya tanan ang manga bunga. Wala' nya 
hatagi bisan isa ang ba'u nga nagahulat sa idalum. 
Ka'akig lang sang ba'u! Gusto nya magbalus sa amu'. 
Ginhuna ' huna ' nya kun anu ang iya buhatun. A, siguru 
butangan nya sang manga tunuk ang punu' sang saging! 
Nagpangita' sya sang madamu ' nga manga tunuk kag 
gintusluk nya ini sa punu' sang saging. Sang magpana'uf 
ang amu' napunu' ang iya lawas sang manga tunuk. 
Nasakitan sya. Na'akig na karun ang amu' . Kinahanglan 
magbalus sya sa ba'u. Ginpangita' nya ang ma'alam nga 



1*21 

ba'u kag kinuha' nya ini. ' Ihabuy ku ikaw sa kalayu 1 ' 

'Sigi,' siling sang ba'u. 'Mayag, mayad gi d kay gusto 
ku ang kalayu. 

'Ah, indi ' , indi ' ku ikaw ihabuy sa kalayu. Ihabuy ku 
ikaw sa tubig',' singgit liwat sang amu ' . 

'Indi', indi' palihug. Indi' mu aku ihabuy sa tubi ' . 
Nahadluk aku sang tubig. Basi' malumus aku,' ampu' 
s an g ba'u. 

' Amu gali ' ina ' ? ' k ad law sang amu '. 'Ti', ma'ayu! 
Indi' mu gusto ang tubig, ha, ihabuy ku ikaw sa tubig!' 
kadlaw sang amu' . Kag ginhabuy nya ang ba'u sa suba' . 

'Ha, ha, ha, ha! ' kadlaw sang ba'u. 'Tutu ka gid, gali! 
Indi' mu bala nabal'an nga puluy'an nakun ang tubig? 
Ha, ha , ha!' 

Nagpangalut nalang sang iyang ulu ang amu' . 

Manga Pamangkut : 

1. Anu ang nakita' sang amu' kag sang ba'u nga 

nagalut alut aw sa suba'? 

2. Gin'anu nila ang punu ' sang saging? 

3. Kay sin'ung saging ang namatay? Ang nagtubu'? 
h. Nga'a nabuhi' ang saging sang ba'u? 

5. Nga'a nangakig ang ba'u sa amu'? 

6. Anu ang ginbuhat sang ba'u sang wala' sya hatagi 

sang saging? 

7. Anu ang pagbalus sang amu' sa ba'u? 

8. Nga'a mas ma'alam ang ba'u kay sa sa amu'? 



In a Barbershop 

Makapagunt i ng aku subung? Can I get a haircut now? 

Hu'u, lingkud lang da'. Yes, just sit in that chair. 

Gusto ku tani ' dyutay I would like just a light 

lang ang guntingun mu . trim. I am going to let 

Mapalaba' aku sang my hair grow, 
buhuk ku. 

B: Nga'a gusto gid sang Why do young folks like 

manga bata' ang malaba' short hair? 
nga buhuk? 

A: Kay ina' ang muda Because that is the fad 

subung, eh. now. 



1+22 



Bumming a Cigarette 

A: Uy , Pari, may sigarilyo Hey, "buddy, do you have 

ka pa? any more cigarettes? 

B: Ari , hu , isa nalang ang I have only one left, 
nabilin . 

A: Mahulam tani' aku sa imu, I would have wanted to 

pero kun isa nalang, ti' borrow one, "but if you 

indi ' na. have only one, then 

forget it . 

B: Sigi kuha'a nalang ini Why don't you just take 

kay mabakal man ya aku this one, anyhow, I will 

sang isa ka pakete. buy a new pack. 

A: Baw salamit gid. Oh, thank you very much. 



Buying a Pack of Cigarettes 

A: May sigarilyo kamung Do you have Chelsea 

Chelsea? cigarettes? 

Wala ' . No . 

Anu ang may ara' kamu? What do you have? 

Chesterfield, Salem, Chesterfield, Salem, 

kag True . and True . 

A: Salem nalang. Tagpila Give me Salem. How much 

ang duha ka bilug? for two? 

Dyes sentabos. Ten centavos. 

Ari ang bayad. Here's my money. 

Sus , wala' siguru aku I don't think I have any 

sang sinsilyo. Anay ka change. I'll just go 

mapasinsilyo lang aku sa over to the next store 

sunud nga tindahan. to look for change. 

Sigi. Okay . 

Ari ang sinsilyo mu . Here's your change. 

Salamat . Thank you. 

Salamat man sa imu. Thank you also. 



The Summer Months 



A: Daw sa ma'ulan subung. It looks as if it will 

Magal'um karun nga rain. It's been cloudy 

adlaw , a. the whole day. 



1*23 

B: Mabaskug man ang hangin. The wind is also strong. 
Daw sa may bagyu. It feels as if there is 

a typhoon. 

A: Di'in nagahalin ang Where does the wind come 
hangin? from? 

B: Halin sa sidlangan. It comes from the East. 

Pero , magin'ut man However, it is still warm, 

gihapun, no? isn't it? 

A: Tig'init na ahi Because it is already 
subung. summer now. 

An Invitation to go Campaigning 

A: Uy , Simon, ginsilingan Your wife told me you 
aku sang imu asawa are working here, 

nga diri ka naga- 

trabaho. 

B: Ikaw, gali ' Romeo. I am resting now. 
Nagapahuway pa aku 
subung . 

A: Maka'upud ka sa amun Can you come with us to 
magkompanya bwas? campaign tomorrow? 

B: Di'in nga "baryo kamu Which barrio will you go 
makadtu? to? 

A: Sa Buswang. Madamu ' To Buswang. There are 

pa didtu nga indi' so many people there who 

magpati sa pagusar resist using fertilizers 

sang abunu . on their plants. 

B: Ti , hu'u, eh. Anung Oh, yes. What time do 
oras kita mahalin? we leave? 

A: Sa alas nwebe sa aga. Nine in the morning. 

Visiting a Friend's House 

A: Lingkud anay , kay Please sit down while 

timplahan ku ikaw I make coffee for you. 

sang kaf e . 

B: Salamat gid. Thank you very much. 

A: Gusto mu sang kalamay Would you like cream and 
kag gatas sa imu kafe? sugar in your coffee? 

B: Indi' na, salamat. May No, thank you. Hey, you 



k2h 



'electric stove' na 
gali ' k aiu . 

A: Hu'u, pero indi' gusto 
sang akun asawa. Mas 
gusto nya ang dapug kay 
madali ' kunu maglutu ' . 

B: Aku man. Kun sa akun, 

ang dapug ang pinakama'- 
ayu nga lutu'an. 

A: Palihug, patukara ang 

radyo. Basi ' may 're- 
port' sang panahun 
subung . 

B: Anay ka, anung oras 
nagasara ang manga 
tindahan? Kinahanglan 
aku magbakal sang 'hair 
spray ' para sa akun 
asawa antes kami mak- 
adtu sa 'party' karun 
s a gab ' i . 

A: Siguru, abre sila hasta 
alas sy et e . 



have an electric stove 
aire ady . 

Yes, but my wife does not 
like it . She likes our 
old fire stove because 
she says she can cook 
faster there. 

Same with me. I prefer 
our native stove over 
all else. 

Please turn the radio on. 
There might be a weather 
report now . 

Wait a minute, what time 
do the stores close? I 
have to buy some hair 
spray for my wife before 
we leave for the party 
toni ght . 



I think they're open until 
seven. 



Ang Paghili'usa sang Familya — Oneness of the Family 



A: Huy , dali ' kamu, ari 
na si Nan ay . Uy ! 
katahum sang manyika! 

B: Para kay sin'u ina 1 ? 

C: Para sa kinamanghuran . 

A : Kay Nene ' ina ' ? 

C: Hu'u, anak. Di'in ang 
imung utud nga si Boy? 

A: Atu pa sa pihak. 

C: Kag si Elong, di'in 
sya? 

B: Atu sa kusina, 
nagaka ' un . 



Hey! Hurry, Mother is 
here. Oh.' the doll is 
so beauti f ul I 

For whom is that? 

For the youngest. 

Is that for Bene ' ? 

Yes, child. Where is 
your brother Boy? 

He's still in the other 
hous e . 

What about Elong, where 
is he? 

He's in the kitchen, 
e at i ng . 



1+25 



A: Aba, di'in si Mananj 
Linda? 

B: Saga' ilis pa sya. 



C: Hga'a, para di'in sya 
naga 'ilis? 

A: Para sa miting. 

C : A , hu ! u gali ' , nu? 
kay sin'u bala sya? 

A: Kay Mrs. Gonzales. 
Pero aku k ay Mrs. 
Villamo r . 

C: Hga'a nag'iban pa? 
Anay ka, di'in si 
Tatay? Kag si Lola? 



A: Si Tatay, at u sa 

kulungan sa manga 
manuk . Nagmama' si 
Lola sa iya kwarto. 

B: Nagbasa si Lolo , Inay. 



C: Ang inyu tiyo? 

B: Masakit ang iya tiyan. 

C: A, gali'? Kalu'uy man. 



Where is (our older 
sister) Linda? 

She is still changing her 
clothes . 

Why is she changing 
her clothes? 

For a meeting . 

Oh, yes. Who is her 
homeroom teacher? 

She is with Mrs. Gonzales, 
but I am with Mrs . 
Villamo r . 

Why are you with 
different teachers? 
Wait a minute, where is 
your Father? And your 
Grandmother? 

Father is in the chicken 
coup. Grandmother is 
chewing tobacco in her 
room . 

Grandfather is reading, 
Mothe r . 

What about your uncle? 

He has a stomach ache. 

Really! The poor guy! 



Supplementary Dialogue on Culture 

Pagkinuligan 

Naga'istorya ang duha ka magupud sa opisina, si Arthur 
kag si David, isa ka Amerikano myentras naga'andar ang 
ila kotse pakadtu sa Baliwag. 

Arthur: Matu'ud galing masadya ang anihan sang manga 
Pilipino , anu? 

David: A, hu'u, 1 ab i na kun masanag ang bulan. 

Arthur: Anu ang labut sang bulan sa anihan? 

David: Mas madamu' ang tawu sa limbukan. 



U26 

Arthur: Bagapabu kag nagalimbuk sila, indi 1 "bala? 

David: Ru'u, naga'adtu sila para magkasadya, kag 
magbulig . 

Arthur: Ang bu'ut mu silingun, libre ang pagbulig 
nila? 

David: Hu'u. Ina' ang isa sa amung ma ' ayung ugali ' — 
ang pagkinuli gan . 

Arthur: Iba bala ina' sa palusun? 

David: Pareho ina' . Nagabulig ang tagsa-tagsa sa 
manga ulubrahun nga wala' bayad. 

Arthur: Naga'ulupud sila nga magtrabaho? Ang manga 
magulang kag manga bata'? 

David: Sa kusina ang manga magulang kag atu sa 

matu'ud nga trabaho ang manga soltero kag 
dalaga. 

Arthur: Uy , romantiko pa. 

David: Syempre ! Sa manga okasyon nga subung sina' 
naga'umpisa ang manga matam'is nga pag- 
hi gugma ' ay . 

Arthur: Pagkatapus . . . 

David: Sunud ang pagkasal. 

Arthur: Abaw! Ma'ayu...Anu ina? Hagalakat ang balay? 

David: Nagahalin ang tag'iya sang balay sa iban nga 
lugar . Manga tawu ang nagadala sang balay. 

Arthur: Pagkinuligan man ina'? 

David: Hu'u, ina' ang pagbuhat namun sang manga 

buluhatun. 0, ari na gali' kita sa balay 
sang akun Lola. 



HILIGAYBON SONGS 



Pispis Hga Bukaw 



Daw pispis nga bukaw ang kahalimbawa' 
Sa adlaw kag gab-i permi lang nagapaguwa' 
Ang pispis nga maya wala gid na'awa' 
Sining akun dughan nga nagab alaku ' un . 



1*27 



Daw pispis nga bukaw ang kahalimbawa' 
Sining akun gugma nga tam'an ka pi'ut 
Ang pispis nga maya wala gid na-awa 
Sining akun gugma nagapuluri akut . 

dughan, antusa nga piling 

Manga kalisdanan nga wala' sing sanglit 

Mamatay gid ining ka'ilu 

Kun indi' mu tamdun 

Bulak nga magayud. 

Ikaw ang nagsa'ad Inday, sadtu anay 
Sang kita nga duha naghi gugma ' anay . 
Antusa lang Inday sang wala'y pahuway 
Ining dughan natun nga nagapilisngu ' un . 



Lumabaylabay Nga Daw Asu 

Lumab ayl ab ay nga daw asu 

Asu pa lamang 

Ang manga butang nga tanan sa kalibutan 

Ang manga matamis ahay , nagapa'it man anay 

Kun sa gihapun ahay, umagi lamang. 

San'u pa, san'u pa, 

San'u pa nga adlaw? 

Magbalik ang gugma sa akun gintigay 

Ang manga matamis ahay 

Nagapa'it man ahay 

Kun sa gihapun ahay, umagi lamang. 



HILIGAYNON POEM 



Ang Manga Landung 

Paibabaw, paidalum sa banwa sang manga landunj 

Ang kabata'an nga landung nagakadtu. 
Sa tagsa ka dalan imu sila masugat'an 

Nga nagadalagan diri kag didtu. 
Sila nagalibut nga wala sing gahud, 

Sila nagahampang pitu'pitu, 
Apang wala pa sing may nakasugid 

Nga nakahambal sila bisan kay sin'u. 
Sa likud sang kahuy makita mu 

Nga nagasayaw paguwa, pasulud. 
Kag sa adlaw may yara gid nga isa 

Nga sa imu nagas unudsunud . 



1+28 

(Approximate Translation. 



The Shadows 

Going up or going down the world of shadows, 

The children of shadows go. 
In every path you meet them 

Running here and there . 
They go around without making any noise 

They play 'seven-seven'. 
But none has yet ever told 

That they can speak to anyone. 
Behind the tree you can see 

That they dance in and out 
And during the daytime there is always one 

That follows you throughout. 



HILIGAYNON ANECDOTE 



Ang Ba'u kag Ang Duha ka Alimangu 

Ang ba'u kag ang duha ka alimangu nagalakat sa balas 
sang isa ka adlaw . Ang isa ka alimangu nagsiling, 
'Dali, mahimu kita sang balay nga balas.' 

Nagsabat ang isa pa ka alimangu, 'Sige mahimu kita sin( 
daku' nga balay sa balas. ' 

Ang ba'u nagpadayun sang iya paglakat kag nagsiling, 
'Bu'ang, bu'ang nga manga alimangu. Kuntani, dalhun 
nalang nila ang ila balay sa ila nga likud katulad 
sa akun . ' 



(Approximate Translation) 

A turtle and two crabs were walking along the beach one 
day. One crab said, 'Come on, let's make a house in 
the s and . ' 

The other crab answered, 'Yes, let's make a big house 
in the sand.' 

The turtle went on with his walk saying, 'Crazy, crazy 
crabs. Why don't they carry their houses on their 
b acks like I do . ' 



1+29 



HILIGAYHOH RIDDLES 

Manga Pamakton [Riddles) 

Kaki aku sa sulud k ag sa guwa. 

Matam'is aku, pareho sang kalamay. 

Nagatubu aku sa kahuy. 

Anu aku? ( Chiko ) 

Kun kis'a dalag aku. 

Kun kis'a pul a . 

Nagatubu aku sa kahuy. 

Hagahalin aku sa malamig nga lugar . 

Wala aku nagatubu sa Pilipinas. 

Anu aku? (mansanas) 

Sa guwa amarilyo' 

Sa sulud madamu sing lisu, 

Ang dahun daw abaniko . 

Anu aku? (kapayas) 

Hitsura ku daw sa tubu . 

Kadamu ang akun kandadu. 

Diri kag didtu. (tubo) 

Indi' aku pispis pero makalupad. 

Indi' aku sapat pero daw sa langgam. (kabug) 

Kaptan mu sa tu'u wala', 
Kaptan mu sa wala' , wala' , 
Pero ara aku nagasunud sa imu. 

( anino , landung] 



HILIGAYBON POEM 



Ulan, Ulan 

Ulan, ulan palayu 

Kay karun nga adlaw hampang ang akun tuyu. 

(Approximate Translation) 

Rain, Rain 

Rain, rain go away 

Today I want to play. 



1+30 



Ulan ulan pakari, 

Kinahanglan ka sang manga lisu ku diri 

Rain rain come 

My seeds need you here. 



HILIGAYHOH POEM 

Anu Ang Mahimu Ku ? 

Bisan dyutay lang aku , 
Makatanum man angay sa imu. 
Sa iban nga adlaw nga sya magta'as 
Nga malambut sa langit ang kata'as. 
Kag niyan ang iya sanga nga madamu sing dahun , 
Mahatag sa tagsa ka pihak sing landung. 
Kag sa adlaw nga tag'ilinit, 
Ang manga tawu sa landung makapalapit, 
Makasiling, 'Ka'ayu, ka'alam, ang nakadumdum 
magt anum sining kahuy nga ma'abyanun.' 

(Approximate Translation) 

What Can I Do ? 

Even if I am small 

I can also plant a tree like you. 
So that in the days when it is tall, 
Tall enough to reach the sky 
And when her branches are full of leaves 
It can give shade on both sides. 
So that on hot summer days, 
People can rest under its shade and say, 
'How good and smart was the person who 
remembered to plant this nice tree.'